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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13555-021-00504-0

Spesolimab, an Anti-Interleukin-36 Receptor Antibody, in Patients with Palmoplantar Pustulosis: Results of a Phase IIa, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

04 Mar 2021-Dermatologic Therapy (Springer Healthcare)-Vol. 11, Iss: 2, pp 571-585
Abstract: Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease, with high disease burden, that is often refractory to treatment. There is a high unmet clinical need for the treatment of patients with PPP. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of spesolimab, a novel anti-interleukin-36 receptor antibody, in patients with PPP. This was a phase IIa, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study comparing 900 mg spesolimab (n = 19), 300 mg spesolimab (n = 19), and placebo (n = 21) administered intravenously every 4 weeks until week 12 in patients with PPP. The primary efficacy endpoint was the achievement of Palmoplantar Pustulosis Area and Severity Index 50 (PPP ASI50) at week 16, defined as achieving an ≥ 50% decrease from baseline PPP ASI. At week 16, 31.6% of patients in both spesolimab dose groups achieved PPP ASI50 versus 23.8% receiving placebo (risk difference 0.078; 95% confidence interval –0.190, 0.338). Thus, the primary endpoint was not met. Spesolimab was well tolerated with no clinically relevant treatment-emergent safety signals observed. PPP severity declined over time in all treatment groups after the start of treatment, with a faster decline in the spesolimab arms than in the placebo arm, indicating a potential treatment effect for spesolimab. Limitations to the study included a small sample size and lower overall disease severity than expected at baseline. It is possible that the primary efficacy endpoint may have coincided with natural disease resolution in some patients. Further effects of the efficacy of spesolimab in PPP are being explored in a phase IIb trial.

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Topics: Clinical endpoint (53%), Placebo (52%), Randomized controlled trial (51%) ... show more
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13 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22094344
Helena Iznardo1, Lluís Puig1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Unmet needs in the treatment of psoriasis call for novel therapeutic strategies. Pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis often represent a therapeutic challenge. Focus on IL-36 cytokines offers an interesting approach, as the IL-36 axis has been appointed a critical driver of the autoinflammatory responses involved in pustular psoriasis. Two IL-36R blocking antibodies, imsidolimab and spesolimab, are currently undergoing phase II and III clinical trials, with promising results.

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Topics: Psoriatic arthritis (63%), Psoriasis (59%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/BJD.20653
Suzie Cro1, Victoria Cornelius1, Andrew Pink2, Rosemary Wilson2  +34 moreInstitutions (23)
Abstract: BACKGROUND Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a rare, debilitating, chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects the hands and feet. Clinical, immunological and genetic findings suggest a pathogenic role for interleukin (IL)-1. OBJECTIVES To determine whether anakinra (an IL-1 receptor antagonist) delivers therapeutic benefit in PPP. METHODS This was a randomized (1 : 1), double-blind, two-staged, adaptive, UK multicentre, placebo-controlled trial [ISCRTN13127147 (registered 1 August 2016); EudraCT number: 2015-003600-23 (registered 1 April 2016)]. Participants had a diagnosis of PPP (> 6 months) requiring systemic therapy. Treatment was 8 weeks of anakinra or placebo via daily, self-administered subcutaneous injections. Primary outcome was the Palmoplantar Pustulosis Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PPPASI) at 8 weeks. RESULTS A total of 374 patients were screened; 64 were enrolled (31 in the anakinra arm and 33 in the placebo arm) with a mean (SD) baseline PPPASI of 17·8 (10·5) and a PPP investigator's global assessment of severe (50%) or moderate (50%). The baseline adjusted mean difference in PPPASI favoured anakinra but did not demonstrate superiority in the intention-to-treat analysis [-1·65, 95% confidence interval (CI) -4·77 to 1·47; P = 0·30]. Similarly, secondary objective measures, including fresh pustule count (2·94, 95% CI -26·44 to 32·33; favouring anakinra), total pustule count (-30·08, 95% CI -83·20 to 23·05; favouring placebo) and patient-reported outcomes, did not show superiority of anakinra. When modelling the impact of adherence, the PPPASI complier average causal effect for an individual who received ≥ 90% of the total treatment (48% in the anakinra group) was -3·80 (95% CI -10·76 to 3·16; P = 0·285). No serious adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS No evidence for the superiority of anakinra was found. IL-1 blockade is not a useful intervention for the treatment of PPP.

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Topics: Anakinra (56%), Placebo-controlled study (51%), Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (50%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13555-021-00612-X
Abstract: Pustular psoriasis is an unusual form of psoriasis that frequently presents clinical challenges for dermatologists. The condition presents with pustules on an erythematous background and has two distinct subtypes: localized disease on the palms and soles, called palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP), and generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP). The involvement of the fingers, toes, and nails is defined as a separate localized variant, acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau, and is now thought to be a subset of PPP. The rarity of pustular psoriasis frequently makes the correct diagnosis problematic. In addition, treatment is limited by a relative lack of evidence-based therapeutic options. Current management is often based on existing therapies for standard plaque psoriasis. However, there remains a need for treatments with high, sustained efficacy and a rapid onset of action in pustular psoriasis. Recent advances in understanding of the pathogenesis of pustular psoriasis have provided insights into potential therapies. Treatment of pustular psoriasis is generally determined by the extent and severity of disease, and recent years have seen an increasing use of newer agents, including biologic therapies. Current classes of biologic therapies with US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency approval for treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis in the USA (and elsewhere) include tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, infliximab), interleukin (IL)-17 inhibitors (brodalumab, ixekizumab, secukinumab), an IL-12/23 inhibitor (ustekinumab), and IL-23 inhibitors (guselkumab, risankizumab, tildrakizumab). Recently, specific inhibitors of the IL-36 pathway have been evaluated in GPP and PPP, including spesolimab, an IL-36 receptor inhibitor which has shown promising results in GPP. The emerging drugs for pustular psoriasis offer the possibility of rapid and effective treatment with lower toxicities than existing therapies. Further research into agents acting on the IL-36 pathway and other targeted therapies has the potential to transform the future treatment of patients with pustular psoriasis. This article reviews the clinical features of PPP and GPP, and current understanding of the genetics and immunopathology of these conditions; it also provides an update on emerging treatments.

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Topics: Generalized pustular psoriasis (77%), Ixekizumab (61%), Psoriasis (60%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PHARMACEUTICS13071064
Jen Chih Tseng1, Yung Chi Chang2, Chun Ming Huang3, Li-Chung Hsu2  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
11 Jul 2021-Pharmaceutics
Abstract: Psoriasis, a complex inflammatory autoimmune skin disorder that affects 2-3% of the global population, is thought to be genetically predetermined and induced by environmental and immunological factors. In the past decades, basic and clinical studies have significantly expanded knowledge on the molecular, cellular, and immunological mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Based on these pathogenic mechanisms, the current disease model emphasizes the role of aberrant Th1 and Th17 responses. Th1 and Th17 immune responses are regulated by a complex network of different cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-23; signal transduction pathways downstream to the cytokine receptors; and various activated transcription factors, including NF-κB, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), and signal transducer and activator of transcriptions (STATs). The biologics developed to specifically target the cytokines have achieved a better efficacy and safety for the systemic management of psoriasis compared with traditional treatments. Nevertheless, the current therapeutics can only alleviate the symptoms; there is still no cure for psoriasis. Therefore, the development of more effective, safe, and affordable therapeutics for psoriasis is important. In this review, we discussed the current trend of therapeutic development for psoriasis based on the recent discoveries in the immune modulation of the inflammatory response in psoriasis.

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Topics: Psoriasis (56%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2147/CPAA.S266223
Toshiyuki Yamamoto1Institutions (1)
23 Jun 2021-
Abstract: Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by sterile pustules predominantly involving the palms and soles. PPP is refractory to various therapies such as topical ointment, oral medicine, and phototherapies. Pustulotic arthro-osteitis (PAO) is a major comorbidity of PPP that severely impairs patients' quality of life. Recently, guselkumab, a monoclonal antibody against IL-23, has been available for the treatment of PPP in Japan. The purpose of the present review is to describe the characteristics of Japanese PPP patients and biologic therapy of PPP/PAO using guselkumab. Most Japanese dermatologists consider PPP as a distinct entity and co-existence of PPP and psoriasis is rare. However, outside Japan, PPP is often considered to be palmoplantar psoriasis, and extra-palmoplantar lesions associated with PPP are regarded as psoriasis. PPP develops or exacerbates either with or without arthralgia, following focal infections, such as tonsillitis, odontogenic infection, and sinusitis. Treatment of focal infection results in dramatic effects on cutaneous lesions as well as joint pain. By contrast, we sometimes see patients whose skin/joint symptoms do not improve after treatment of focal infection, whose focus of infection cannot be identified even in a detailed examination, and/or who refuse tonsillectomy even if strongly recommended. Such cases are considered to be indications of biologics. In this review, clinical features, pathophysiology and guselkumab therapy are discussed.

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Topics: Palmoplantar pustulosis (56%)

References
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28 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1013068
Abstract: Background Generalized pustular psoriasis is a life-threatening disease of unknown cause. It is characterized by sudden, repeated episodes of high-grade fever, generalized rash, and disseminated pustules, with hyperleukocytosis and elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein, which may be associated with plaque-type psoriasis. Methods We performed homozygosity mapping and direct sequencing in nine Tunisian multiplex families with autosomal recessive generalized pustular psoriasis. We assessed the effect of mutations on protein expression and conformation, stability, and function. Results We identified significant linkage to an interval of 1.2 megabases on chromosome 2q13-q14.1 and a homozygous missense mutation in IL36RN, encoding an interleukin-36–receptor antagonist (interleukin-36Ra), an antiinflammatory cytokine. This mutation predicts the substitution of a proline residue for leucine at amino acid position 27 (L27P). Homology-based structural modeling of human interleukin-36Ra suggests that the proli...

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Topics: Generalized pustular psoriasis (71%), Interleukin 36 receptor antagonist (59%), Psoriasis (55%) ... show more

667 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AJHG.2011.07.022
Abstract: Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare and yet potentially lethal clinical variant of psoriasis, characterized by the formation of sterile cutaneous pustules, neutrophilia, fever and features of systemic inflammation. We sequenced the exomes of five unrelated individuals diagnosed with GPP. Nonsynonymous, splice-site, insertion, and deletion variants with an estimated population frequency of T (p.Ser113Leu) missense substitution of IL36RN was identified in two individuals, with a third subject found to be a compound heterozygote for c.338C>T (p.Ser113Leu) and a c.142C>T (p.Arg48Trp) missense substitution. IL36RN (previously known as IL1F5) encodes an IL-1 family receptor antagonist, which opposes the activity of the IL-36A and IL-36G innate cytokines. Homology searches revealed that GPP mutations alter evolutionarily conserved residues. Homozygosity for the c.338C>T (p.Ser113Leu) variant is associated with an elevated proinflammatory response following ex vivo stimulation with IL36A. These findings suggest loss of function of IL36RN as the genetic basis of GPP and implicate innate immune dysregulation in this severe episodic inflammatory disease, thereby highlighting IL-1 signaling as a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

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Topics: Generalized pustular psoriasis (66%), Psoriasis (53%), Interleukin 36 receptor antagonist (53%) ... show more

363 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1046/J.1523-1747.2003.12094.X
Kati Asumalahti1, M Ameen2, Sari Suomela1, Eva Hagforsen3  +15 moreInstitutions (7)
01 Apr 2003-
Abstract: The PSORS1 locus in the major histocompatibility complex region is the major genetic determinant for psoriasis vulgaris. Within the PSORS1 region reside at least three potential candidate genes for psoriasis susceptibility. Specific allelic variants of the genes HLA-Cw*6, HCR*WWCC, and CDSN*5 are strongly associated with psoriasis vulgaris and are in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. We have genotyped the three psoriasis vulgaris susceptibility alleles of the PSORS1 locus in two clinical variants of psoriasis (guttate psoriasis and palmoplantar pustulosis) to study whether PSORS1 is also involved in the pathogenesis of these variants. We also asked whether these two clinical subgroups could help us to distinguish the causative gene within the high-risk PSORS1 haplotype. The association of guttate psoriasis with the three PSORS1 susceptibility alleles was similar and even stronger than seen with psoriasis vulgaris. Palmoplantar pustulosis, however, did not show association with any of the three candidate genes at this locus. Finally, no correlation with the age of onset for disease was observed. Our results show conclusively that psoriasis vulgaris and guttate psoriasis have a similar genetic basis for their association to PSORS1, whereas palmoplantar pustulosis appears to be a distinct disorder.

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Topics: Guttate psoriasis (70%), Palmoplantar pustulosis (60%), Psoriasis (57%) ... show more

202 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/ARCHDERM.134.5.595
Abstract: The possibility that there is an increased risk of melanoma in patients with psoriasis treated with psoralen–UV-A (PUVA) therapy has raised concern on the part of physicians and patients about the long-term safety of this treatment. In response to this concern, the National Psoriasis Foundation sponsored a workshop at which invited participants with expertise in PUVA therapy, psoriasis treatment, melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer, and epidemiological and clinical trials were asked to develop a consensus on the following 3 issues: the risk of long-term adverse effects of PUVA therapy with emphasis on nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer; the guidelines for physicians and patients for selection and use of PUVA therapy with consideration of the risk-benefit ratio of this treatment compared with the risk-benefit ratios of alternative treatments; and the directions for further evaluation of the long-term effects of PUVA therapy.

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Topics: PUVA therapy (68%), Skin cancer (53%)

138 Citations



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