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Journal ArticleDOI

Spread of a laminar diffusion flame

01 Jan 1969-Vol. 12, Iss: 1, pp 241-252
TL;DR: In this article, a theoretical description of a laminar diffusion flame spreading against an air stream over a solid- or liquid-fuel bed is presented, where both a thin sheet and a semi-infinite fuel bed are considered.
Abstract: A theoretical description is presented for a laminar diffusion flame spreading against an air stream over a solid- or liquid-fuel bed. Both a thin sheet and a semi-infinite fuel bed are considered. The burning process is described as follows: The hot flame heats the unburned fuel bed, which subsequently vaporizes. The resulting fuel vapor reacts with the oxygen supplied by the incoming air, thereby producing the heat that maintains the flame-spread process. The formulated model treats the combustion as a diffusion flame, for which the details of the reaction kinetics can be ignored by assuming infinite reaction rates. The model includes the chemical stoichiometry, heat of combustion, gas-phase conductive heat transfer, radiation, mass transfer, fuel vaporization, and fuel-bed thermal properties. The radiation is mathematically treated as a heat loss at the flame sheet and a heat gain at the fuel-bed surface. The calculated flame-spread formulas are not inconsistent with available experimental data. These results reveal much of the physics involved in a spreading, flame. For instance, the flame-spread rate is strongly influenced by (1) the adiabatic stoichiometric flame temperature, and (2) the fuel-bed thermal properties, except for the fuel-bed conductivity parallel to the propagation direction.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, heat transfer and gas phase chemical kinetic aspects of the flame spread process are addressed separately for the spread of flames in oxidizing flows that oppose or concur with the direction of propagation.
Abstract: Recent advances in the experimental study of the mechanisms controlling the spread of flames over the surface of combustible solids are summarized in this work. The heat transfer and gas phase chemical kinetic aspects of the flame spread process are addressed separately for the spread of flames in oxidizing flows that oppose or concur with the direction of propagation. The realization that, in most practical situations, the spread of fire in opposed gas flows occurs at near extinction or non-propagating conditions is particularly significant. Under these circumstances, gas phase chemical kinetics plays a critical role and it must be considered if realistic descriptions of the flame spread process are attempted. In the concurrent mode of flame spread, heat transfer from the flame to the unburnt fuel appears to be the primary controlling mechanism. Although gas phase chemcial kinetics is unimportant in the flame spreading process, it is important in the establishment and extension of the diffusion ...

266 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a method based on the spectroscopy of inorganic luminescent materials is described and exemplified in experiments related to combustion, which involves the use of thermographic phosphors which enable remote temperature diagnostics to be performed with a high degree of sensitivity and accuracy.

246 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the basis of understanding wildland fire behavior with the intention of stimulating curiosity and promoting fundamental investigations of fire spread problems that persist even in the presence of tremendous modelling advances.
Abstract: We explore the basis of understanding wildland fire behaviour with the intention of stimulating curiosity and promoting fundamental investigations of fire spread problems that persist even in the presence of tremendous modelling advances. Internationally, many fire models have been developed based on a variety of assumptions and expressions for the fundamental heat transfer and combustion processes. The diversity of these assumptions raises the question as to whether the absence of a sound and coherent fire spread theory is partly responsible. We explore the thesis that, without a common understanding of what processes occur and how they occur, model reliability cannot be confirmed. A theory is defined as a collection of logically connected hypotheses that provide a coherent explanation of some aspect of reality. Models implement theory for a particular purpose, including hypotheses of phenomena and practical uses, such as prediction. We emphasise the need for theory and demonstrate the difference between theory and modelling. Increasingly sophisticated fire management requires modelling capabilities well beyond the fundamental basis of current models. These capabilities can only be met with fundamental fire behaviour research. Furthermore, possibilities as well as limitations for modelling may not be known or knowable without first having the theory.

195 citations


Cites background from "Spread of a laminar diffusion flame..."

  • ...Wildland fire spread occurs among separate fuel particles and is, thus, distinguished from flame spread over solid fuel surfaces (Williams 1977) for which experimentally supported theories have been described (de Ris 1969; Fernandez-Pello 1984)....

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  • ...de Ris JN (1969) Spread of a laminar diffusion flame....

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  • ...…of flame gases exchanged between particles suggests that convective heating is the predominant influence compared with gas phase conduction (de Ris 1969;Williams 1977), soot or gas radiation (Baukal and Gebhart 1996) or even conduction through particles, which have been shown to be…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A critical, historical review of the flame spread literature is given in this article, beginning with the first systematic studies of opposed-flow flame spread, including qualitative, simplified, and comprehensive numerical modeling.

179 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a flame spread map is presented which indicates three distinct regions where different mechanisms control the flame spread process: near-quenching region, very low characteristic relative velocities, a new controlling mechanism for flame spread - oxidizer transport-limited chemical reaction - is proposed.
Abstract: Microgravity tests varying oxygen concentration and forced flow velocity have examined the importance of transport processes on flame spread over very thin solid fuels. Flame spread rates, solid phase temperature profiles and flame appearance for these tests are measured. A flame spread map is presented which indicates three distinct regions where different mechanisms control the flame spread process. In the near-quenching region (very low characteristic relative velocities) a new controlling mechanism for flame spread - oxidizer transport-limited chemical reaction - is proposed. In the near-limit, blowoff region, high opposed flow velocities impose residence time limitations on the flame spread process. A critical characteristic relative velocity line between the two near-limit regions defines conditions which result in maximum flammability both in terms of a peak flame spread rate and minimum oxygen concentration for steady burning. In the third region, away from both near-limit regions, the flame spread behavior, which can accurately be described by a thermal theory, is controlled by gas-phase conduction.

142 citations