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Stability Analysis of a Film Flow Down an Incline in the Presence of a Floating Flexible Membrane

19 Jul 2018-Vol. 308, pp 253-263

AbstractThe present study deals with the effects of floating flexible membrane on the instability of a gravity-driven flow down an incline. Linear stability of the flow system is explored using normal-mode analysis. Free surface gravity-driven flow is unstable at much lower Reynolds numbers. Instability of such a flow can be controlled either by changing behavioral of the lower wall or by altering the surface waves at the free surface which is done here by including a floating flexible membrane at the top of the liquid layer. Influence of membrane tension is taken into account in terms of stress jump at the free surface. The Orr-Sommerfeld system of the flow is solved numerically using spectral collocation method. The results displays a destabilizing role of membrane tension for a wide range of parameters. The growth rate of the perturbation waves increases with an increase of membrane tension and the critical Reynolds number becomes smaller. Therefore, it is possible to enhance the instability of the flow system with help of membrane properties, which may be useful in Ocean engineering and coating industries.

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Book
01 Jan 1987
Abstract: Fundamental aspects of spectral methods are introduced. Recent developments in spectral methods are reviewed with an emphasis on collocation techniques. Their applications to both compressible and incompressible flows, to viscous as well as inviscid flows, and also to chemically reacting flows are surveyed. The key role that these methods play in the simulation of stability, transition, and turbulence is brought out. A perspective is provided on some of the obstacles that prohibit a wider use of these methods, and how these obstacles are being overcome.

4,488 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Historical Background.- 1.2. Some Examples of Spectral Methods.- 1.2.1. A Fourier Galerkin Method for the Wave Equation.- 1.2.2. A Chebyshev Collocation Method for the Heat Equation.- 1.2.3. A Legendre Tau Method for the Poisson Equation.- 1.2.4. Basic Aspects of Galerkin, Tau and Collocation Methods.- 1.3. The Equations of Fluid Dynamics.- 1.3.1. Compressible Navier-Stokes.- 1.3.2. Compressible Euler.- 1.3.3. Compressible Potential.- 1.3.4. Incompressible Flow.- 1.3.5. Boundary Layer.- 1.4. Spectral Accuracy for a Two-Dimensional Fluid Calculation.- 1.5. Three-Dimensional Applications in Fluids.- 2. Spectral Approximation.- 2.1. The Fourier System.- 2.1.1. The Continuous Fourier Expansion.- 2.1.2. The Discrete Fourier Expansion.- 2.1.3. Differentiation.- 2.1.4. The Gibbs Phenomenon.- 2.2. Orthogonal Polynomials in ( - 1, 1).- 2.2.1. Sturm-Liouville Problems.- 2.2.2. Orthogonal Systems of Polynomials.- 2.2.3. Gauss-Type Quadratures and Discrete Polynomial Transforms.- 2.3. Legendre Polynomials.- 2.3.1. Basic Formulas.- 2.3.2. Differentiation.- 2.4. Chebyshev Polynomials.- 2.4.1. Basic Formulas.- 2.4.2. Differentiation.- 2.5. Generalizations.- 2.5.1. Jacobi Polynomials.- 2.5.2. Mapping.- 2.5.3. Semi-Infinite Intervals.- 2.5.4. Infinite Intervals.- 3. Fundamentals of Spectral Methods for PDEs.- 3.1. Spectral Projection of the Burgers Equation.- 3.1.1. Fourier Galerkin.- 3.1.2. Fourier Collocation.- 3.1.3. Chebyshev Tau.- 3.1.4. Chebyshev Collocation.- 3.2. Convolution Sums.- 3.2.1. Pseudospectral Transform Methods.- 3 2 2 Aliasing Removal by Padding or Truncation.- 3.2.3. Aliasing Removal by Phase Shifts.- 3.2.4. Convolution Sums in Chebyshev Methods.- 3.2.5. Relation Between Collocation and Pseudospectral Methods.- 3.3. Boundary Conditions.- 3.4. Coordinate Singularities.- 3.4.1. Polar Coordinates.- 3.4.2. Spherical Polar Coordinates.- 3.5. Two-Dimensional Mapping.- 4. Temporal Discretization.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. The Eigenvalues of Basic Spectral Operators.- 4.2.1. The First-Derivative Operator.- 4.2.2. The Second-Derivative Operator.- 4.3. Some Standard Schemes.- 4.3.1. Multistep Schemes.- 4.3.2. Runge-Kutta Methods.- 4.4. Special Purpose Schemes.- 4.4.1. High Resolution Temporal Schemes.- 4.4.2. Special Integration Techniques.- 4.4.3. Lerat Schemes.- 4.5. Conservation Forms.- 4.6. Aliasing.- 5. Solution Techniques for Implicit Spectral Equations.- 5.1. Direct Methods.- 5.1.1. Fourier Approximations.- 5.1.2. Chebyshev Tau Approximations.- 5.1.3. Schur-Decomposition and Matrix-Diagonalization.- 5.2. Fundamentals of Iterative Methods.- 5.2.1. Richardson Iteration.- 5.2.2. Preconditioning.- 5.2.3. Non-Periodic Problems.- 5.2.4. Finite-Element Preconditioning.- 5.3. Conventional Iterative Methods.- 5.3.1. Descent Methods for Symmetric, Positive-Definite Systems.- 5.3.2. Descent Methods for Non-Symmetric Problems.- 5.3.3. Chebyshev Acceleration.- 5.4. Multidimensional Preconditioning.- 5.4.1. Finite-Difference Solvers.- 5.4.2. Modified Finite-Difference Preconditioners.- 5.5. Spectral Multigrid Methods.- 5.5.1. Model Problem Discussion.- 5.5.2. Two-Dimensional Problems.- 5.5.3. Interpolation Operators.- 5.5.4. Coarse-Grid Operators.- 5.5.5. Relaxation Schemes.- 5.6. A Semi-Implicit Method for the Navier-Stokes Equations.- 6. Simple Incompressible Flows.- 6.1. Burgers Equation.- 6.2. Shear Flow Past a Circle.- 6.3. Boundary-Layer Flows.- 6.4. Linear Stability.- 7. Some Algorithms for Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.2. Homogeneous Flows.- 7.2.1. A Spectral Galerkin Solution Technique.- 7.2.2. Treatment of the Nonlinear Terms.- 7.2.3. Refinements.- 7.2.4. Pseudospectral and Collocation Methods.- 7.3. Inhomogeneous Flows.- 7.3.1. Coupled Methods.- 7.3.2. Splitting Methods.- 7.3.3. Galerkin Methods.- 7.3.4. Other Confined Flows.- 7.3.5. Unbounded Flows.- 7.3.6. Aliasing in Transition Calculations.- 7.4. Flows with Multiple Inhomogeneous Directions.- 7.4.1. Choice of Mesh.- 7.4.2. Coupled Methods.- 7.4.3. Splitting Methods.- 7.4.4. Other Methods.- 7.5. Mixed Spectral/Finite-Difference Methods.- 8. Compressible Flow.- 8.1. Introduction.- 8.2. Boundary Conditions for Hyperbolic Problems.- 8.3. Basic Results for Scalar Nonsmooth Problems.- 8.4. Homogeneous Turbulence.- 8.5. Shock-Capturing.- 8.5.1. Potential Flow.- 8.5.2. Ringleb Flow.- 8.5.3. Astrophysical Nozzle.- 8.6. Shock-Fitting.- 8.7. Reacting Flows.- 9. Global Approximation Results.- 9.1. Fourier Approximation.- 9.1.1. Inverse Inequalities for Trigonometric Polynomials.- 9.1.2. Estimates for the Truncation and Best Approximation Errors.- 9.1.3. Estimates for the Interpolation Error.- 9.2. Sturm-Liouville Expansions.- 9.2.1. Regular Sturm-Liouville Problems.- 9.2.2. Singular Sturm-Liouville Problems.- 9.3. Discrete Norms.- 9.4. Legendre Approximations.- 9.4.1. Inverse Inequalities for Algebraic Polynomials.- 9.4.2. Estimates for the Truncation and Best Approximation Errors.- 9.4.3. Estimates for the Interpolation Error.- 9.5. Chebyshev Approximations.- 9.5.1. Inverse Inequalities for Polynomials.- 9.5.2. Estimates for the Truncation and Best Approximation Errors.- 9.5.3. Estimates for the Interpolation Error.- 9.5.4. Proofs of Some Approximation Results.- 9.6. Other Polynomial Approximations.- 9.6.1. Jacobi Polynomials.- 9.6.2. Laguerre and Hermite Polynomials.- 9.7. Approximation Results in Several Dimensions.- 9.7.1. Fourier Approximations.- 9.7.2. Legendre Approximations.- 9.7.3. Chebyshev Approximations.- 9.7.4. Blended Fourier and Chebyshev Approximations.- 10. Theory of Stability and Convergence for Spectral Methods.- 10.1. The Three Examples Revisited.- 10.1.1. A Fourier Galerkin Method for the Wave Equation.- 10.1.2. A Chebyshev Collocation Method for the Heat Equation.- 10.1.3. A Legendre Tau Method for the Poisson Equation.- 10.2. Towards a General Theory.- 10.3. General Formulation of Spectral Approximations to Linear Steady Problems.- 10.4. Galerkin, Collocation and Tau Methods.- 10.4.1. Galerkin Methods.- 10.4.2. Tau Methods.- 10.4.3. Collocation Methods.- 10.5. General Formulation of Spectral Approximations to Linear Evolution Equations.- 10.5.1. Conditions for Stability and Convergence: The Parabolic Case.- 10.5.2. Conditions for Stability and Convergence: The Hyperbolic Case.- 10.6. The Error Equation.- 11. Steady, Smooth Problems.- 11.1. The Poisson Equation.- 11.1.1. Legendre Methods.- 11.1.2. Chebyshev Methods.- 11.1.3. Other Boundary Value Problems.- 11.2. Advection-Diffusion Equation.- 11.2.1. Linear Advection-Diffusion Equation.- 11.2.2. Steady Burgers Equation.- 11.3. Navier-Stokes Equations.- 11.3.1. Compatibility Conditions Between Velocity and Pressure.- 11.3.2. Direct Discretization of the Continuity Equation: The \"inf-sup\" Condition.- 11.3.3. Discretizations of the Continuity Equation by an Influence-Matrix Technique: The Kleiser-Schumann Method.- 11.3.4. Navier-Stokes Equations in Streamfunction Formulation.- 11.4. The Eigenvalues of Some Spectral Operators.- 11.4.1. The Discrete Eigenvalues for Lu = ? uxx.- 11.4.2. The Discrete Eigenvalues for Lu = ? vuxx + bux.- 11.4.3. The Discrete Eigenvalues for Lu = ux.- 12. Transient, Smooth Problems.- 12.1. Linear Hyperbolic Equations.- 12.1.1. Periodic Boundary Conditions.- 12.1.2. Non-Periodic Boundary Conditions.- 12.1.3. Hyperbolic Systems.- 12.1.4. Spectral Accuracy for Non-Smooth Solutions.- 12.2. Heat Equation.- 12.2.1. Semi-Discrete Approximation.- 12.2.2. Fully Discrete Approximation.- 12.3. Advection-Diffusion Equation.- 12.3.1. Semi-Discrete Approximation.- 12.3.2. Fully Discrete Approximation.- 13. Domain Decomposition Methods.- 13.1. Introduction.- 13.2. Patching Methods.- 13.2.1. Notation.- 13.2.2. Discretization.- 13.2.3. Solution Techniques.- 13.2.4. Examples.- 13.3. Variational Methods.- 13.3.1. Formulation.- 13.3.2. The Spectral-Element Method.- 13.4. The Alternating Schwarz Method.- 13.5. Mathematical Aspects of Domain Decomposition Methods.- 13.5.1. Patching Methods.- 13.5.2. Equivalence Between Patching and Variational Methods.- 13.6. Some Stability and Convergence Results.- 13.6.1. Patching Methods.- 13.6.2. Variational Methods.- Appendices.- A. Basic Mathematical Concepts.- B. Fast Fourier Transforms.- C. Jacobi-Gauss-Lobatto Roots.- References.

3,751 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The stability of a liquid layer flowing down an inclined plane is investigated. A new perturbation method is used to furnish information regarding stability of surface waves for three cases: the case of small wavenumbers, of small Reynolds numbers, and of large wavenumbers. The results for small wavenumbers agree with Benjamin's result obtained by the use of power series expansion, and the results for the two other cases are new. The results for large wavenumbers, zero surface tension, and vertical plate contradict the tentative assertion of Benjamin. The three cases are then re‐examined for shear‐wave stability, and the results compared with those for confined plane Poiseuille flow. The comparison serves to indicate the vestiges of shear waves in the free‐surface flow, and to give a sense of unity in the understanding of the stability of both flows. The case of large wavenumbers also serves as a new example of the dual role of viscosity in stability phenomena.The topological features of the ci curves for...

797 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A new inner product is developed based on the Fourier analysis to study the scattering of surface waves by a floating semi-infinite elastic plate in a two-dimensional water domain of finite depth. The eigenfunctions for the plate-covered region are orthogonal with respect to this new inner product. The problem is studied for various wave and geometrical conditions. Especially, the influence of different edge conditions on the hydrodynamic behavior is investigated and compared. The edge conditions considered in the present study involve (i) a free edge, (ii) a simply supported edge, and (iii) a built-in edge. The hydrodynamic performance of an elastic plate is characterized for various conditions in terms of wave reflection and transmission, plate deflection, and surface strain. It is observed that the hydrodynamic behavior depends on the wave conditions, the geometrical settings, and the edge conditions. The built-in edge condition induces the maximum wave reflection and the minimum wave transmission. The free edge condition leads to the maximum plate deflection.

106 citations

Book
01 Oct 2003
Abstract: The study of hydrodynamic stability is fundamental to many subjects, ranging from geophysics and meteorology through to engineering design. This treatise covers both classical and modern aspects of the subject, systematically developing it from the simplest physical problems, then progressing chapter by chapter to the most complex, considering linear and nonlinear situations, and analysing temporal and spatial stability. The authors examine each problem both analytically and numerically: many chapters end with an appendix outlining relevant numerical techniques. All relevant fluid flows are treated, including those where the fluid may be compressible, or those from geophysics, or those that require salient geometries for description. Details of initial-value problems are explored equally with those of stability. As a result, the early transient period as well as the asymptotic fate for perturbations for a flow can be assessed. The text is enriched with many exercises, copious illustrations and an extensive bibliography and the result is a book that can be used with courses on hydrodynamic stability or as an authoritative reference for researchers.

101 citations