Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes.
TL;DR: In response to a perceived need in the vision community, an OSA taskforce was formed at the 1999 topical meeting on vision science and its applications (VSIA-99) and charged with developing consensus recommendations on definitions, conventions, and standards for reporting of optical aberrations of human eyes as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: In response to a perceived need in the vision community, an OSA taskforce was formed at the 1999 topical meeting on vision science and its applications (VSIA-99) and charged with developing consensus recommendations on definitions, conventions, and standards for reporting of optical aberrations of human eyes. Progress reports were presented at the 1999 OSA annual meeting and at VSIA-2000 by the chairs of three taskforce subcommittees on (1) reference axes, (2) describing functions, and (3) model eyes.
01 Jan 2010
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TL;DR: It is inferred that subjective best focus occurs when the area of the central, aberration-free region of the pupil is maximized, and that correction of the 12 largest principal components, or 14 largest Zernike modes, would be required to achieve diffraction-limited performance on average for a 6-mm pupil.
Abstract: A Shack-Hartmann aberrometer was used to measure the monochromatic aberration structure along the primary line of sight of 200 cyclopleged, normal, healthy eyes from 100 individuals. Sphero-cylindrical refractive errors were corrected with ophthalmic spectacle lenses based on the results of a subjective refraction performed immediately prior to experimentation. Zernike expansions of the experimental wave-front aberration functions were used to determine aberration coefficients for a series of pupil diameters. The residual Zernike coefficients for defocus were not zero but varied systematically with pupil diameter and with the Zernike coefficient for spherical aberration in a way that maximizes visual acuity. We infer from these results that subjective best focus occurs when the area of the central, aberration-free region of the pupil is maximized. We found that the population averages of Zernike coefficients were nearly zero for all of the higher-order modes except spherical aberration. This result indicates that a hypothetical average eye representing the central tendency of the population is nearly free of aberrations, suggesting the possible influence of an emmetropization process or evolutionary pressure. However, for any individual eye the aberration coefficients were rarely zero for any Zernike mode. To first approximation, wave-front error fell exponentially with Zernike order and increased linearly with pupil area. On average, the total wave-front variance produced by higher-order aberrations was less than the wave-front variance of residual defocus and astigmatism. For example, the average amount of higher-order aberrations present for a 7.5-mm pupil was equivalent to the wave-front error produced by less than 1/4 diopter (D) of defocus. The largest pupil for which an eye may be considered diffraction-limited was 1.22 mm on average. Correlation of aberrations from the left and right eyes indicated the presence of significant bilateral symmetry. No evidence was found of a universal anatomical feature responsible for third-order optical aberrations. Using the Marechal criterion, we conclude that correction of the 12 largest principal components, or 14 largest Zernike modes, would be required to achieve diffraction-limited performance on average for a 6-mm pupil. Different methods of computing population averages provided upper and lower limits to the mean optical transfer function and mean point-spread function for our population of eyes.
TL;DR: In this paper, a modified Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor was used to measure the monochromatic wave aberration of both eyes for 109 normal human subjects across a 5.7mm pupil.
Abstract: From both a fundamental and a clinical point of view, it is necessary to know the distribution of the eye's aberrations in the normal population and to be able to describe them as efficiently as possible. We used a modified Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor to measure the monochromatic wave aberration of both eyes for 109 normal human subjects across a 5.7-mm pupil. We analyzed the distribution of the eye's aberrations in the population and found that most Zernike modes are relatively uncorrelated with each other across the population. A principal components analysis was applied to our wave-aberration measurements with the resulting principal components providing only a slightly more compact description of the population data than Zernike modes. This indicates that Zernike modes are efficient basis functions for describing the eye's wave aberration. Even though there appears to be a random variation in the eye's aberrations from subject to subject, many aberrations in the left eye were found to be significantly correlated with their counterparts in the right eye.
TL;DR: It is concluded that objective methods of refraction based on wavefront aberration maps can accurately predict the results of subjective refraction and may be more precise and wavefront methods may become the new gold standard for specifying conventional and/or optimal corrections of refractive errors.
Abstract: We determined the accuracy and precision of 33 objective methods for predicting the results of conventional, sphero-cylindrical refraction from wavefront aberrations in a large population of 200 eyes. Accuracy for predicting defocus (as specified by the population mean error of prediction) varied from -0.50 D to +0.25 D across methods. Precision of these estimates (as specified by 95% limits of agreement) ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 D. All methods except one accurately predicted astigmatism to within +/-1/8D. Precision of astigmatism predictions was typically better than precision for predicting defocus and many methods were better than 0.5D. Paraxial curvature matching of the wavefront aberration map was the most accurate method for determining the spherical equivalent error whereas least-squares fitting of the wavefront was one of the least accurate methods. We argue that this result was obtained because curvature matching is a biased method that successfully predicts the biased endpoint stipulated by conventional refractions. Five methods emerged as reasonably accurate and among the most precise. Three of these were based on pupil plane metrics and two were based on image plane metrics. We argue that the accuracy of all methods might be improved by correcting for the systematic bias reported in this study. However, caution is advised because some tasks, including conventional refraction of defocus, require a biased metric whereas other tasks, such as refraction of astigmatism, are unbiased. We conclude that objective methods of refraction based on wavefront aberration maps can accurately predict the results of subjective refraction and may be more precise. If objective refractions are more precise than subjective refractions, then wavefront methods may become the new gold standard for specifying conventional and/or optimal corrections of refractive errors.
TL;DR: A new IOL with a prolate anterior surface, designed to partially compensate for the average spherical aberration of the cornea, is intended to improve the ocular optical quality of pseudophakic patients.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to design and evaluate in the laboratory a new intraocular lens (IOL) intended to provide superior ocular optical quality by reducing spherical aberration. METHODS: Corneal topography measurements were performed on 71 cataract patients using an Orbscan I. The measured corneal surface shapes were used to determine the wavefront aberration of each cornea. A model cornea was then designed to reproduce the measured average spherical aberration. This model cornea was used to design IOLs having a fixed amount of negative spherical aberration that partially compensates for the average positive spherical aberration of the cornea. Theoretical and physical eye models were used to assess the expected improvement in optical quality of an eye implanted with this lens. RESULTS: Measurements of optical quality provided evidence that if this modified prolate IOL was centered within 0.4 mm and tilted less than 7 degrees, it would exceed the optical performance of a conventional spherical IOL. This improvement occurred without an apparent loss in depth of focus. CONCLUSION: A new IOL with a prolate anterior surface, designed to partially compensate for the average spherical aberration of the cornea, is intended to improve the ocular optical quality of pseudophakic patients. [J Refract Surg 2002;18: 683-691] T
TL;DR: One implication of these results is that, although the eye has substantial chromatic aberration, the pupil is positioned so as to minimize the transverse component of the aberration for central vision, thereby optimizing foveal image quality for polychromatic objects.
Abstract: We have determined the transverse chromatic aberration of the human eye by measuring the apparent offset of a two-color vernier viewed foveally through a displaced, pinhole aperture. For the same subjects, we also determined the longitudinal chromatic aberration for foveal viewing by the method of best focus. In both cases, the results were closely predicted by a simple, reduced-eye optical-model for which transverse and longitudinal chromatic aberration are directly proportional, with the constant of proportionality being the amount of displacement of the pinhole from the visual axis. Further measurements revealed that the natural pupil was closely centered on the visual axis for two subjects and slightly displaced in the temporal direction for three other subjects. One implication of these results is that, although the eye has substantial chromatic aberration, the pupil is positioned so as to minimize the transverse component of the aberration for central vision, thereby optimizing foveal image quality for polychromatic objects.
19 Feb 1999
TL;DR: This work offers a unique proposal for oral presentation and discussion at the topical meeting of Visual Science and Its Applications (VSIA) to meet an OSA challenge to bring the hottest, most innovative topics to its topical meetings.
Abstract: In an effort to meet an OSA challenge to bring the hottest, most innovative topics to its topical meetings for presentation and discussion, we offer a unique proposal for oral presentation and discussion at the topical meeting of Visual Science and Its Applications (VSIA).