scispace - formally typeset
Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTS635

STAR: ultrafast universal RNA-seq aligner

01 Jan 2013-Bioinformatics (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 29, Iss: 1, pp 15-21
Abstract: Motivation Accurate alignment of high-throughput RNA-seq data is a challenging and yet unsolved problem because of the non-contiguous transcript structure, relatively short read lengths and constantly increasing throughput of the sequencing technologies. Currently available RNA-seq aligners suffer from high mapping error rates, low mapping speed, read length limitation and mapping biases. Results To align our large (>80 billon reads) ENCODE Transcriptome RNA-seq dataset, we developed the Spliced Transcripts Alignment to a Reference (STAR) software based on a previously undescribed RNA-seq alignment algorithm that uses sequential maximum mappable seed search in uncompressed suffix arrays followed by seed clustering and stitching procedure. STAR outperforms other aligners by a factor of >50 in mapping speed, aligning to the human genome 550 million 2 × 76 bp paired-end reads per hour on a modest 12-core server, while at the same time improving alignment sensitivity and precision. In addition to unbiased de novo detection of canonical junctions, STAR can discover non-canonical splices and chimeric (fusion) transcripts, and is also capable of mapping full-length RNA sequences. Using Roche 454 sequencing of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplicons, we experimentally validated 1960 novel intergenic splice junctions with an 80-90% success rate, corroborating the high precision of the STAR mapping strategy. Availability and implementation STAR is implemented as a standalone C++ code. STAR is free open source software distributed under GPLv3 license and can be downloaded from more

Topics: MRNA Sequencing (57%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/GB-2013-14-4-R36
Daehwan Kim1, Daehwan Kim2, Geo Pertea3, Cole Trapnell4  +5 moreInstitutions (7)
25 Apr 2013-Genome Biology
Abstract: TopHat is a popular spliced aligner for RNA-sequence (RNA-seq) experiments. In this paper, we describe TopHat2, which incorporates many significant enhancements to TopHat. TopHat2 can align reads of various lengths produced by the latest sequencing technologies, while allowing for variable-length indels with respect to the reference genome. In addition to de novo spliced alignment, TopHat2 can align reads across fusion breaks, which can occur after genomic translocations. TopHat2 combines the ability to identify novel splice sites with direct mapping to known transcripts, producing sensitive and accurate alignments, even for highly repetitive genomes or in the presence of pseudogenes. TopHat2 is available at more

Topics: Reference genome (51%), Pseudogene (50%)

9,972 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMETH.3317
01 Apr 2015-Nature Methods
Abstract: HISAT (hierarchical indexing for spliced alignment of transcripts) is a highly efficient system for aligning reads from RNA sequencing experiments. HISAT uses an indexing scheme based on the Burrows-Wheeler transform and the Ferragina-Manzini (FM) index, employing two types of indexes for alignment: a whole-genome FM index to anchor each alignment and numerous local FM indexes for very rapid extensions of these alignments. HISAT's hierarchical index for the human genome contains 48,000 local FM indexes, each representing a genomic region of ∼64,000 bp. Tests on real and simulated data sets showed that HISAT is the fastest system currently available, with equal or better accuracy than any other method. Despite its large number of indexes, HISAT requires only 4.3 gigabytes of memory. HISAT supports genomes of any size, including those larger than 4 billion bases. more

8,141 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2019.05.031
13 Jun 2019-Cell
Abstract: Single-cell transcriptomics has transformed our ability to characterize cell states, but deep biological understanding requires more than a taxonomic listing of clusters. As new methods arise to measure distinct cellular modalities, a key analytical challenge is to integrate these datasets to better understand cellular identity and function. Here, we develop a strategy to "anchor" diverse datasets together, enabling us to integrate single-cell measurements not only across scRNA-seq technologies, but also across different modalities. After demonstrating improvement over existing methods for integrating scRNA-seq data, we anchor scRNA-seq experiments with scATAC-seq to explore chromatin differences in closely related interneuron subsets and project protein expression measurements onto a bone marrow atlas to characterize lymphocyte populations. Lastly, we harmonize in situ gene expression and scRNA-seq datasets, allowing transcriptome-wide imputation of spatial gene expression patterns. Our work presents a strategy for the assembly of harmonized references and transfer of information across datasets. more

3,853 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMETH.3901
Stefka Tyanova1, Tikira Temu1, Pavel Sinitcyn1, Arthur Carlson1  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Sep 2016-Nature Methods
Abstract: A main bottleneck in proteomics is the downstream biological analysis of highly multivariate quantitative protein abundance data generated using mass-spectrometry-based analysis. We developed the Perseus software platform ( to support biological and biomedical researchers in interpreting protein quantification, interaction and post-translational modification data. Perseus contains a comprehensive portfolio of statistical tools for high-dimensional omics data analysis covering normalization, pattern recognition, time-series analysis, cross-omics comparisons and multiple-hypothesis testing. A machine learning module supports the classification and validation of patient groups for diagnosis and prognosis, and it also detects predictive protein signatures. Central to Perseus is a user-friendly, interactive workflow environment that provides complete documentation of computational methods used in a publication. All activities in Perseus are realized as plugins, and users can extend the software by programming their own, which can be shared through a plugin store. We anticipate that Perseus's arsenal of algorithms and its intuitive usability will empower interdisciplinary analysis of complex large data sets. more

3,395 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTY191
Heng Li1Institutions (1)
15 Sep 2018-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Motivation Recent advances in sequencing technologies promise ultra-long reads of ∼100 kb in average, full-length mRNA or cDNA reads in high throughput and genomic contigs over 100 Mb in length. Existing alignment programs are unable or inefficient to process such data at scale, which presses for the development of new alignment algorithms. Results Minimap2 is a general-purpose alignment program to map DNA or long mRNA sequences against a large reference database. It works with accurate short reads of ≥100 bp in length, ≥1 kb genomic reads at error rate ∼15%, full-length noisy Direct RNA or cDNA reads and assembly contigs or closely related full chromosomes of hundreds of megabases in length. Minimap2 does split-read alignment, employs concave gap cost for long insertions and deletions and introduces new heuristics to reduce spurious alignments. It is 3-4 times as fast as mainstream short-read mappers at comparable accuracy, and is ≥30 times faster than long-read genomic or cDNA mappers at higher accuracy, surpassing most aligners specialized in one type of alignment. Availability and implementation Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. more

3,070 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTP120
01 May 2009-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Motivation: A new protocol for sequencing the messenger RNA in a cell, known as RNA-Seq, generates millions of short sequence fragments in a single run. These fragments, or ‘reads’, can be used to measure levels of gene expression and to identify novel splice variants of genes. However, current software for aligning RNA-Seq data to a genome relies on known splice junctions and cannot identify novel ones. TopHat is an efficient read-mapping algorithm designed to align reads from an RNA-Seq experiment to a reference genome without relying on known splice sites. Results: We mapped the RNA-Seq reads from a recent mammalian RNA-Seq experiment and recovered more than 72% of the splice junctions reported by the annotation-based software from that study, along with nearly 20 000 previously unreported junctions. The TopHat pipeline is much faster than previous systems, mapping nearly 2.2 million reads per CPU hour, which is sufficient to process an entire RNA-Seq experiment in less than a day on a standard desktop computer. We describe several challenges unique to ab initio splice site discovery from RNA-Seq reads that will require further algorithm development. Availability: TopHat is free, open-source software available from Contact: Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. more

Topics: Reference genome (51%), splice (51%)

10,631 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1101/GR.229202
W. James Kent1Institutions (1)
01 Apr 2002-Genome Research
Abstract: Analyzing vertebrate genomes requires rapid mRNA/DNA and cross-species protein alignments A new tool, BLAT, is more accurate and 500 times faster than popular existing tools for mRNA/DNA alignments and 50 times faster for protein alignments at sensitivity settings typically used when comparing vertebrate sequences BLAT's speed stems from an index of all nonoverlapping K-mers in the genome This index fits inside the RAM of inexpensive computers, and need only be computed once for each genome assembly BLAT has several major stages It uses the index to find regions in the genome likely to be homologous to the query sequence It performs an alignment between homologous regions It stitches together these aligned regions (often exons) into larger alignments (typically genes) Finally, BLAT revisits small internal exons possibly missed at the first stage and adjusts large gap boundaries that have canonical splice sites where feasible This paper describes how BLAT was optimized Effects on speed and sensitivity are explored for various K-mer sizes, mismatch schemes, and number of required index matches BLAT is compared with other alignment programs on various test sets and then used in several genome-wide applications http://genomeucscedu hosts a web-based BLAT server for the human genome more

Topics: Blat (60%)

7,686 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/GB-2004-5-2-R12
30 Jan 2004-Genome Biology
Abstract: The newest version of MUMmer easily handles comparisons of large eukaryotic genomes at varying evolutionary distances, as demonstrated by applications to multiple genomes. Two new graphical viewing tools provide alternative ways to analyze genome alignments. The new system is the first version of MUMmer to be released as open-source software. This allows other developers to contribute to the code base and freely redistribute the code. The MUMmer sources are available at more

4,298 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE11233
Sarah Djebali, Carrie A. Davis1, Angelika Merkel, Alexander Dobin1  +84 moreInstitutions (14)
06 Sep 2012-Nature
Abstract: Eukaryotic cells make many types of primary and processed RNAs that are found either in specific subcellular compartments or throughout the cells. A complete catalogue of these RNAs is not yet available and their characteristic subcellular localizations are also poorly understood. Because RNA represents the direct output of the genetic information encoded by genomes and a significant proportion of a cell's regulatory capabilities are focused on its synthesis, processing, transport, modification and translation, the generation of such a catalogue is crucial for understanding genome function. Here we report evidence that three-quarters of the human genome is capable of being transcribed, as well as observations about the range and levels of expression, localization, processing fates, regulatory regions and modifications of almost all currently annotated and thousands of previously unannotated RNAs. These observations, taken together, prompt a redefinition of the concept of a gene. more

Topics: Long non-coding RNA (59%), Human genome (54%), Gene (53%) more

3,863 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1101/GR.135350.111
01 Sep 2012-Genome Research
Abstract: The GENCODE Consortium aims to identify all gene features in the human genome using a combination of computational analysis, manual annotation, and experimental validation. Since the first public release of this annotation data set, few new protein-coding loci have been added, yet the number of alternative splicing transcripts annotated has steadily increased. The GENCODE 7 release contains 20,687 protein-coding and 9640 long noncoding RNA loci and has 33,977 coding transcripts not represented in UCSC genes and RefSeq. It also has the most comprehensive annotation of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) loci publicly available with the predominant transcript form consisting of two exons. We have examined the completeness of the transcript annotation and found that 35% of transcriptional start sites are supported by CAGE clusters and 62% of protein-coding genes have annotated polyA sites. Over one-third of GENCODE protein-coding genes are supported by peptide hits derived from mass spectrometry spectra submitted to Peptide Atlas. New models derived from the Illumina Body Map 2.0 RNA-seq data identify 3689 new loci not currently in GENCODE, of which 3127 consist of two exon models indicating that they are possibly unannotated long noncoding loci. GENCODE 7 is publicly available from and via the Ensembl and UCSC Genome Browsers. more

Topics: GENCODE (77%), Ensembl (53%), Molecular Sequence Annotation (53%) more

3,750 Citations

No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years