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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVB.103.L100202

Stark many-body localization: Evidence for Hilbert-space shattering

04 Mar 2021-Physical Review B (American Physical Society)-Vol. 103, Iss: 10
Abstract: The ergodic hypothesis lies at the heart of classical statistical physics. A crucial question, therefore, is how this idea translates into the quantum world. Many-body localization -- the analog of Anderson localization to the many-body case -- has emerged as a key example of nonergodicity. Here, the authors analyze a disorder-free Heisenberg spin chain under the influence of a constant field gradient (Stark many-body localization). Surprisingly, they find that nonergodicity results, even for a vanishingly small gradient.

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12 results found


Open accessPosted Content
W. Morong1, Fangli Liu1, P. Becker1, K. S. Collins1  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Thermalization is a ubiquitous process of statistical physics, in which details of few-body observables are washed out in favor of a featureless steady state. Even in isolated quantum many-body systems, limited to reversible dynamics, thermalization typically prevails. However, in these systems, there is another possibility: many-body localization (MBL) can result in preservation of a non-thermal state. While disorder has long been considered an essential ingredient for this phenomenon, recent theoretical work has suggested that a quantum many-body system with a uniformly increasing field -- but no disorder -- can also exhibit MBL, resulting in `Stark MBL.' Here we realize Stark MBL in a trapped-ion quantum simulator and demonstrate its key properties: halting of thermalization and slow propagation of correlations. Tailoring the interactions between ionic spins in an effective field gradient, we directly observe their microscopic equilibration for a variety of initial states, and we apply single-site control to measure correlations between separate regions of the spin chain. Further, by engineering a varying gradient, we create a disorder-free system with coexisting long-lived thermalized and nonthermal regions. The results demonstrate the unexpected generality of MBL, with implications about the fundamental requirements for thermalization and with potential uses in engineering long-lived non-equilibrium quantum matter.

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Topics: Quantum simulator (53%), Quantum (50%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AOP.2021.168540
Ruixiao Yao1, Titas Chanda2, Jakub Zakrzewski2Institutions (2)
11 Jun 2021-Annals of Physics
Abstract: We review the dynamics of interacting particles in disorder-free potentials concentrating on a combination of a harmonic binding with a constant tilt. We show that a simple picture of an effective local tilt describes a variety of cases. Our examples include spinless fermions (as modeled by Heisenberg spin chain in a magnetic field), spinful fermions as well as bosons that enjoy a larger local on-site Hilbert space. We also discuss the domain-wall dynamics that reveals nonergodic features even for a relatively weak tilt as suggested by Doggen et al. (2020). By adding a harmonic potential on top of the static field we confirm that the surprising regular dynamics is not entirely due to Hilbert space shuttering. It seems better explained by the inhibited transport within the domains of identically oriented spins. Once the spin-1/2 restrictions are lifted as, e.g., for bosons, the dynamics involve stronger entanglement generation. Again for domain wall melting, the effect of the harmonic potential is shown to lead mainly to an effective local tilt.

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Topics: Fermion (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: We propose a method, based on matrix product states, for studying the time evolution of many-body quantum lattice systems under continuous and site-resolved measurement. Both the frequency and the strength of generalized measurements can be varied within our scheme, thus allowing us to explore the corresponding two-dimensional phase diagram. The method is applied to one-dimensional chains of nearest-neighbor interacting hard-core bosons. A transition from an entangling to a disentangling (area-law) phase is found. However, by resolving time-dependent density correlations in the monitored system, we find important differences between different regions at the phase boundary. In particular, we observe a peculiar phenomenon of measurement-induced particle clusterization that takes place only for frequent moderately strong measurements, but not for strong infrequent measurements.

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Topics: Quantum entanglement (55%), Phase transition (54%), Time evolution (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Quantum simulators have made a remarkable progress towards exploring the dynamics of many-body systems, many of which offer a formidable challenge to both theoretical and numerical methods. While state-of-the-art quantum simulators are in principle able to simulate quantum dynamics well outside the domain of classical computers, they are noisy and limited in the variability of the initial state of the dynamics and the observables that can be measured. Despite these limitations, here we show that such a quantum simulator can be used to in-effect solve for the dynamics of a many-body system. We develop an efficient numerical technique that facilitates classical simulations in regimes not accessible to exact calculations or other established numerical techniques. The method is based on approximations that are well suited to describe localized one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard systems. Since this new method does not have an error estimate and the approximations do not hold in general, we use a neutral-atom Fermi-Hubbard quantum simulator with $L_{\text{exp}}\simeq290$ lattice sites to benchmark its performance in terms of accuracy and convergence for evolution times up to $700$ tunnelling times. We then use these approximations in order to derive a simple prediction of the behaviour of interacting Bloch oscillations for spin-imbalanced Fermi-Hubbard systems, which we show to be in quantitative agreement with experimental results. Finally, we demonstrate that the convergence of our method is the slowest when the entanglement depth developed in the many-body system we consider is neither too small nor too large. This represents a promising regime for near-term applications of quantum simulators.

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Topics: Quantum simulator (65%), Quantum dynamics (64%), Quantum entanglement (57%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Using numerically exact methods we study transport in an interacting spin chain which for sufficiently strong spatially constant electric field is expected to experience Stark many-body localization. We show that starting from a generic initial state, a spin-excitation remains localized only up to a finite delocalization time, which depends exponentially on the size of the system and the strength of the electric field. This suggests that bona fide Stark many-body localization occurs only in the thermodynamic limit. We also demonstrate that the transient localization in a finite system and for electric fields stronger than the interaction strength can be well approximated by a Magnus expansion up-to times which grow with the electric field strength.

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Topics: Electric field (54%), Thermodynamic limit (51%)

1 Citations


References
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51 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREV.109.1492
Philip W. Anderson1Institutions (1)
01 Mar 1958-Physical Review
Abstract: This paper presents a simple model for such processes as spin diffusion or conduction in the "impurity band." These processes involve transport in a lattice which is in some sense random, and in them diffusion is expected to take place via quantum jumps between localized sites. In this simple model the essential randomness is introduced by requiring the energy to vary randomly from site to site. It is shown that at low enough densities no diffusion at all can take place, and the criteria for transport to occur are given.

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Topics: Randomness (54%), Spin diffusion (52%), Quantum (51%)

8,667 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AOP.2010.09.012
Abstract: The density-matrix renormalization group method (DMRG) has established itself over the last decade as the leading method for the simulation of the statics and dynamics of one-dimensional strongly correlated quantum lattice systems. In the further development of the method, the realization that DMRG operates on a highly interesting class of quantum states, so-called matrix product states (MPS), has allowed a much deeper understanding of the inner structure of the DMRG method, its further potential and its limitations. In this paper, I want to give a detailed exposition of current DMRG thinking in the MPS language in order to make the advisable implementation of the family of DMRG algorithms in exclusively MPS terms transparent. I then move on to discuss some directions of potentially fruitful further algorithmic development: while DMRG is a very mature method by now, I still see potential for further improvements, as exemplified by a number of recently introduced algorithms.

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2,429 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AOP.2010.09.012
Ulrich Schollwöck1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2011-Annals of Physics
Abstract: The density-matrix renormalization group method (DMRG) has established itself over the last decade as the leading method for the simulation of the statics and dynamics of one-dimensional strongly correlated quantum lattice systems. In the further development of the method, the realization that DMRG operates on a highly interesting class of quantum states, so-called matrix product states (MPS), has allowed a much deeper understanding of the inner structure of the DMRG method, its further potential and its limitations. In this paper, I want to give a detailed exposition of current DMRG thinking in the MPS language in order to make the advisable implementation of the family of DMRG algorithms in exclusively MPS terms transparent. I then move on to discuss some directions of potentially fruitful further algorithmic development: while DMRG is a very mature method by now, I still see potential for further improvements, as exemplified by a number of recently introduced algorithms.

... read more

2,367 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV-CONMATPHYS-031214-014726
Rahul Nandkishore1, David A. Huse1Institutions (1)
Abstract: We review some recent developments in the statistical mechanics of isolated quantum systems. We provide a brief introduction to quantum thermalization, paying particular attention to the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) and the resulting single-eigenstate statistical mechanics. We then focus on a class of systems that fail to quantum thermalize and whose eigenstates violate the ETH: These are the many-body Anderson-localized systems; their long-time properties are not captured by the conventional ensembles of quantum statistical mechanics. These systems can forever locally remember information about their local initial conditions and are thus of interest for possibilities of storing quantum information. We discuss key features of many-body localization (MBL) and review a phenomenology of the MBL phase. Single-eigenstate statistical mechanics within the MBL phase reveal dynamically stable ordered phases, and phase transitions among them, that are invisible to equilibrium statistical mechanics and...

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1,653 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AOP.2005.11.014
01 May 2006-Annals of Physics
Abstract: We consider low-temperature behavior of weakly interacting electrons in disordered conductors in the regime when all single-particle eigenstates are localized by the quenched disorder. We prove that in the absence of coupling of the electrons to any external bath dc electrical conductivity exactly vanishes as long as the temperature T does not exceed some finite value Tc. At the same time, it can be also proven that at high enough T the conductivity is finite. These two statements imply that the system undergoes a finite temperature metal-to-insulator transition, which can be viewed as Anderson-like localization of many-body wave functions in the Fock space. Metallic and insulating states are not different from each other by any spatial or discrete symmetries. We formulate the effective Hamiltonian description of the system at low energies (of the order of the level spacing in the single-particle localization volume). In the metallic phase quantum Boltzmann equation is valid, allowing to find the kinetic coefficients. In the insulating phase, T

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Topics: Anderson localization (57%), Boltzmann equation (55%), Many-body problem (53%) ... read more

1,501 Citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202112