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Journal ArticleDOI

State of the art of self-etch adhesives

01 Jan 2011-Dental Materials (Elsevier)-Vol. 27, Iss: 1, pp 17-28

TL;DR: The major shortcomings of the most simple-to-use one-step (self-etch) adhesives are addressed and special attention is devoted to the AD-concept and the benefit of chemical interfacial interaction with regard to bond durability.
Abstract: This paper reflects on the state of the art of self-etch adhesives anno 2010. After presenting the general characteristics of self-etch adhesives, the major shortcomings of the most simple-to-use one-step (self-etch) adhesives are addressed. Special attention is devoted to the AD-concept and the benefit of chemical interfacial interaction with regard to bond durability. Finally, issues like the potential interference of surface smear and the more challenging bond to enamel for ‘mild’ self-etch adhesives are discussed.
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2013-Dental Materials
TL;DR: A review of the key factors affecting the polymerization efficiency of light-activated resin-based composites highlights the apparent need for a more informative approach by manufacturers to relay appropriate information in order to optimize material properties of resin composites used in daily practice.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This work aims to review the key factors affecting the polymerization efficiency of light-activated resin-based composites. The different properties and methods used to evaluate polymerization efficiency will also be critically appraised with focus on the developments in dental photopolymer technology and how recent advances have attempted to improve the shortcomings of contemporary resin composites. METHODS: Apart from the classical literature on the subject, the review focused in particular on papers published since 2009. The literature research was performed in Scopus with the terms "dental resin OR dimethacrylate". The list was screened and all papers relevant to the objectives of this work were included. RESULTS: Though new monomer technologies have been developed and some of them already introduced to the dental market, dimethacrylate-based composites still currently represent the vast majority of commercially available materials for direct restoration. The photopolymerization of resin-based composites has been the subject of numerous publications, which have highlighted the major impact of the setting process on material properties and quality of the final restoration. Many factors affect the polymerization efficiency, be they intrinsic; photoinitiator type and concentration, viscosity (co-monomer composition and ratio, filler content) and optical properties, or extrinsic; light type and spectrum, irradiation parameters (radiant energy, time and irradiance), curing modes, temperature and light guide tip positioning. SIGNIFICANCE: This review further highlights the apparent need for a more informative approach by manufacturers to relay appropriate information in order for dentists to optimize material properties of resin composites used in daily practice.

353 citations


Cites background from "State of the art of self-etch adhes..."

  • ...Such trends are due affinity with tooth tissue [2]....

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  • ...[2] Van Meerbeek B, Yoshihara K, Yoshida Y, Mine A, De Munck J, Van Landuyt KL....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The enamel bond strength of universal adhesives is improved with prior phosphoric acid etching, however, this effect was not evident for dentin with the use of mild universalAdhesives with the etch-and-rinse strategy.
Abstract: a b s t r a c t Objectives: A systematic review was conducted to determine whether the etch-and-rinse or self-etching mode is the best protocol for dentin and enamel adhesion by universal adhesives. Data: This report followed the PRISMA Statement. A total of 10 articles were included in the meta-analysis.

289 citations


Cites background or methods from "State of the art of self-etch adhes..."

  • ...8,9 Thus, these adhesives are easy-to-use, have a faster application procedure and are less susceptible of differences in the operator’s technique when compared with multi-step etch-and-rinse adhesives.(1,10)...

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  • ...On the other hand, self-etch adhesives contain acid resin monomers that simultaneously “condition” and “prime” the dental substrates and do not require a prior phosphoric acid etching step.(1) These types of adhesive only dissolve the smear layer and do not remove the dissolved calcium phosphates....

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  • ..., sound, carious, sclerotic dentin, as well as enamel).(1) Considering the differences in professional judgment regarding the selection of the adhesive...

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  • ...The etch-and-rinse strategy involves the prior application of phosphoric acid, which, at enamel, produces deep etch-pits in the hydroxyapatite (HAp)-rich substrate and, at dentin, demineralizes up to a depth of a few micrometers to expose an HAp-deprived collagen mesh.(1,3) Thus, etch-and-rinse adhesives are available for use in three steps (acid etching, primer and adhesive) or two steps (primer and adhesive joined into one single material)....

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  • ...On dentin, this process is called ‘hybridization’ and involves the formation of the hybrid layer that contain with resin-infiltrated collagen fibrils.(1,2) Phosphoric acid etching (30-40%) of dentin promotes superficial dentin demineralization and collaborates in the removal of the smear layer, leading to the exposure of the collagen fibrils....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2013-Dental Materials
TL;DR: This review will examine both the principles and outcomes of techniques to prevent collagen hydrolysis in dentin-resin interfaces, and shows that enzyme inhibition is a promising approach to improve hybrid layer preservation and bond strength durability.
Abstract: Objective Endogenous dentin collagenolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins, are responsible for the time-dependent hydrolysis of collagen matrix of hybrid layers. As collagen matrix integrity is essential for the preservation of long-term dentin bond strength, inhibition of endogenous dentin proteases is necessary for durable resin-bonded restorations. Methods Several tentative approaches to prevent enzyme function have been proposed. Some of them have already demonstrated clinical efficacy, while others need to be researched further before clinical protocols can be proposed. This review will examine both the principles and outcomes of techniques to prevent collagen hydrolysis in dentin–resin interfaces. Results Chlorhexidine, a general inhibitor of MMPs and cysteine cathepsins, is the most tested method. In general, these experiments have shown that enzyme inhibition is a promising approach to improve hybrid layer preservation and bond strength durability. Other enzyme inhibitors, e.g. enzyme-inhibiting monomers, may be considered promising alternatives that would allow more simple clinical application than chlorhexidine. Cross-linking collagen and/or dentin matrix-bound enzymes could render hybrid layer organic matrices resistant to degradation. Alternatively, complete removal of water from the hybrid layer with ethanol wet bonding or biomimetic remineralization should eliminate hydrolysis of both collagen and resin components. Significance Understanding the function of the enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of hybrid layer collagen has prompted several innovative approaches to retain hybrid layer integrity and strong dentin bonding. The ultimate goal, prevention of collagen matrix degradation with clinically applicable techniques and commercially available materials may be achievable in several ways.

286 citations


Cites background from "State of the art of self-etch adhes..."

  • ...[83] Van Meerbeek B, Yoshihara K, Yoshida Y, Mine A, De Munck J, Van Landuyt KL....

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  • ...Even though the concept of chemical bonding with SE adhesives to dentin hydroxyapatite is, in a strict sense, not aiming to inhibit dentin enzymatic function, it has been suggested to preserve the long-term collagen integrity in the hybrid layer [83]....

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  • ...016 believed to minimize nanoleakage, leave a substantial amount of hydroxyapatite around the collagen fibrils to mask the collagen cleavage site and keep the enzymes “fossilized” [83]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Describing adhesive-dentin interfaces chemically and ultrastructurally revealed nano-layering at the adhesive interface, not only within the hybrid layer but also, particularly for Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray), extending into the adhesive layer.
Abstract: According to the 'Adhesion-Decalcification' concept, specific functional monomers within dental adhesives can ionically interact with hydroxyapatite (HAp). Such ionic bonding has been demonstrated for 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) to manifest in the form of self-assembled 'nano-layering'. However, it remained to be explored if such nano-layering also occurs on tooth tissue when commercial MDP-containing adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray; Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE) were applied following common clinical application protocols. We therefore characterized adhesive-dentin interfaces chemically, using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and ultrastructurally, using (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM). Both adhesives revealed nano-layering at the adhesive interface, not only within the hybrid layer but also, particularly for Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray), extending into the adhesive layer. Since such self-assembled nano-layering of two 10-MDP molecules, joined by stable MDP-Ca salt formation, must make the adhesive interface more resistant to biodegradation, it may well explain the documented favorable clinical longevity of bonds produced by 10-MDP-based adhesives.

254 citations


Cites background or result from "State of the art of self-etch adhes..."

  • ...This finding favors the use of a ‘mild’ self-etch rather than an ‘etch-and-rinse’ approach with dentin (Van Meerbeek et al., 2011)....

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  • ...Selectively etching enamel combined with a ‘mild’ self-etch adhesive can therefore today be recommended to achieve effective and durable bonding to tooth enamel and dentin (Van Meerbeek et al., 2011)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Application of an etching step prior to UAs improves their dentine penetration, but does not affect their bond strength to dentine after 24h or after thermocycling for 5000 cycles.
Abstract: Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and resin penetration into dentine of three universal adhesives (UAs) applied in two different etching modes (i.e. self-etch or etch-and-rinse). The effect of thermocycling on the μTBS was also evaluated. Methods The occlusal third of sound human molars was removed and the exposed surfaces were treated with three UAs (Futurabond Universal, Scotchbond Universal Adhesive and All-Bond Universal) in self-etch or etch-and-rinse mode. Two one-step self-etch adhesives (Futurabond DC and Futurabond M) were applied on additional teeth as reference. After composite build up, the specimens were stored for 24 h in distilled water at 37 °C or thermocycled for 5000 cycles. Composite/dentine beams were prepared (1 mm 2 ) and μTBS test was performed. Data was analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test ( α = 0.05). One additional tooth was prepared for each group for evaluation of infiltration ability into dentine by dyeing the adhesives with a fluorochrome (Rhodamine B). After longitudinal sectioning, the generated interfaces were examined under confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results The addition of an etching step did not significantly affect the μTBS of none of the UAs, when compared to their self-etch application mode. All pre-etched specimens showed considerably longer resin tags and thicker hybrid layers. Thermocycling had no significant effect on the μTBS of the UAs. Conclusions Application of an etching step prior to UAs improves their dentine penetration, but does not affect their bond strength to dentine after 24 h or after thermocycling for 5000 cycles. Clinical significance Similar bond strength values were observed for the UAs regardless of application mode, which makes them reliable for working under different clinical conditions.

205 citations


Cites background from "State of the art of self-etch adhes..."

  • ...One of the keys of success with self-etching adhesives is he chemical bonding capability of their functional monomers o hydroxyapatite (HAp),1 as described by the ‘‘adhesion/ ecalcification concept’’.9,10 Among the currently used funcional monomers, 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogenphophate (MDP) has demonstrated a very effective and durable ond to dentine,11,12 due to the low solubility of the calcium alt that forms on the hydroxyapatite surface.12 On the other and, micromechanical interlocking by means of good entine hybridization (i.e. resin tags and hybrid layer), has een proposed to improve the bond strength of SEAs.13 hosphoric acid etching of dentine prior to application of EAs significantly improves the interface infiltration morpholgy, by generating thicker hybrid layers14,15 and longer resin ags.16 Removal of the smear layer and smear plugs by this prereatment17 facilitates the adhesive penetration, especially in ild SEAs....

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  • ...his ‘‘etching aggressiveness’’ is strongly related with their nteraction depth in dentine,(19) which varies from few anometers in ultra-mild SEAs(20) to several micrometres, in he strong SEAs.(1) Thus, hybrid layers of mild SEAs are much hinner than those generated by stronger SEAs or etch-andinse adhesives, although hybrid layer thickness may not be of ajor importance to bonding efficacy....

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  • ...5).(1) his ‘‘etching aggressiveness’’ is strongly related with their nteraction depth in dentine,(19) which varies from few anometers in ultra-mild SEAs(20) to several micrometres, in he strong SEAs....

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  • ...Although there as a better interface morphology after acid etching, its orrelation to better mTBS values in self-etch adhesives has een brought into question.18 In one study, the use of hosphoric acid prior to self-etch application in dentine reated well impregnated hybrid layers, which were associatd to significantly improved mTBS values when compared to onventional application of the same 1-SEAs.13 On the other and, despite the fact that the application of the etching step rior to self-etch adhesives has shown to improve the hybrid ayer thickness and resin tag formation, these interfaces Please cite this article in press as: Wagner A, et al. Bonding performance (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2014.04.012 showed significantly decreased bond strengths, with an increased number of adhesive failures.5,14,37 The lower bond strength has been attributed to an incomplete infiltration of the demineralized collagen network by the bonding resin.38 This shortcoming has been overcome in UAs through the addition of low viscosity monomers like HEMA, that increase the affinity to the hydrophilic wet collagen network, as has been done earlier for one-step etch-and-rinse adhesives....

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  • ...Nevertheless, a clear correlation to higher bond trengths by these enhanced interfaces has not been estabished.18 According to their ability to demineralize dentine, SEAs ave been classified into strong (pH 1), intermediately strong pH between 1 and 2), mild (pH 2) and ultra-mild (pH >2.5).1 his ‘‘etching aggressiveness’’ is strongly related with their nteraction depth in dentine,19 which varies from few anometers in ultra-mild SEAs20 to several micrometres, in he strong SEAs.1 Thus, hybrid layers of mild SEAs are much hinner than those generated by stronger SEAs or etch-andinse adhesives, although hybrid layer thickness may not be of ajor importance to bonding efficacy.2 By demineralizing entine only incompletely, mild SEAs leave HAp partially ttached to collagen, so it is available for chemical interction12 and protective nanolayering.21 At present, there is only sparse literature reporting on the mode,7,22 although bond strength degradation has been observed after ageing for pre-etched Q9samples.23 The aim of the present study was to compare the bond strength and resin penetration pattern into dentine of three commercial UAs applied in two different etching modes (i.e. SE or ER)....

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References
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Journal Article
TL;DR: The basic bonding mechanism to enamel and dentin of these three approaches is demonstrated by means of ultramorphological and chemical characterization of tooth-biomaterial interfacial interactions and confirms that conventional three-step etch&rinse adhesives still perform most favorably and are most reliable in the long-term.
Abstract: Bonding to tooth tissue can be achieved through an "etch&rinse," "self-etch" or "glass-ionomer" approach. In this paper, the basic bonding mechanism to enamel and dentin of these three approaches is demonstrated by means of ultramorphological and chemical characterization of tooth-biomaterial interfacial interactions. Furthermore, bond-strength testing and measurement of marginal-sealing effectiveness (the two most commonly employed methodologies to determine "bonding effectiveness" in the laboratory) are evaluated upon their value and relevance in predicting clinical performance. A new dynamic methodology to test biomaterial-tooth bonds in a fatigue mode is introduced with a recently developed micro-rotary fatigue-testing device. Eventually, today's adhesives will be critically weighted upon their performance in diverse laboratory studies and clinical trials. Special attention has been given to the benefits/drawbacks of an etch&rinse versus a self-etch approach and the long-term performance of these adhesives. Correlating data gathered in the laboratory with clinical results clearly showed that laboratory research CAN predict clinical effectiveness. Although there is a tendency to simplify bonding procedures, the data presented confirm that conventional three-step etch&rinse adhesives still perform most favorably and are most reliable in the long-term. Nevertheless, a self-etch approach may have the best future perspective. Clinically, when adhesives no longer require an "etch&rinse" step, the application time, and probably more importantly, the technique-sensitivity are substantially reduced. Especially "mild," two-step self-etch adhesives that bond through a combined micromechanical and chemical interaction with tooth tissue closely approach conventional three-step systems in bonding performance.

1,681 citations


"State of the art of self-etch adhes..." refers background in this paper

  • ...[27] Van Meerbeek B, De Munck J, Yoshida Y, Inoue S, Vargas M, Vijay P, et al....

    [...]

  • ...On the other hand, it also underlines the great advanage of mild self-etch adhesives as they keep collagen not only ncapsulated and thus protected by HAp, but also provide the otential to chemically interact with HAp [27,29]....

    [...]

  • ...The resultant two-fold micro-mechanical and chemial bonding mechanism of mild self-etch adhesives closely esembles that of glass-ionomers [27,45]....

    [...]

  • ...echanically interlocked in the created porosities [27]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2008-Dental Materials
TL;DR: This study critically discusses the latest peer-reviewed reports related to formation, aging and stability of resin bonding, focusing on the micro and nano-phenomena related to adhesive interface degradation.
Abstract: Objective Most of current dental adhesive systems show favorable immediate results in terms of retention and sealing of bonded interface, thereby counteracting polymerization shrinkage that affects resin-based restorative materials Despite immediate efficacy, there are major concerns when dentin bonded interfaces are tested after aging even for short time period, ie 6 months Methods This study critically discusses the latest peer-reviewed reports related to formation, aging and stability of resin bonding, focusing on the micro and nano-phenomena related to adhesive interface degradation Results Most simplified one-step adhesives were shown to be the least durable, while three-step etch-and-rinse and two-step self-etch adhesives continue to show the highest performances, as reported in the overwhelming majority of studies In other words, a simplification of clinical application procedures is done to the detriment of bonding efficacy Among the different aging phenomena occurring at the dentin bonded interfaces, some are considered pivotal in degrading the hybrid layer, particularly if simplified adhesives are used Insufficient resin impregnation of dentin, high permeability of the bonded interface, sub-optimal polymerization, phase separation and activation of endogenous collagenolytic enzymes are some of the recently reported factors that reduce the longevity of the bonded interface

993 citations


"State of the art of self-etch adhes..." refers background in this paper

  • ...[38] Breschi L, Mazzoni A, Ruggeri A, Cadenaro M, Di Lenarda R, De Stefano DE....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Yasuhiro Yoshida1, K. Nagakane, R. Fukuda, Y. Nakayama  +7 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: Besides self-etching dentin, specific functional monomers have additional chemical bonding efficacy that is expected to contribute to their adhesive potential to tooth tissue.
Abstract: Mild self-etch adhesives demineralize dentin only partially, leaving hydroxyapatite around collagen within a submicron hybrid layer. We hypothesized that this residual hydroxyapatite may serve as a receptor for chemical interaction with the functional monomer and, subsequently, contribute to adhesive performance in addition to micro-mechanical hybridization. We therefore chemically characterized the adhesive interaction of 3 functional monomers with synthetic hydroxyapatite, using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. We further characterized their interaction with dentin ultra-morphologically, using transmission electron microscopy. The monomer 10-methacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) readily adhered to hydroxyapatite. This bond appeared very stable, as confirmed by the low dissolution rate of its calcium salt in water. The bonding potential of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic acid (4-MET) was substantially lower. The monomer 2-methacryloxyethyl phenyl hydrogen phosphate (phenyl-P) and its bond to hydroxyapatite did not appear to be hydrolytically stable. Besides self-etching dentin, specific functional monomers have additional chemical bonding efficacy that is expected to contribute to their adhesive potential to tooth tissue.

966 citations


"State of the art of self-etch adhes..." refers background in this paper

  • ...micro-mechanical interlocking is a prerequisite to achieve good bonding (certainly within clinical circumstances), the potential benefit of additional chemical interaction between functional monomers and tooth substrate components has recently regained attention [28,29]....

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  • ...In this sense, the chemical bonding promoted by 10-MDP is not only more effective, but also more stable in water than that provided by 4-MET and phenyl-P, in this order [29]....

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  • ...[29] Yoshida Y, Nagakane K, Fukuda R, Nakayama Y, Okazaki M, Shintani H, et al....

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  • ...On the other hand, it also underlines the great advanage of mild self-etch adhesives as they keep collagen not only ncapsulated and thus protected by HAp, but also provide the otential to chemically interact with HAp [27,29]....

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  • ...in 2004 using XPS (or X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy) [29]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
David H. Pashley1, Franklin R. Tay2, Cky Yiu2, Mamoru Hashimoto3  +3 moreInstitutions (6)
TL;DR: It is hypothesized that collagen degradation occurred over time, via host-derived matrix metalloproteinases that are released slowly over time through proteolytic enzyme inhibitors or mineral oil.
Abstract: Incompletely infiltrated collagen fibrils in acid-etched dentin are susceptible to degradation. We hypothesize that degradation can occur in the absence of bacteria. Partially demineralized collagen matrices (DCMs) prepared from human dentin were stored in artificial saliva. Control specimens were stored in artificial saliva containing proteolytic enzyme inhibitors, or pure mineral oil. We retrieved them at 24 hrs, 90 and 250 days to examine the extent of degradation of DCM. In the 24-hour experimental and 90- and 250-day control specimens, we observed 5- to 6-microm-thick layers of DCM containing banded collagen fibrils. DCMs were almost completely destroyed in the 250-day experimental specimens, but not when incubated with enzyme inhibitors or mineral oil. Functional enzyme analysis of dentin powder revealed low levels of collagenolytic activity that was inhibited by protease inhibitors or 0.2% chlorhexidine. We hypothesize that collagen degradation occurred over time, via host-derived matrix metalloproteinases that are released slowly over time.

898 citations


"State of the art of self-etch adhes..." refers background in this paper

  • ...[40] Pashley DH, Tay FR, Yiu C, Hashimoto M, Breschi L, Carvalho RM, et al....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Marleen Peumans1, P. Kanumilli1, J. De Munck1, K.L. Van Landuyt1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Sep 2005-Dental Materials
TL;DR: Comparison of retention of class-V adhesive restorations as a measure to determine clinical bonding effectiveness of adhesives revealed that glass‐ionomers most effectively and durably bond to tooth tissue.
Abstract: Summary Objectives. The purpose of this paper was to review current literature on the clinical effectiveness of contemporary adhesives when used to restore cervical non-carious class-V lesions. Restoration retention in function of time was recorded in order to find out if adhesives with a simplified application procedure are as clinically effective as conventional three-step adhesives. Data sources. Literature published from January 1998 up to May 2004 was reviewed for university-centred clinical trials that tested the clinical effectiveness of adhesives in non-carious class-V lesions. Restoration‐retention rates per adhesive reported in peerreviewed papers as well as IADR‐AADR abstracts and ConsEuro abstracts were included and depicted as a function of time in graphs for each of the five adhesive classes (threeand two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives, two- and one-step self-etch adhesives, and glass‐ionomers). The guidelines for dentin and enamel adhesive materials advanced by the American Dental Association were used as a reference. Per class, the annual failure rate (%) was calculated. Kruskal‐Wallis analysis and Dwass‐Steel‐Chritchlow‐Fligner pairwise comparisons were used to determine statistical differences between the annual failure percentages of the five adhesive categories. Results. Comparison of retention of class-V adhesive restorations as a measure to determine clinical bonding effectiveness of adhesives revealed that glass‐ionomers most effectively and durably bond to tooth tissue. Three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives and two-step self-etch adhesives showed a clinically reliable and predictably good clinical performance. The clinical effectiveness of two-step etchand-rinse adhesives was less favourable, while an inefficient clinical performance was noted for the one-step self-etch adhesives. Significance. Although there is a tendency towards adhesives with simplified application procedures, simplification so far appears to induce loss of effectiveness.

716 citations


"State of the art of self-etch adhes..." refers background in this paper

  • ...[1] Peumans M, Kanumilli P, De Munck J, Van Landuyt K, Lambrechts P, Van Meerbeek B....

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  • ...Glass-ionomers have indeed been ecorded with the lowest annual failure rate with regard to lass-V adhesive restorations [1,26]....

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  • ...Finally, inferior clinical performance of one-step adhesives confirmed the less favorable laboratory findings, while it must also be said that the latest generation of one-step adhesives definitely perform better [1,26]....

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