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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D0TA11336K

Strategically integrating quantum dots into organic and perovskite solar cells

02 Mar 2021-Journal of Materials Chemistry (The Royal Society of Chemistry)-Vol. 9, Iss: 8, pp 4505-4527
Abstract: Urgent requirements for high-efficiency and low-cost photovoltaic devices are constantly pushing forward the development of emerging solar cells. Currently, organic solar cells (OSCs) and perovskites solar cells (PSCs) are considered most likely commercialized solar cells in the short-term period. Enormous optimization strategies towards optimizing the device efficiency and stability have been developed. It is noteworthy that the well-known small-sized quantum dots (QDs) have been explored as the additional components in OSCs and PSCs, and have yielded rather modest amelioration of the device performance. Herein, we reviewed recent advances in strategically integrating all kinds of QDs (consisting of metal chalcogenide-based QDs, perovskite QDs, InP-based QDs, carbon QDs, graphene QDs, black phosphorus QDs, and other emerging two-dimensional QDs) and the associated relevant performance enhancement of OSCs and PSCs. In view of each type of QDs, we have mainly emphasized their involved device configuration, integration location, and physical mechanism. In addition, the fundamental structures, operation principles, and analogies/distinctions of OSCs and PSCs have been briefly outlined. Finally, existing challenges and future prospects based on QDs-integrated OSCs and PSCs have been listed.

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7 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/MARC.202000757
Jiuxing Wang1, Congcong Zhao2, Congcong Zhao1, Long Zhou3  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: With the significant progress of low bandgap non-fullerene acceptors, the development of wide bandgap (WBG) donors possessing ideal complementary absorption is of crucial importance to further enhance the photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells. An ideal strategy to design WBG donors is to down-shift the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and up-shift the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). A properly low-lying HOMO of the donor is favorable to obtaining a high open-circuit voltage, and a properly high-lying LUMO of the donor is conductive to efficient exciton dissociation. This work provides a new strategy to enlarge the bandgap of a polymer with simultaneously decreased HOMO and increased LUMO by increasing the polymer backbone curvature. The polymer PIDT-fDTBT with a large molecular backbone curvature shows a decreased HOMO of -5.38 eV and a prominently increased LUMO of -3.35 eV relative to the linear polymer PIDT-DTBT (EHOMO = -5.30 eV, ELUMO = -3.55 eV). The optical bandgap of PIDT-fDTBT is obviously broadened from 1.75 to 2.03 eV. This work demonstrates that increasing the polymer backbone curvature can effectively broaden the bandgap by simultaneously decreasing HOMO and increasing LUMO, which may guide the design of WBG conjugated materials.

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Topics: HOMO/LUMO (65%), Organic solar cell (51%), Band gap (50%)

3 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.DYEPIG.2021.109963
Xin Liang1, Xin Liang2, Jiuxing Wang1, Run Miao1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
23 Nov 2021-Dyes and Pigments
Abstract: Organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted lots of research attention and significant developments have been achieved in the last decade. Small molecular acceptors (SMAs) have played an important role. During the last five years, non-fullerene small molecular acceptors (NFSMAs) have replaced fullerene ones and become the research focus of OSCs, due to their excellent optoelectronic properties, such as wide and strong absorption, easily adjustable energy levels and stable morphology. This review highlights the recent advances of SMAs, especially NFSMAs including perylenediimide, naphthalenediimide, diketopyrrolopyrrole, indacenodothiophene, and Y6 series. The relationships among molecular structures, optical properties, energy levels, device processing methods and photovoltaic performance are systematically analyzed and summarized. Challenges, strategies and prospects are also discussed. This review may provide new guidances for designing high-performance SMAs.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CEJ.2021.132701
Bin Chen1, Shurong Wang1, Yuheng Song2, Chengbo Li1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: In recent years, researchers have made incredible strides in raising the power conversion efficiency (PCE) to a certified PCE record of 25.5% for metal hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, the degradation and instability of perovskite film has hindered its commercialization process. Achieving long life-span of PSCs remains to be a big challenge. As one of the notorious factors affecting the stability of PSCs, the moisture damage to the PSC devices cannot be neglected. Herein, the comprehensive effects of moisture on the halide perovskite films are discussed. First, we elucidate the peculiar structural properties of the hydrated perovskites and the corresponding degradation process. Then the carrier dynamics after water invasion are also elaborated including the free carrier density and mobility, decay kinetics and the absorption effect. We further recap the water-induced degradation through point defect processes in different hydrous compounds. On the basis of these analyses, recent measures taken to promote the moisture stability of perovskite thin films and solar cells are then summarized and discussed. Furthermore, the challenges and outlooks towards more stable PSCs are proposed. We believe this review will provide useful insights for future development of stable PSCs for commercial application.

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Topics: Perovskite (structure) (52%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SOLENER.2021.08.055
15 Sep 2021-Solar Energy
Abstract: The present work demonstrates, a new type of phenazine core-based hole transporting materials (HTMs) were synthesized and tested for improved power conversion efficiency via enhanced short-circuit density (Jsc) of 25.80 mA/cm2, which is much higher as compared with Spiro-OMeTAD benchmark material in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). All the synthesized new phenazine core-based HTMs were thoroughly characterized with various spectroscopic techniques. The strong electron-donating triphenylamine (D) and electron-accepting phenazine (A) units communicate through a pyrene system (π) with large intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character in these HTMs and hence no requirement of additional dopants or additives throughout the device fabrication process. The framework of the PSCs device, FTO\meso-TiO2\CH3NH3PbI3 ew-HTMs\Ag, was assembled through new HTMs such as DPPP, DPPPCl, DPPPF, DPPPM and DPPPOMe and Methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) as materials. PSCs with DPPPF and Spiro-OMeTAD HTMs, revealed power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.20% and 17.57% with an active area of 3.02 and 2.16 cm2 respectively. The stability of the devices was examined after 60 days, and found the PCE of 17.48% for DPPPF based device, whereas spiro-OMeTAD based device revealed PCE of 8.34%. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates DPPP series HTMs as possible replacements to the Spiro-OMeTAD, owing to their very simple synthesis process and dopant-free conditions, and their better device performance.

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158 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NCHEM.1589
Manishkumar Chhowalla1, Hyeon Suk Shin2, Goki Eda3, Lain-Jong Li4  +2 moreInstitutions (5)
01 Apr 2013-Nature Chemistry
Abstract: Ultrathin two-dimensional nanosheets of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are fundamentally and technologically intriguing. In contrast to the graphene sheet, they are chemically versatile. Mono- or few-layered TMDs - obtained either through exfoliation of bulk materials or bottom-up syntheses - are direct-gap semiconductors whose bandgap energy, as well as carrier type (n- or p-type), varies between compounds depending on their composition, structure and dimensionality. In this Review, we describe how the tunable electronic structure of TMDs makes them attractive for a variety of applications. They have been investigated as chemically active electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution and hydrosulfurization, as well as electrically active materials in opto-electronics. Their morphologies and properties are also useful for energy storage applications such as electrodes for Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors.

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6,713 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.AAN2301
30 Jun 2017-Science
Abstract: The formation of a dense and uniform thin layer on the substrates is crucial for the fabrication of high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs) containing formamidinium with multiple cations and mixed halide anions. The concentration of defect states, which reduce a cell’s performance by decreasing the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density, needs to be as low as possible. We show that the introduction of additional iodide ions into the organic cation solution, which are used to form the perovskite layers through an intramolecular exchanging process, decreases the concentration of deep-level defects. The defect-engineered thin perovskite layers enable the fabrication of PSCs with a certified power conversion efficiency of 22.1% in small cells and 19.7% in 1-square-centimeter cells.

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Topics: Perovskite solar cell (67%), Formamidinium (65%), Perovskite (structure) (60%) ... read more

3,968 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/PIP.1078
Abstract: In this contribution, we present a new certified world record efficiency of 20.1 and 20.3% for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells. We analyse the characteristics of solar cells on such a performance level and demonstrate a high degree of reproducibility. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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1,883 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.AAD1818
Himchan Cho1, Su Hun Jeong1, Min-Ho Park1, Young-Hoon Kim1  +9 moreInstitutions (5)
04 Dec 2015-Science
Abstract: Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are emerging low-cost emitters with very high color purity, but their low luminescent efficiency is a critical drawback. We boosted the current efficiency (CE) of perovskite light-emitting diodes with a simple bilayer structure to 42.9 candela per ampere, similar to the CE of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes, with two modifications: We prevented the formation of metallic lead (Pb) atoms that cause strong exciton quenching through a small increase in methylammonium bromide (MABr) molar proportion, and we spatially confined the exciton in uniform MAPbBr3 nanograins (average diameter = 99.7 nanometers) formed by a nanocrystal pinning process and concomitant reduction of exciton diffusion length to 67 nanometers. These changes caused substantial increases in steady-state photoluminescence intensity and efficiency of MAPbBr3 nanograin layers.

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Topics: Perovskite (structure) (53%), Photoluminescence (53%), Exciton (52%) ... read more

1,834 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/SMLL.200800841
Peter Reiss1, Myriam Protière1, Liang Li1Institutions (1)
19 Jan 2009-Small
Abstract: Colloidal core/shell nanocrystals contain at least two semiconductor materials in an onionlike structure. The possibility to tune the basic optical properties of the core nanocrystals, for example, their fluorescence wavelength, quantum yield, and lifetime, by growing an epitaxial-type shell of another semiconductor has fueled significant progress on the chemical synthesis of these systems. In such core/shell nanocrystals, the shell provides a physical barrier between the optically active core and the surrounding medium, thus making the nanocrystals less sensitive to environmental changes, surface chemistry, and photo-oxidation. The shell further provides an efficient passivation of the surface trap states, giving rise to a strongly enhanced fluorescence quantum yield. This effect is a fundamental prerequisite for the use of nanocrystals in applications such as biological labeling and light-emitting devices, which rely on their emission properties. Focusing on recent advances, this Review discusses the fundamental properties and synthesis methods of core/shell and core/multiple shell structures of II-VI, IV-VI, and III-V semiconductors.

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Topics: Quantum dot (54%), Shell (structure) (51%)

1,627 Citations

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