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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D0TA11564A

Strategies of modifying spiro-OMeTAD materials for perovskite solar cells: a review

02 Mar 2021-Journal of Materials Chemistry (The Royal Society of Chemistry)-Vol. 9, Iss: 8, pp 4589-4625
Abstract: Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have made unprecedented progress in the past ten years, the power conversion efficiency of which increased from 3.8% in 2009 to 25.5% in 2020. The choice of hole transport layers (HTLs) is a key factor for achieving efficient and stable PSCs. Recently, 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) has been proven to be the most suitable small molecule HTL material in n–i–p PSCs. However, the conductivity and hole mobility of spiro-OMeTAD are dependent on the dopants. Bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide lithium salt (LiTFSI) and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) have become the standard HTL dopants to improve the charge transport properties of n–i–p PSCs. Both of these two dopants are effective but have a negative impact on the device stability (induced by ion migration, hygroscopicity, and corrosiveness). In response, lots of efforts have been devoted to the development of alternative and new dopants. In this review, the influence of different doping strategies and corresponding doping mechanisms on device performance and stability was mainly discussed. The stability issues of doped spiro-OMeTAD based PSCs were also described. Finally, we proposed some possible future research goals for dopants based on these existing results to obtain long-lasting and high-efficiency PSCs.

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15 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/5.0051254
Jiang-Yang Shao1, Yu-Wu Zhong1Institutions (1)
07 Jun 2021-
Abstract: Perovskite solar cells represent one of the most exciting developments in photovoltaics in the past decade, with the power conversion efficiencies of over 25% being achieved to date. In high-performance perovskite solar cells, hole-transporting materials are generally employed to extract and transport holes from perovskite. Among them, small molecular hole transporting materials have attracted intense interest due to their tunable energy levels, structural variety, and simple synthesis. The commonly used hole-transporting material is 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl amino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD). Considering the high synthetic cost of spiro-OMeTAD and the device stability issue associated with the use of dopants, much research has been focused on the development of alternative high-performance hole-transporting materials. Herein, this review summarizes the recent developments in highly efficient small molecular hole-transporting materials with a power conversion efficiency close to or over 20%. On the basis of their structural features, three categories of small molecules are identified and discussed as highly efficient hole-transporting materials: spiro molecules with new terminal groups or a new spiro skeleton, star-shaped small molecular hole-transporting materials with three or four branches, and linear hole-transporting materials with a D-A, D-π-D, D-A-D, or D-A-π-A-D structure. The relationships of the optoelectronic properties of these hole-transporting materials and the device performance are discussed, with a comparison to those of model compounds in some cases. Finally, an outlook is addressed on the future development of hole-transporting materials for high-performance perovskite solar cells. We hope that this review can provide important guidance for the design and synthesis of new hole-transporting materials and finally help to promote the commercialization of perovskite solar cells.

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Topics: Photovoltaics (56%), Perovskite (structure) (53%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PHYSB.2021.413187
Intekhab Alam1, Rahat Mollick1, Ali Ashraf1Institutions (1)
Abstract: We carried out simulative investigations on a non-toxic, lead-free perovskite solar cell (PSC), where Cs2AgBiBr6, P3HT, ZnO nanorod, and C were utilized as the absorber layer, hole transport layer, electron transport layer, and back contact, respectively. At 600 nm optimum absorber thickness, the device achieved a maximum power conversion efficiency of 4.48%. The PSC operated optimally when the electron affinities were set at 3.3 eV and 4.6 eV for P3HT and ZnO nanorod, respectively. Moreover, the hole mobility and acceptor concentration of P3HT should be weighed during the choosing of appropriate doping additives and doping levels. Besides, the optimum back contact work function and absorber defect density were found to be 5.2 eV and 1015 cm−3, respectively. We also observed the effect of radiative recombination rates and different charge transport layers on the device's performance. Overall, this study's simulation results will provide insightful guidance towards fabricating an environmentally benign PSC.

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Topics: Perovskite solar cell (57%), Nanorod (56%), Electron mobility (54%) ... show more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/SOLR.202100514
Francesco Lamberti1, Fabian Schmitz2, Wei Chen3, Zhubing He3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
10 Aug 2021-

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1TC02441H
Abstract: Development of photon conversion nanomaterials could principally leverage unutilized portions of the solar spectrum to address the increasing demand for renewable energy. However, improving photovoltaic performance using lanthanide-doped, spectral-converting nanomaterials remains a challenge. For photon upconversion, the most significant issues lie in their low quantum efficiencies and the need for high-power laser excitation. Despite these constraints, lanthanide-doped upconversion nanomaterials hold great promise to enhance the light-harvesting capacity and the conversion efficiency of existing solar cell modules. In this review, we highlight recent advances in developing high-efficiency upconversion nanoparticles for photovoltaic application. Special attention will be paid to fundamental energy transfer mechanisms, the survey of strategies for nanoparticle synthesis and surface modification, and various schemes of nanoparticle integration into photovoltaic devices. We also discuss future research directions and practical challenges in coupling upconversion nanomaterials with existing photovoltaic technologies.

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Topics: Photon upconversion (58%), Photovoltaics (54%), Solar cell (51%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12613-021-2316-0
Abstract: An excellent organolead halide perovskite film is important for the good performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, defects in perovskite crystals can affect the photovoltaic properties and stability of solar cells. To solve this problem, this study incorporated a complex of CdS and Cd(SCN 2 H 4 ) 2 Cl 2 into the CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 active layer. The effects of different doping concentrations of CdS and Cd(SCN 2 H 4 ) 2 Cl 2 on the performance and stability of PSCs were analyzed. Results showed that doping appropriate incorporation concentrations of CdS and Cd(SCN 2 H 4 ) 2 Cl 2 in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 can improve the performance of the prepared solar cells. In specific, CdS and Cd(SCN 2 H 4 ) 2 Cl 2 can effectively passivate the defects in perovskite crystals, thereby suppressing the charge recombination in PSCs and promoting the charge extraction at the TiO 2 /perovskite interface. Due to the reduction of perovskite crystal defects and the enhancement of compactness of the CdS:Cd(SCN 2 H 4 ) 2 Cl 2 :CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 composite film, the stability of PSCs is significantly improved.

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Topics: Perovskite (structure) (65%)

1 Citations


References
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198 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/JA809598R
Abstract: Two organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals, CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3, were found to efficiently sensitize TiO2 for visible-light conversion in photoelectrochemical cells. When self-assembled on mesoporous TiO2 films, the nanocrystalline perovskites exhibit strong band-gap absorptions as semiconductors. The CH3NH3PbI3-based photocell with spectral sensitivity of up to 800 nm yielded a solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.8%. The CH3NH3PbBr3-based cell showed a high photovoltage of 0.96 V with an external quantum conversion efficiency of 65%.

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Topics: Perovskite solar cell (58%), Methylammonium halide (57%), Energy conversion efficiency (55%) ... show more

13,033 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1228604
02 Nov 2012-Science
Abstract: The energy costs associated with separating tightly bound excitons (photoinduced electron-hole pairs) and extracting free charges from highly disordered low-mobility networks represent fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic technologies. We report a low-cost, solution-processable solar cell, based on a highly crystalline perovskite absorber with intense visible to near-infrared absorptivity, that has a power conversion efficiency of 10.9% in a single-junction device under simulated full sunlight. This "meso-superstructured solar cell" exhibits exceptionally few fundamental energy losses; it can generate open-circuit photovoltages of more than 1.1 volts, despite the relatively narrow absorber band gap of 1.55 electron volts. The functionality arises from the use of mesoporous alumina as an inert scaffold that structures the absorber and forces electrons to reside in and be transported through the perovskite.

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Topics: Perovskite solar cell (61%), Hybrid solar cell (58%), Solar cell (58%) ... show more

7,996 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/B807080F
JeongYong Lee1, Omar K. Farha1, John M. Roberts1, Karl A. Scheidt1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A critical review of the emerging field of MOF-based catalysis is presented. Discussed are examples of: (a) opportunistic catalysis with metal nodes, (b) designed catalysis with framework nodes, (c) catalysis by homogeneous catalysts incorporated as framework struts, (d) catalysis by MOF-encapsulated molecular species, (e) catalysis by metal-free organic struts or cavity modifiers, and (f) catalysis by MOF-encapsulated clusters (66 references).

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Topics: Metal-organic framework (54%), Catalysis (52%)

6,356 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE12509
19 Sep 2013-Nature
Abstract: Many different photovoltaic technologies are being developed for large-scale solar energy conversion. The wafer-based first-generation photovoltaic devices have been followed by thin-film solid semiconductor absorber layers sandwiched between two charge-selective contacts and nanostructured (or mesostructured) solar cells that rely on a distributed heterojunction to generate charge and to transport positive and negative charges in spatially separated phases. Although many materials have been used in nanostructured devices, the goal of attaining high-efficiency thin-film solar cells in such a way has yet to be achieved. Organometal halide perovskites have recently emerged as a promising material for high-efficiency nanostructured devices. Here we show that nanostructuring is not necessary to achieve high efficiencies with this material: a simple planar heterojunction solar cell incorporating vapour-deposited perovskite as the absorbing layer can have solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiencies of over 15 per cent (as measured under simulated full sunlight). This demonstrates that perovskite absorbers can function at the highest efficiencies in simplified device architectures, without the need for complex nanostructures.

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Topics: Perovskite solar cell (66%), Hybrid solar cell (64%), Solar cell (62%) ... show more

6,336 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/SREP00591
Hui-Seon Kim1, Chang-Ryul Lee1, Jeong-Hyeok Im1, Ki Beom Lee1  +8 moreInstitutions (2)
21 Aug 2012-Scientific Reports
Abstract: We report on solid-state mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells employing nanoparticles (NPs) of methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3)PbI3 as light harvesters. The perovskite NPs were produced by reaction of methylammonium iodide with PbI2 and deposited onto a submicron-thick mesoscopic TiO2 film, whose pores were infiltrated with the hole-conductor spiro-MeOTAD. Illumination with standard AM-1.5 sunlight generated large photocurrents (JSC) exceeding 17 mA/cm2, an open circuit photovoltage (VOC) of 0.888 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.62 yielding a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.7%, the highest reported to date for such cells. Femto second laser studies combined with photo-induced absorption measurements showed charge separation to proceed via hole injection from the excited (CH3NH3)PbI3 NPs into the spiro-MeOTAD followed by electron transfer to the mesoscopic TiO2 film. The use of a solid hole conductor dramatically improved the device stability compared to (CH3NH3)PbI3 -sensitized liquid junction cells.

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Topics: Perovskite solar cell (60%), Methylammonium halide (57%), Methylammonium lead halide (57%) ... show more

5,830 Citations