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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MOLCEL.2021.01.016

Stress-induced nuclear condensation of NELF drives transcriptional downregulation.

04 Mar 2021-Molecular Cell (Elsevier)-Vol. 81, Iss: 5, pp 1013-1026
Abstract: In response to stress, human cells coordinately downregulate transcription and translation of housekeeping genes. To downregulate transcription, the negative elongation factor (NELF) is recruited to gene promoters impairing RNA polymerase II elongation. Here we report that NELF rapidly forms nuclear condensates upon stress in human cells. Condensate formation requires NELF dephosphorylation and SUMOylation induced by stress. The intrinsically disordered region (IDR) in NELFA is necessary for nuclear NELF condensation and can be functionally replaced by the IDR of FUS or EWSR1 protein. We find that biomolecular condensation facilitates enhanced recruitment of NELF to promoters upon stress to drive transcriptional downregulation. Importantly, NELF condensation is required for cellular viability under stressful conditions. We propose that stress-induced NELF condensates reported here are nuclear counterparts of cytosolic stress granules. These two stress-inducible condensates may drive the coordinated downregulation of transcription and translation, likely forming a critical node of the stress survival strategy.

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Topics: Negative elongation factor (64%), Stress granule (55%), SUMO protein (51%) ... read more

11 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JMB.2021.166897
Roberta Dollinger1, David S. Gilmour1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Regulation of transcription is a tightly choreographed process. The establishment of RNA polymerase II promoter proximal pausing soon after transcription initiation and the release of Pol II into productive elongation are key regulatory processes that occur in early elongation. We describe the techniques and tools that have become available for the study of promoter proximal pausing and their utility for future experiments. We then provide an overview of the factors and interactions that govern a multipartite pausing process and address emerging questions surrounding the mechanism of RNA polymerase II's subsequent advancement into the gene body. Finally, we address remaining controversies and future areas of study.

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Topics: Transcription factor II D (62%), RNA polymerase II (59%), P-TEFb (59%) ... read more

5 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMOLB.2021.673038
Abstract: Spatial organization of cellular processes in membranous or membrane-less organelles (MLOs, alias molecular condensates) is a key concept for compartmentalizing biochemical pathways. Prime examples of MLOs are the nucleolus, PML nuclear bodies, nuclear splicing speckles or cytosolic stress granules. They all represent distinct sub-cellular structures typically enriched in intrinsically disordered proteins and/or RNA and are formed in a process driven by liquid-liquid phase separation. Several MLOs are critically involved in proteostasis and their formation, disassembly and composition are highly sensitive to proteotoxic insults. Changes in the dynamics of MLOs are a major driver of cell dysfunction and disease. There is growing evidence that post-translational modifications are critically involved in controlling the dynamics and composition of MLOs and recent evidence supports an important role of the ubiquitin-like SUMO system in regulating both the assembly and disassembly of these structures. Here we will review our current understanding of SUMO function in MLO dynamics under both normal and pathological conditions.

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Topics: Stress granule (50%)

3 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SBI.2021.06.011
Sagie Brodsky1, Tamar Jana1, Naama Barkai1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Transcription factors (TFs) must bind at specific genomic locations to accurately regulate gene expression. The ability of TFs to recognize specific DNA sequence motifs arises from the inherent preferences of their globular DNA-binding domains (DBDs). Yet, these preferences are insufficient to explain the in vivo TF binding site selection. TFs are enriched with intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), most of which are poorly characterized. While not generally considered as determinants of TF binding specificity, IDRs guide protein-protein interactions within transcriptional condensates, and multiple examples exist in which short IDRs flanking the DBD contribute to binding specificity via direct contact with the DNA. We recently reported that long IDRs, present away from the DBD, act as major specificity determinants at the genomic scale. Here, we discuss mechanisms through which IDRs contribute to DNA binding specificity, highlighting the role of long IDRs in dictating the in vivo binding site selection.

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Topics: Binding site (50%)

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41392-021-00678-1
Bin Wang1, Bin Wang2, Zhang Lei2, Tong Dai3  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Emerging evidence suggests that liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) represents a vital and ubiquitous phenomenon underlying the formation of membraneless organelles in eukaryotic cells (also known as biomolecular condensates or droplets). Recent studies have revealed evidences that indicate that LLPS plays a vital role in human health and diseases. In this review, we describe our current understanding of LLPS and summarize its physiological functions. We further describe the role of LLPS in the development of human diseases. Additionally, we review the recently developed methods for studying LLPS. Although LLPS research is in its infancy-but is fast-growing-it is clear that LLPS plays an essential role in the development of pathophysiological conditions. This highlights the need for an overview of the recent advances in the field to translate our current knowledge regarding LLPS into therapeutic discoveries.

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1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMOLB.2021.681550
Niko Linzer1, Alexis Trumbull1, Rukiye Nar1, Matthew D. Gibbons1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is regulated by different processes, including alterations in chromatin structure, interactions between distal regulatory elements and promoters, formation of transcription domains enriched for Pol II and co-regulators, and mechanisms involved in the initiation, elongation, and termination steps of transcription. Transcription factor TFII-I, originally identified as an initiator (INR)-binding protein, contains multiple protein-protein interaction domains and plays diverse roles in the regulation of transcription. Genome-wide analysis revealed that TFII-I associates with expressed as well as repressed genes. Consistently, TFII-I interacts with co-regulators that either positively or negatively regulate the transcription. Furthermore, TFII-I has been shown to regulate transcription pausing by interacting with proteins that promote or inhibit the elongation step of transcription. Changes in TFII-I expression in humans are associated with neurological and immunological diseases as well as cancer. Furthermore, TFII-I is essential for the development of mice and represents a barrier for the induction of pluripotency. Here, we review the known functions of TFII-I related to the regulation of Pol II transcription at the stages of initiation and elongation.

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Topics: RNA polymerase II (71%), Promoter (67%), Transcription factor (66%) ... read more


86 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13059-014-0550-8
05 Dec 2014-Genome Biology
Abstract: In comparative high-throughput sequencing assays, a fundamental task is the analysis of count data, such as read counts per gene in RNA-seq, for evidence of systematic changes across experimental conditions. Small replicate numbers, discreteness, large dynamic range and the presence of outliers require a suitable statistical approach. We present DESeq2, a method for differential analysis of count data, using shrinkage estimation for dispersions and fold changes to improve stability and interpretability of estimates. This enables a more quantitative analysis focused on the strength rather than the mere presence of differential expression. The DESeq2 package is available at .

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Topics: MRNA Sequencing (54%), Integrator complex (51%), Count data (50%) ... read more

29,675 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMETH.1923
01 Apr 2012-Nature Methods
Abstract: As the rate of sequencing increases, greater throughput is demanded from read aligners. The full-text minute index is often used to make alignment very fast and memory-efficient, but the approach is ill-suited to finding longer, gapped alignments. Bowtie 2 combines the strengths of the full-text minute index with the flexibility and speed of hardware-accelerated dynamic programming algorithms to achieve a combination of high speed, sensitivity and accuracy.

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27,973 Citations

Open accessBook
13 Aug 2009-
Abstract: This book describes ggplot2, a new data visualization package for R that uses the insights from Leland Wilkisons Grammar of Graphics to create a powerful and flexible system for creating data graphics. With ggplot2, its easy to: produce handsome, publication-quality plots, with automatic legends created from the plot specification superpose multiple layers (points, lines, maps, tiles, box plots to name a few) from different data sources, with automatically adjusted common scales add customisable smoothers that use the powerful modelling capabilities of R, such as loess, linear models, generalised additive models and robust regression save any ggplot2 plot (or part thereof) for later modification or reuse create custom themes that capture in-house or journal style requirements, and that can easily be applied to multiple plots approach your graph from a visual perspective, thinking about how each component of the data is represented on the final plot. This book will be useful to everyone who has struggled with displaying their data in an informative and attractive way. You will need some basic knowledge of R (i.e. you should be able to get your data into R), but ggplot2 is a mini-language specifically tailored for producing graphics, and youll learn everything you need in the book. After reading this book youll be able to produce graphics customized precisely for your problems,and youll find it easy to get graphics out of your head and on to the screen or page.

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Topics: Data visualization (58%), Graphics (56%)

23,839 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTQ033
Aaron R. Quinlan1, Ira M. Hall1Institutions (1)
15 Mar 2010-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Motivation: Testing for correlations between different sets of genomic features is a fundamental task in genomics research. However, searching for overlaps between features with existing webbased methods is complicated by the massive datasets that are routinely produced with current sequencing technologies. Fast and flexible tools are therefore required to ask complex questions of these data in an efficient manner. Results: This article introduces a new software suite for the comparison, manipulation and annotation of genomic features in Browser Extensible Data (BED) and General Feature Format (GFF) format. BEDTools also supports the comparison of sequence alignments in BAM format to both BED and GFF features. The tools are extremely efficient and allow the user to compare large datasets (e.g. next-generation sequencing data) with both public and custom genome annotation tracks. BEDTools can be combined with one another as well as with standard UNIX commands, thus facilitating routine genomics tasks as well as pipelines that can quickly answer intricate questions of large genomic datasets. Availability and implementation: BEDTools was written in C++. Source code and a comprehensive user manual are freely available at

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Topics: Software suite (52%), Source code (50%)

14,088 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NBT.1511
Jiirgen Cox1, Matthias Mann1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Efficient analysis of very large amounts of raw data for peptide identification and protein quantification is a principal challenge in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. Here we describe MaxQuant, an integrated suite of algorithms specifically developed for high-resolution, quantitative MS data. Using correlation analysis and graph theory, MaxQuant detects peaks, isotope clusters and stable amino acid isotope-labeled (SILAC) peptide pairs as three-dimensional objects in m/z, elution time and signal intensity space. By integrating multiple mass measurements and correcting for linear and nonlinear mass offsets, we achieve mass accuracy in the p.p.b. range, a sixfold increase over standard techniques. We increase the proportion of identified fragmentation spectra to 73% for SILAC peptide pairs via unambiguous assignment of isotope and missed-cleavage state and individual mass precision. MaxQuant automatically quantifies several hundred thousand peptides per SILAC-proteome experiment and allows statistically robust identification and quantification of >4,000 proteins in mammalian cell lysates.

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10,058 Citations

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