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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10615806.2020.1824271

Stress overload in the spread of coronavirus.

04 Mar 2021-Anxiety Stress and Coping (Anxiety Stress Coping)-Vol. 34, Iss: 2, pp 121-129
Abstract: Background and Objectives: The incidence of novel coronavirus infection across the globe has been uneven, hitting some population subgroups harder than others. Media coverage has proffered explanations for this differential vulnerability, but psychosocial risk factors have been largely ignored. In contrast, multiple theories, medical and psychological, point to one psychosocial factor - stress - as important to the etiology of disease. They also agree that pathogenic stress arises from the particular circumstance in which adaptational demands overwhelm a person's resources, creating "stress overload" that deregulates normal functioning and increases susceptibility to illness. Assessment of stress overload is proposed as essential to understanding viral spread in the current pandemic.Methods: Studies are reviewed explicating (1) stress overload theories and relevant empirical evidence, (2) construction of a stress overload measure and related validity evidence.Results: Findings support the role of stress overload in illness and the accuracy of the measure in predicting illness.Conclusion: It is concluded that assessment of stress overload may help to explain the observed coronavirus disparities, and to identify populations at risk for imminent infection. The 10-item Stress Overload Scale-Short is offered as a potentially useful tool for researchers and clinicians working to map, and stem, the proliferation of coronavirus.

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Topics: Population (51%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SLEH.2021.02.006
Mary Jo Coiro1, Kfir Asraf2, Orna Tzischinsky2, Dorit Hadar-Shoval2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
07 Mar 2021-Sleep Health
Abstract: Objectives The COVID-19 virus has resulted not only in high rates of morbidity and mortality across the globe, but in widespread mental health problems and sleep disruption, likely as a result of pandemic-related stressors. The current study examines associations among COVID-related stress, sleep quality, and mental health. Design Cross-sectional data were collected via online surveys in May 2020. Participants were 2541 community adults ages 18-70 from Israel (N = 1969) and the U.S. (N = 572). Measurement Participants completed measures of COVID-related stress, sleep quality, and symptoms of anxiety, depression and adjustment disorder. Results Participants reported high rates of depression and anxiety symptoms, adjustment difficulties, and poor sleep quality. In both countries, COVID-related stressors were associated with both anxiety and depression, and these associations were mediated by sleep disturbances. Conclusions These results support the role of sleep in mental health difficulties. Widespread, accessible, evidence-based interventions are urgently needed to improve health and mental health and to promote resilience in preparation for future global crises.

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Topics: Mental health (59%), Anxiety (57%), Psychological intervention (57%) ... show more

10 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12144-021-02444-6
Mary Jo Coiro1, Kelly H. Watson2, Abby Ciriegio2, Maile Jones2  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
04 Nov 2021-Current Psychology
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented levels of stress to individuals in the U.S. and throughout the world. These high stress levels place individuals at risk for symptoms of anxiety, depression, and other psychiatric disorders. The current study applies a control-based model of coping to contribute to the development of evidence-based interventions to promote resilience. Data were collected online from April 22 through July 12, 2020. Data from two samples of U. S. community adults who completed an online battery of standardized questionnaires were combined (N = 709). More than a quarter reported moderate to severe levels of depression symptoms, and more than one-fifth reported moderate to severe levels of anxiety symptoms; symptom levels were higher among adults who reported more COVID-19-related stress. As hypothesized, multiple regression analyses indicated that greater use of primary and secondary control coping was associated with lower symptom levels, whereas greater use of disengagement coping was associated with higher symptom levels, above and beyond the association of stress with symptoms. Race and ethnicity emerged as important moderators of these associations, indicating that what constitutes adaptive coping varies according to characteristics of the individual. Implications for public health policy and clinical practice are discussed.

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Topics: Coping (psychology) (59%), Anxiety (57%), Mental health (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEUBIOREV.2021.09.045
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic confronts stress researchers in psychology and neuroscience with unique challenges. Widely used experimental paradigms such as the Trier Social Stress Test feature physical social encounters to induce stress by means of social-evaluative threat. As lockdowns and contact restrictions currently prevent in-person meetings, established stress induction paradigms are often difficult to use. Despite these challenges, stress research is of pivotal importance as the pandemic will likely increase the prevalence of stress-related mental disorders. Therefore, we review recent research trends like virtual reality, pre-recordings and online adaptations regarding their usefulness for established stress induction paradigms. Such approaches are not only crucial for stress research during COVID-19 but will likely stimulate the field far beyond the pandemic. They may facilitate research in new contexts and in homebound or movement-restricted participant groups. Moreover, they allow for new experimental variations that may advance procedures as well as the conceptualization of stress itself. While posing challenges for stress researchers undeniably, the COVID-19 pandemic may evolve into a driving force for progress eventually.

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Topics: Trier social stress test (50%)

Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.10.15.21265063
18 Oct 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: Background Understanding the spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease in people with HIV (PWH) is critical to provide clinical guidance and implement risk-reduction strategies. Objective To characterize COVID-19 in PWH in the United States and identify predictors of disease severity. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Geographically diverse clinical sites in the CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS). Participants Adults receiving HIV care through December 31, 2020. Measurements COVID-19 cases and severity (hospitalization, intensive care, death). Results Of 16,056 PWH in care, 649 were diagnosed with COVID-19 between March-December 2020. Case fatality was 2%; 106 (16.3%) were hospitalized and 12 died. PWH with current CD4 count <350 cells/mm 3 (aRR 2.68; 95%CI 1.93-3.71; P<.001) or lowest recorded CD4 count <200 (aRR 1.67; 95%CI 1.18-2.36; P<.005) had greater risk of hospitalization. HIV viral load suppression and antiretroviral therapy (ART) status were not associated with hospitalization, although the majority of PWH were suppressed (86%). Black PWH were 51% more likely to be hospitalized with COVID-19 compared to other racial/ethnic groups (aRR 1.51; 95%CI 1.04-2.19, P=.03). Chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and increased cardiovascular and hepatic fibrosis risk scores were associated with higher risk of hospitalization. PWH who were older, not on ART, with current CD4 <350, diabetes, and CKD were overrepresented amongst PWH who required intubation or died. Limitations Unable to compare directly to persons without HIV; underestimate of total COVID-19 cases. Conclusions PWH with CD4 <350 cells/mm 3 , low CD4/CD8 ratio, and history of CD4 <200, have a clear excess risk of severe COVID-19, after accounting for comorbidities also associated with severe outcomes. PWH with these risk factors should be prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination, early treatment, and monitored closely for worsening illness.

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Topics: Intensive care (53%), Cohort study (52%), Case fatality rate (51%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPUBH.2021.704577
Abstract: Objectives: To compare COVID-19-induced stress and coping in families with and without children diagnosed with developmental disorders or chronic conditions. Methods: In this mixed-method design study, an online survey collected information on parental stress levels before and during COVID-19, sources of stress, and coping strategies using open-ended questions. Qualitative answers were categorized thematically. Multiple linear regression models were built for the association between changes in stress levels (during-before COVID-19) and sources of stress for parents of children of both groups. Results: Answers of 1,827 parents were analyzed; of these, 186 (9.75%) had children with diagnosed problems. Changes in stress levels during vs. before COVID-19 were associated with the age of the parent, changes in working conditions, a total number of stressors, and distance learning of children. Stronger associations were found for parents of children with diagnoses. For example, for distance learning, the standardized beta (β) was 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.37; 1.00) for parents of children without problems and β = 0.73 (0.43; 1.03) for those with problematic children. Conclusions: Parents of children with developmental disorders need specific attention in a pandemic.

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Topics: Coping (psychology) (56%), Stressor (50%)
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31 results found


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1974-
Abstract: Here is a monumental work that continues in the tradition pioneered by co-author Richard Lazarus in his classic book Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. Dr. Lazarus and his collaborator, Dr. Susan Folkman, present here a detailed theory of psychological stress, building on the concepts of cognitive appraisal and coping which have become major themes of theory and investigation. As an integrative theoretical analysis, this volume pulls together two decades of research and thought on issues in behavioral medicine, emotion, stress management, treatment, and life span development. A selective review of the most pertinent literature is included in each chapter. The total reference listing for the book extends to 60 pages. This work is necessarily multidisciplinary, reflecting the many dimensions of stress-related problems and their situation within a complex social context. While the emphasis is on psychological aspects of stress, the book is oriented towards professionals in various disciplines, as well as advanced students and educated laypersons. The intended audience ranges from psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, nurses, and social workers to sociologists, anthropologists, medical researchers, and physiologists.

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Topics: Stress management (58%), Appraisal theory (56%), Coping (psychology) (56%) ... show more

35,437 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/2136404
Abstract: This paper presents evidence from three samples, two of college students and one of participants in a community smoking-cessation program, for the reliability and validity of a 14-item instrument, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), designed to measure the degree to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. The PSS showed adequate reliability and, as predicted, was correlated with life-event scores, depressive and physical symptomatology, utilization of health services, social anxiety, and smoking-reduction maintenance. In all comparisons, the PSS was a better predictor of the outcome in question than were life-event scores. When compared to a depressive symptomatology scale, the PSS was found to measure a different and independently predictive construct. Additional data indicate adequate reliability and validity of a four-item version of the PSS for telephone interviews. The PSS is suggested for examining the role of nonspecific appraised stress in the etiology of disease and behavioral disorders and as an outcome measure of experienced levels of stress.

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Topics: Perceived Stress Scale (62%), Test validity (55%), Stress in medical students (52%) ... show more

19,179 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0022-3999(67)90010-4
Thomas H. Holmes1, Richard H. RaheInstitutions (1)
Abstract: IN PREVIOUS studies [l] it has been established that a cluster of social events requiring change in ongoing life adjustment is significantly associated with the time of illness onset. Similarly, the relationship of what has been called ‘life stress,’ ‘emotional stress,’ ‘object loss,’ etc. and illness onset has been demonstrated by other investigations [2-131. It has been adduced from these studies that this clustering of social or life events achieves etiologic significance as a necessary but not sufficient cause of illness and accounts in part for the time of onset of disease. Methodologically, the interview or questionnaire technique used in these studies has yielded only the number and types of events making up the cluster. Some estimate of the magnitude of these events is now required to bring greater precision to this area of research and to provide a quantitative basis for new epidemiological studies of diseases. This report defines a method which achieves this requisite. METHOD

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10,181 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037//0003-066X.44.3.513
Stevan E. Hobfoll1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Major perspectives concerning stress are presented with the goal of clarifying the nature of what has proved to be a heuristic but vague construct. Current conceptualizations of stress are challenged as being too phenomenological and ambiguous, and consequently, not given to direct empirical testing. Indeed, it is argued that researchers have tended to avoid the problem of defining stress, choosing to study stress without reference to a clear framework. A new stress model called the model of conservation of resources is presented as an alternative. This resource-oriented model is based on the supposition that people strive to retain, project, and build resources and that what is threatening to them is the potential or actual loss of these valued resources. Implications of the model of conservation of resources for new research directions are discussed.

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8,316 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1956-
Abstract: The discovery of stress the dissection of stress the disease of adaptation sketch for a unified theory implications and applications.

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5,533 Citations


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20215