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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Structural analysis of micro-channels in human temporal bone

16 Apr 2015-pp 9-12

TL;DR: A structural analysis of the microchannels of the human temporal bone is proposed to corroborate their role as a new separate blood supply for the mucosa of the mastoid air cells and provide new and relevant information about the micro-channels but also their connections to mastoids air cells.

AbstractRecently, numerous micro-channels have been discovered in the human temporal bone by micro-CT-scanning. Preliminary structure of these channels has suggested they contain a new separate blood supply for the mucosa of the mastoid air cells, which may have important functional implications. This paper proposes a structural analysis of the microchannels to corroborate this role. A local structure tensor is first estimated. The eigenvalues obtained from the estimated local structure tensor were then used to build probability maps representing planar, tubular, and isotropic tensor types. Each tensor type was assigned a respective RGB color and the full structure tensor was rendered along with the original data. Such structural analysis provides new and relevant information about the micro-channels but also their connections to mastoid air cells. Before carrying a future statistical analysis, a more accurate representation of the micro-channels in terms of local structure tensor analysis using adaptive filtering is needed.

Topics: Structure tensor (61%), Tensor (61%)

Summary (2 min read)

1. INTRODUCTION

  • A recent study using micro-CT scans of human temporal bone specimens has revealed the existence of multiple microchannels carved in the bone surrounding the mastoid air cell system [1].
  • This new potential role may be strengthened further by a detailed structural analysis of the micro-channels, where their similarities with a vascular network are qualitatively investigated together with their communication with the mucosa at the surface of the mastoid air cells.
  • Observations based on histological sections have revealed the presence of both arterioles and venules inside.
  • Therefore, their structural content also needs to be taken into consideration.
  • Local structure tensor analysis based on a second order tensor with six degrees of freedom in 3D may be a more robust representation of the channels [5].

2. MATERIAL

  • One human temporal bone specimen was used in this study.
  • The bone specimen was scanned at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent, Belgium, using the same procedure as in [1, 7].
  • This test volume was chosen to represent micro-channels at the level of the ear canal (EC) and in the proximity of mastoid air cell system (MACS) with a large variety of sizes and shapes.
  • The data is partially represented on Figure 1a using volume rendering with a default ramp transfer function (TF) [8].

3. METHODS

  • Such structures can be represented using a structure tensor by its corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
  • A typical frequency function used as quadrature filter is given below Fk(û) = R(ρ)Dk(û) (4) To pick up energy in all possible orientations, the quadrature filter is built as spherically separable in the Fourier domain with an arbitrary but positive radial bandwidth functionR(ρ), with ρ = ||û||, and a direction function Dk(û).
  • It determines in what scale the filter has its sensitivity.
  • To assess the resulting p1, p2, and p3 from the estimated structure tensor, the authors used volume rendering through MeVisLab, a free medical image processing and visualization software.
  • To visualize this natural transition between the three cases, a lookup table (LUT) was created where each RGBA channel corresponds a specific case, namely the rank 2 tensor was assigned the red color, the rank 3 tensor was assigned the green color, and the rank 1 tensor was assigned the blue color.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  • Before presenting and discussing the results, it should be noted that the local structure tensor analysis does not inform about the specific tissue type, rather a description of how planar, tubular, or isotropic a local structure is.
  • Figure 4 gives a non-exhaustive representation of micro-channels with various different shapes encountered during the analysis.
  • Figure 4E reveals a flatten micro-channel with seemingly several rank 2 tensor type structures in the central part, and surrounded by a rank 1 tensor type structure.
  • Figure 4H describes a similar hub structure having more connections.
  • The same applies to the lower right part of the middle mastoid air cell where two micro-channels clearly connect to a hub structure.

5. CONCLUSION

  • This study has demonstrated the structural variation of contents inside the micro-channels by a local structure tensor analysis.
  • From this analysis, discovery of unreported hub structures may help understand the origin and possible multi-role of this complex network formed by these micro-channels.

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Structural Analysis of Micro-channels in
Human Temporal Bone
Olivier Cros, Michael Gaihede, Mats Andersson and Hans Knutsson
Conference Publication
N.B.: When citing this work, cite the original article.
Original Publication:
Olivier Cros, Michael Gaihede, Mats Andersson and Hans Knutsson, Structual Analysis of
Micro-channels in Human Temporal Bone, IEEE 12th International Symposium on Biomedical
Imaging (ISBI), 2015 IEEE 12th International Symposium on, 2015. (), pp.9-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISBI.2015.7163804
Copyright:www.ieee.org
Postprint available at: Linköping University Electronic Press
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122177

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MICRO-CHANNELS IN HUMAN TEMPORAL BONE.
O. Cros
?†
M. Gaihede
?
M. Andersson
†
H. Knutsson
†
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden
Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linköping University, Sweden
?
Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Denmark
ABSTRACT
Recently, numerous micro-channels have been discovered
in the human temporal bone by micro-CT-scanning. Prelimi-
nary structure of these channels has suggested they contain
a new separate blood supply for the mucosa of the masto-
id air cells, which may have important functional implica-
tions. This paper proposes a structural analysis of the micro-
channels to corroborate this role. A local structure tensor is
first estimated. The eigenvalues obtained from the estimated
local structure tensor were then used to build probability maps
representing planar, tubular, and isotropic tensor types. Each
tensor type was assigned a respective RGB color and the full
structure tensor was rendered along with the original data.
Such structural analysis provides new and relevant informa-
tion about the micro-channels but also their connections to
mastoid air cells. Before carrying a future statistical analy-
sis, a more accurate representation of the micro-channels in
terms of local structure tensor analysis using adaptive filte-
ring is needed.
Index Terms human temporal bone, mastoid, micro-
channels, quadrature filters, structure tensor, visualization
1. INTRODUCTION
A recent study using micro-CT scans of human temporal bo-
ne specimens has revealed the existence of multiple micro-
channels carved in the bone surrounding the mastoid air cell
system [1]. The structure and size of these micro-channels re-
semble a vascular network which points to a new and separate
blood supply for the mucosa of the mastoid air cell system [1].
This observation corroborates with current ideas on an active
function of the mucosa where the physiological regulation of
the middle ear pressure is determined by the vascular conges-
tion of the mucosa [2]. In clinical otology the overall pressure
regulation is of immense importance, and hitherto, the masto-
id air cell system has only been attributed a passive role [3].
However, the effects of changes in vascular congestion
depend on a rich blood supply which may be provided by
This research has been supported by The Obel Family Foundation.
a vascular network in these micro-channels. This new poten-
tial role may be strengthened further by a detailed structural
analysis of the micro-channels, where their similarities with a
vascular network are qualitatively investigated together with
their communication with the mucosa at the surface of the
mastoid air cells. The micro-channels resemble tubular-like
(a) (b)
Fig. 1. Volume rendering of a cropped micro-CT scanning
of a human temporal bone using a (a): ramp transfer func-
tion, and using (b) trapezoidal transfer function. EC: ear ca-
nal, MACS: mastoid air cell system.
structures and appear to have a wide range of shapes and di-
ameters [1]. This resembles to a vascular network and could
lead to the use of existing vessel segmentation methods [4].
However, observations based on histological sections have
revealed the presence of both arterioles and venules inside.
Therefore, their structural content also needs to be taken into
consideration.
Local structure tensor analysis based on a second order
tensor with six degrees of freedom in 3D may be a more
robust representation of the channels [5]. Many versions of
the local structure tensor analysis have been used for specific
needs, especially for image enhancement via adaptive filte-
ring, [6]. Thus, this paper presents a structural pre-analysis of
the micro-channels from the human temporal bone by using
local structure tensor analysis based on micro-CT scanning.

2. MATERIAL
One human temporal bone specimen was used in this study.
The bone specimen was scanned at the Department of Phy-
sics and Astronomy, Ghent, Belgium, using the same pro-
cedure as in [1, 7]. The resolution of the scans is 32 µm
isotropic. The micro-CT scan was cropped from an original
size of 1820x1820x1211 voxels down to a limited size of
690x490x480 voxels. This test volume was chosen to repre-
sent micro-channels at the level of the ear canal (EC) and
in the proximity of mastoid air cell system (MACS) with a
large variety of sizes and shapes. The data is partially repre-
sented on Figure 1a using volume rendering with a default
ramp transfer function (TF) [8]. A better representation of the
micro-channels is possible using a trapezoidal transfer func-
tion by only selecting the voxels representing the bone surface
[8]. Figure 1b is used as the reference image.
3. METHODS
Finding a good representation of the micro-channels is of pri-
mary importance. Such structures can be represented using a
structure tensor by its corresponding eigenvalues and eigen-
vectors.
T =
3
X
k=1
λ
k
ˆe
k
ˆe
T
k
with λ
k
> λ
k+1
0
(1)
Three particular cases of the structure tensor where λ
1
λ
2
λ
3
0 are the eigenvalues in decreasing order, ˆe
i
the
eigenvector corresponding to λ
i
, and where I is the identity
matrix I = ˆe
1
ˆe
T
1
+ ˆe
2
ˆe
T
2
+ ˆe
3
ˆe
T
3
, can be extracted as:
λ
1
> 0, λ
2
= λ
3
= 0, T
1
= λ
1
ˆe
1
ˆe
T
1
. This case
corresponds to a neighborhood that is perfectly planar,
i.e. is constant on planes in a given orientation. The ori-
entation of the normal vectors to the planes is given by
ˆe
1
. Edges from large structures are represented through
this rank 1 tensor.
λ
1
= λ
2
> 0, λ
3
= 0, T
2
= λ
1
(I ˆe
3
ˆe
T
3
). This
case corresponds to a neighborhood that is constant on
lines and/or on tubular structures. The orientation of the
lines is given by the eigenvector corresponding to the
least eigenvalue, ˆe
3
. The micro-channels are represen-
ted through this rank 2 tensor.
λ
1
= λ
2
= λ
3
> 0, T
3
= λ
1
I. This case corre-
sponds to an isotropic neighborhood, meaning that the-
re exists energy without any specific orientation in the
neighborhood, e.g. in the case of noise. This case is a
rank 3 tensor.
The eigenvalues from the structure tensor can further be used
to estimate the probability of each visited neighborhood be-
longing to either a rank 1, rank 2, or a rank 3 tensor, defined
by p
1
, p
2
, and p
3
, where
P
3
k=1
p
k
= 1 which can be seen as
probabilities as [5].
p
1
=
λ
1
λ
2
λ
1
, p
2
=
λ
2
λ
3
λ
1
, p
3
=
λ
3
λ
1
(2)
Natural structures like the micro-channels are however com-
posed of a mixture of these three cases and a more general
ideal structure tensor should instead be represented as
T = p
1
T
1
+ p
2
T
2
+ p
3
T
3
(3)
To estimate a structure tensor based on the tensor equation gi-
ven in Eq.3, a set of quadrature filter responses were compu-
ted over the whole data volume. These complex-valued quad-
rature filters are used to pick up local energy in several direc-
tions in the Fourier space. The advantage of using quadra-
ture approach is its phase-independence property where the
response of the quadrature filter will be equally strong for
odd and even structures, which will either represent a micro-
channel as a line or locally as an edge depending on the size of
the micro-channel being processed and the scale being used.
A typical frequency function used as quadrature filter is given
below
F
k
(ˆu) = R(ρ)D
k
(
ˆ
u) (4)
To pick up energy in all possible orientations, the quadrature
filter is built as spherically separable in the Fourier domain
with an arbitrary but positive radial bandwidth function R(ρ),
with ρ = ||ˆu||, and a direction function D
k
(ˆu). R(ρ) is typi-
cally designed as a bandpass function based on a center fre-
quency and a bandwidth. It determines in what scale the filter
has its sensitivity. The direction function varies as cos
2
(φ)
where φ is the difference between u and the filter direction
n
k
and given by
D
k
(u) =
(ˆu · ˆn
k
)
2
if (ˆu · ˆn
k
) 0
0 otherwise
(5)
where
ˆ
n
k
are the directions in the Fourier space where each
quadrature filter picks up an energy from the local neighbor-
hood. The magnitude of the quadrature filter output is then
computed
q
k
= k
1
2π
Z
S(u)F
k
(u) duk (6)
and the estimate of the structure tensor can now be construc-
ted as
T
est
=
6
X
k=1
q
k
(α ˆn
k
ˆn
T
k
β I) (7)
where q
k
represents the magnitude of the filter output, ˆn
k
the
orientation of the quadrature filter with direction k, which is
6 in 3D. For 3D, α =
5
4
and β =
1
4
. To assess the resulting
p
1
, p
2
, and p
3
from the estimated structure tensor, we used
volume rendering through MeVisLab, a free medical image
processing and visualization software. Because, p
1
, p
2
, and

p
3
are probability measures of each special case, we wanted
to have a more natural span going from rank 1 tensor to rank
2 tensor with the rank 3 tensor in between so as to move from
a tubular structure towards a planar structure via an isotropic
structure. To visualize this natural transition between the three
cases, a lookup table (LUT) was created where each RGBA
channel corresponds a specific case, namely the rank 2 tensor
was assigned the red color, the rank 3 tensor was assigned the
green color, and the rank 1 tensor was assigned the blue color.
To use the LUT function in MeVisLab, each RGB channel
was controlled by a respective non-linear function based on
sigmoid functions. The 3D volume representing all the special
cases was created as
p
m
= p
1
+ γ p
3
(8)
with γ = 0.4, leading to p
m
= 1 for rank 1 tensor, p
m
= 0 for
rank 2 tensor, and p
m
= 0.4 for rank 3 tensor. This mapping
was built to fit the RGB channels. Because micro-channels
present variations in terms of rank 1 and rank 2 tensor types,
the α-channel was so that rank 1 and rank 2 tensor types were
fully visible while the rank 3 tensor type was partly set trans-
parent so as to allow a certain degree of mixtures between
the three special cases. The LUT is illustrated in Figure 2. To
Fig. 2. RGB LUT representing the probability function p
m
.
interactively adjust the settings while visualizing the results,
a MeVisLab node called LutEditor was used to move some
control points to decide the structures to look at and which
structure should be visible or made transparent.
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Before presenting and discussing the results, it should be no-
ted that the local structure tensor analysis does not inform
about the specific tissue type, rather a description of how pla-
nar, tubular, or isotropic a local structure is. Figure 3a illust-
rates all structures at once from the volume p
m
. Figure 3b-c
respectively represents p
1
, p
2
, and p
3
with their correspon-
ding RGB color channel and helps to better understand their
complimentary contribution. Overlaying p
1
, p
2
, and p
3
on the
original data further informs about their locations with respect
to the bone structures, i.e. within the micro-channels, the ear
(a) p
m
(b) Rank 1 tensor
(c) Rank 2 tensor (d) Rank 3 tensor
Fig. 3. (a): Mixture of all three cases into the single volu-
me p
m
. (b): p
1
representing planar structures as blue. (c): p
2
representing line and tubular structures as red. (d): p
3
repre-
senting isotropic structures as green.
canal (EC), or within the mastoid air cells. Where Figure 3b-d
represents each case separately, Figure 4 is based on the pro-
posed LUT giving a more natural transition between the diffe-
rent structures. Figure 4 gives a non-exhaustive representation
of micro-channels with various different shapes encountered
during the analysis. Figure 4A illustrates the perfect rank 2
tensor type structures within the micro-channels. Figure 4B
emphasizes the transition from a rank 1 tensor type structure
to a rank 2 tensor type structure. Figure 4C illustrates the in-
Fig. 4. Micro-channels with different shapes.
termix within a micro-channel of p
1
, p
2
tensor type structures
with occasionally a slight amount of p
3
tensor type structure.
Figure 4D depicts a broader micro-channel with two rank 2
tensor type structures placed on either side of a micro-channel

with a well-defined rank 1 tensor type structure filling the gap
in between. Figure 4E reveals a flatten micro-channel with
seemingly several rank 2 tensor type structures in the central
part, and surrounded by a rank 1 tensor type structure. Figu-
re 4F pictures the merging of two to three rank 2 tensor type
structures into a larger rank 2 tensor type structure at the cen-
ter of a larger micro-channel.
Figure 4G presents a structure resembling a hub, never
described before, receiving three micro-channels at its extre-
mities with a rank 2 tensor type structure running along the
edges and with a rank 1 tensor type structure at its centre.
Figure 4H describes a similar hub structure having more con-
nections. As for the hub, presence of more than one rank 2
tensor type structures in a single micro-channel along with
bifurcation or merging of rank 2 tensor type structures have
never been reported in the literature before. Figure 5 depicts
Fig. 5. Micro-channels connecting to mastoid air cells (white
stars).
several mastoid air cells partially cut (white stars). The se-
cond mastoid air cell, to the left, connects on its right side to
a micro-channel with a net transition from rank 1 tensor type
to a rank 2 tensor type. On the opposite side of this micro-
channel, the rank 1 tensor type structure lining the wall of the
mastoid air cell (star to the right) penetrates the channel. The
end-tip of the rank 1 tensor structure type indentation displays
a transition toward a rank 2 tensor type structure, strongly in-
dicating a red rank 2 tensor type structure in the missing part
of the channel. The same applies to the lower right part of
the middle mastoid air cell where two micro-channels clearly
connect to a hub structure.
Where the weak structures present in p
1
, p
2
, and p
3
could
be reduced, the use of the proposed LUT did not allow this
filtering, and therefore the presence of mixture of p
1
, p
2
, p
3
tensor types structures is visible in the mastoid air cells. De-
tection of weak structures illustrates the fact that structures
inside the micro-channels can be smaller than the noise visib-
le in the mastoid air cells. A tradeoff between the full detec-
tion of fine structures within the small micro-channels and the
amount of noise to filter out is therefore necessary.
5. CONCLUSION
This study has demonstrated the structural variation of con-
tents inside the micro-channels by a local structure tensor ana-
lysis. From this analysis, discovery of unreported hub structu-
res may help understand the origin and possible multi-role of
this complex network formed by these micro-channels. Pre-
sence of noise within the air cells along with the missing in-
formation in some micro-channels suggest the future need of
image enhancement using an adaptive filtering technique ba-
sed on the local structure tensor analysis used in this study. A
larger scale study is also considered in the future in order to
validate the method proposed in this pre-analysis.
6. REFERENCES
[1] O. Cros, M. Borga, E. Pauwels, J.J.J. Dirckx, and M. Gai-
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[2] M. Gaihede, O. Cros, and S. Padurariu, “The role of the
mastoid in middle ear pressure regulation, In Takahashi
H (Ed.) “Cholesteatoma and Ear Surgery An Update”.
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Citations
More filters

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2016
TL;DR: This paper proposes an adaptive enhancement of the micro-channels based on a local structure analysis while minimizing the impact of noise on the overall data.
Abstract: Numerous micro-channels have recently been discovered in the human temporal bone by x-ray micro-CT-scanning. After a preliminary study suggesting that these micro-channels form a separate blood supply for the mucosa of the mastoid air cells, a structural analysis of the micro-channels using a local structure tensor was carried out. Despite the high-resolution of the micro-CT scan, presence of noise within the air cells along with missing information in some micro-channels suggested the need of image enhancement. This paper proposes an adaptive enhancement of the micro-channels based on a local structure analysis while minimizing the impact of noise on the overall data. Comparison with an anisotropic diffusion PDE based scheme was also performed.

2 citations


Cites background or methods or result from "Structural analysis of micro-channe..."

  • ...In order to gain further knowledge about these micro-channels, a geometrical analysis has been carried out using a micro-CT scan of a single human temporal bone specimen [3]....

    [...]

  • ...each neighbourhood belonging to either a rank 1, rank 2, or a rank 3 tensor, as defined in [5] and recalled from [3], can further be investigated from the local structure tensor by p1, p2, and p3, where ∑3 k=1 pk = 1, as...

    [...]

  • ...8 but with a transfer function defined in [3]....

    [...]

  • ...This study therefore proposes an extension of the local structure tensor analysis ([3]), by enhancing the micro-CT data, while reducing the noise level using adaptive filtering [6]....

    [...]

  • ...Although the results from the current study are very similar to the results from the anisotropic diffusion scheme, it can be noticed that the tubular structures appear more complete especially when compared to p1, p2, p3 rank tensors mixture from the previous study [3]....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2017
TL;DR: This paper proposes a different approach by extracting geometrical information embedded in the Euclidean distance transform of a volume via a structure tensor analysis based on quadrature filters, from which a secondary structure Tensor allows the extraction of surface skeleton along with a curve skeleton from its eigenvalues.
Abstract: The mastoid of human temporal bone contains numerous air cells connected to each others. In order to gain further knowledge about these air cells, a more compact representation is needed to obtain an estimate of the size distribution of these cells. Already existing skeletonization methods often fail in producing a faithful skeleton mostly due to noise hampering the binary representation of the data. This paper proposes a different approach by extracting geometrical information embedded in the Euclidean distance transform of a volume via a structure tensor analysis based on quadrature filters, from which a secondary structure tensor allows the extraction of surface skeleton along with a curve skeleton from its eigenvalues. Preliminary results obtained on a X-ray micro-CT scans of a human temporal bone show very promising results.

Cites background or methods from "Structural analysis of micro-channe..."

  • ...The bone specimen was scanned in Ghent at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Belgium using a procedure used for scanning similar to [9] and [10]....

    [...]

  • ...The steps to estimate the structure tensor from the quadrature filters are already described in [9]....

    [...]

  • ...However, the current work is an extension of the work achieved in [9] and [16], in which the eigenvalues could easily be used to extract both the surface and curve skeletons....

    [...]

  • ...(3) As stated in [9], to obtain rank 1, rank 2 and rank 3 tensors, a set of quadrature filter responses were computed over the whole volume so as to estimate the structure tensor given in Eq....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper reviews state-of-the-art literature on vascular segmentation with a particular focus on 3D contrast-enhanced imaging modalities (MRA and CTA) and discusses the theoretical and practical properties of recent approaches and highlight the most advanced and promising ones.
Abstract: Vascular diseases are among the most important public health problems in developed countries. Given the size and complexity of modern angiographic acquisitions, segmentation is a key step toward the accurate visualization, diagnosis and quantification of vascular pathologies. Despite the tremendous amount of past and on-going dedicated research, vascular segmentation remains a challenging task. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art literature on vascular segmentation, with a particular focus on 3D contrast-enhanced imaging modalities (MRA and CTA). We structure our analysis along three axes: models, features and extraction schemes. We first detail model-based assumptions on the vessel appearance and geometry which can embedded in a segmentation approach. We then review the image features that can be extracted to evaluate these models. Finally, we discuss how existing extraction schemes combine model and feature information to perform the segmentation task. Each component (model, feature and extraction scheme) plays a crucial role toward the efficient, robust and accurate segmentation of vessels of interest. Along each axis of study, we discuss the theoretical and practical properties of recent approaches and highlight the most advanced and promising ones.

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31 Dec 1994
TL;DR: Signal Processing for Computer Vision is the first book to give a unified treatment of representation and filtering of higher order data, such as vectors and tensors in multidimensional space.
Abstract: From the Publisher: Signal Processing for Computer Vision provides a unique and thorough treatment of the signal processing aspects of filters and operators for low level computer vision. Computer Vision has progressed considerably over the years. From methods only applicable to simple images, it has developed to deal with increasingly complex scenes, volumes and time sequences. A substantial part of this book deals with the problem of designing models that can be used for several purposes with computer vision. These partial models have some general properties of invariance generation and generality in model generation. Signal Processing for Computer Vision is the first book to give a unified treatment of representation and filtering of higher order data, such as vectors and tensors in multidimensional space. Included is a systematic organisation for the implementation of complex models in a hierarchical modular structure and novel material on adaptive filtering using tensor data representation. Signal Processing for Computer Vision is intended for final year undergraduate and graduate students as well as engineers and researchers in the field of computer vision and image processing.

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207 citations


"Structural analysis of micro-channe..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...A better representation of the micro-channels is possible using a trapezoidal transfer function by only selecting the voxels representing the bone surface [8]....

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  • ...The data is partially represented on Figure 1a using volume rendering with a default ramp transfer function (TF) [8]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The UGCT (University Gent Computer Tomography) facility, a cooperation between the Radiation Physics research group and the Sedimentary Geology and Engineering Geology research group is a new CT facility providing a large range of scanning possibilities. Formerly a Skyscan 1072 was used to perform X-ray micro-CT scans at the UGCT facility and although this is a very powerful instrument, there were needs for a higher resolution and more flexibility. Therefore, the UCGT facility started the construction of a multidisciplinary micro-CT scanner inside a shielded room with a maximum flexibility of the set-up. The X-ray tube of this high-resolution CT scanner is a state-of-the-art open-type device with dual head: one head for high power micro-CT and one for sub-micro- or also called nano-CT. An important advantage of this scanner is that different detectors can be used to optimize the scanning conditions of the objects under investigation. The entire set-up is built on a large optical table to obtain the highest possible stability. Due to the flexible set-up and the powerful CT reconstruction software “Octopus”, it is possible to obtain the highest quality and the best signal-to-noise of the reconstructed images for each type of sample.

196 citations


"Structural analysis of micro-channe..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The bone specimen was scanned at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent, Belgium, using the same procedure as in [1, 7]....

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Frequently Asked Questions (2)
Q1. What have the authors contributed in "Structural analysis of micro-channels in human temporal bone" ?

This paper proposes a structural analysis of the microchannels to corroborate this role. 

Presence of noise within the air cells along with the missing information in some micro-channels suggest the future need of image enhancement using an adaptive filtering technique based on the local structure tensor analysis used in this study. A larger scale study is also considered in the future in order to validate the method proposed in this pre-analysis.