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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Structural and optical properties of ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films

10 Apr 2018-Vol. 1942, Iss: 1, pp 120002
TL;DR: The structural and optical properties of ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer.
Abstract: (In0.95Sn0.05)2O3 and (In0.90Cu0.05Sn0.05)2O3 thin films were coated onto glass substrate by electron beam evaporation technique. The structural and optical properties of ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The crystallite size obtained for ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films was in the range of 24 nm to 22 nm. The optical band gap of 4 eV for ITO thin film sample has been observed. The optical band gap decreases to 3.85 eV by doping Cu in ITO.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the structural, morphological, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZnO films, which were prepared in the presence of nitrogen (N2) on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-conducting glass by electrodeposition and N2 bubbling for the doped films, were investigated.

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors discuss the deposition of TCO films by various techniques, parameters affecting TCO properties, characteristics of doped and undoped TCO materials, and their influence on SHJ SC efficiency, based on a review of ongoing research and development activities.
Abstract: Global-warming-induced climate changes and socioeconomic issues increasingly stimulate reviews of renewable energy. Among energy-generation devices, solar cells are often considered as renewable sources of energy. Lately, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are playing a significant role as back/front contact electrodes in silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ SCs). In particular, the optimized Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) has served as a capable TCO material to improve the efficiency of SHJ SCs, due to excellent physicochemical properties such as high transmittance, electrical conductivity, mobility, bandgap, and a low refractive index. The doped-ITO thin films had promising characteristics and helped in promoting the efficiency of SHJ SCs. Further, SHJ technology, together with an interdigitated back contact structure, achieved an outstanding efficiency of 26.7%. The present article discusses the deposition of TCO films by various techniques, parameters affecting TCO properties, characteristics of doped and undoped TCO materials, and their influence on SHJ SC efficiency, based on a review of ongoing research and development activities.

1 citations

References
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Book
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19,319 citations

Book
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TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a chemical analysis of X-ray diffraction by Xray Spectrometry and phase-diagram Determination of single crystal structures and phase diagrams.
Abstract: 1. Properties of X-rays. 2. Geometry of Crystals. 3. Diffraction I: Directions of Diffracted Beams. 4. Diffraction II: Intensities of Diffracted Beams. 5. Diffraction III: Non-Ideal Samples. 6. Laure Photographs. 7. Powder Photographs. 8. Diffractometer and Spectrometer. 9. Orientation and Quality of Single Crystals. 10. Structure of Polycrystalline Aggregates. 11. Determination of Crystal Structure. 12. Precise Parameter Measurements. 13. Phase-Diagram Determination. 14. Order-Disorder Transformation. 15. Chemical Analysis of X-ray Diffraction. 16. Chemical Analysis by X-ray Spectrometry. 17. Measurements of Residual Stress. 18. Polymers. 19. Small Angle Scatters. 20. Transmission Electron Microscope.

17,428 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the deposition techniques, electro-optical properties, solid state physics of the electron transport and optical effects and some applications of these transparent conductors.

2,553 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed work on In2O3:Sn films prepared by reactive e−beam evaporation of In2 O3 with up to 9 mol'% SnO2 onto heated glass.
Abstract: We review work on In2O3:Sn films prepared by reactive e‐beam evaporation of In2O3 with up to 9 mol % SnO2 onto heated glass. These films have excellent spectrally selective properties when the deposition rate is ∼0.2 nm/s, the substrate temperature is ≳150 °C, and the oxygen pressure is ∼5×10−4 Torr. Optimized coatings have crystallite dimensions ≳50 nm and a C‐type rare‐earth oxide structure. We cover electromagnetic properties as recorded by spectrophotometry in the 0.2–50‐μm range, by X‐band microwave reflectance, and by dc electrical measurements. Hall‐effect data are included. An increase of the Sn content is shown to have several important effects: the semiconductor band gap is shifted towards the ultraviolet, the luminous transmittance remains high, the infrared reflectance increases to a high value beyond a certain wavelength which shifts towards the visible, phonon‐induced infrared absorption bands vanish, the microwave reflectance goes up, and the dc resisitivity drops to ∼2×10−4 Ω cm. The corre...

2,124 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of chemical and physical treatments on the properties of indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films were combined studies of the effect of these treatments on anodes of polymeric light-emitting diodes.
Abstract: We report combined studies of the influence of chemical and physical treatments on the properties of indium–tin oxide (ITO) thin films. The ITO films were also used as transparent anodes of polymeric light-emitting diodes (LEDs) incorporating poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) as the emitter material, with, or without, doped poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a hole-injection/transport layer. Structures based on a soluble green derivative of PPV, poly(4,4′-diphenylene diphenylvinylene) were also tested. We studied chemical (aquaregia, degreasing, RCA protocol) and physical (oxygen and argon plasmas, Teflon, and paper rubbing) treatments and, in contrast to recently published work, we find that for Balzer Baltracon ITO, oxygen plasma and not aquaregia yields the highest efficiencies and luminances and the lowest drive voltages. For oxygen-plasma-treated anodes, the device efficiency clearly correlates with the value of the ITO surface work function, which in turn depends on the time of treatment. I...

626 citations