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Journal ArticleDOI

Structure and characterization of a new organic crystal for optical limiting applications, isonicotinamide bis-p-aminobenzoic acid

TL;DR: In this article, a new organic nonlinear optical single crystal, isonicotinamide bis-paminobenzoic acid (INBAB), is grown from methanol solution using a slow evaporation solution technique.
Abstract: A new organic nonlinear optical single crystal, isonicotinamide bis-paminobenzoic acid (INBAB), is grown from methanol solution using a slow evaporation solution technique. INBAB belongs to a monoclinic system with the space group P21/n. Its relative optical transmittance and optical band gap are found to be 58% and 3.4 eV, respectively. INBAB is thermally stable up to 147°C. The laser-induced surface damage threshold for our crystal is equal to 1.2 GW/cm for the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser radiation. The nonlinear refractive index, the absorption coefficient and the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of our crystal are determined using a Z-scan technique. The material demonstrates optical-limiting behaviour up to the input irradiance of around 5.63 mW.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an organic compound of protonated Piperazinediium bis (4-aminobenzoate) dihydrate C4H12N22+2(C7H6NO2−).2(H2O) (PZ4AB) was synthesized and crystal was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An organic salt, bis (methylimidazolium-4-aminobenzoate) (MIAB) was synthesized and single crystals were grown successfully by slow solvent evaporation solution growth technique using ethyl acetate as solvent at room temperature as mentioned in this paper.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Mar 2019
TL;DR: Two co-crystals of p-aminobenzoic acid with isonicotinamide and pyrazine were prepared in acetone-ethanol solution by solvent evaporation method in the 1:1 cytochiometric ratio as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Two co-crystals of p-aminobenzoic acid with isonicotinamide and pyrazine were prepared in acetone-ethanol solution by solvent evaporation method in the 1:1 cytochiometric ratio. Their structures were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies, powder X-Ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. Both of the structures have shown the COOH/N heterosynthon. The thermal stability of the co-crystals was investigated by using DSC and it was determinated that the melting points of the cocrystals 1 and 2 were lower and in-between from those of their coformers, respectively. INTRODUCTION

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors examined the working of VANET with the help of the Intrusion Detection technique and associated with 6G technology, where the IDS examines the organization and distinguishes any noxious hub if present.
Abstract: The conceptualization of the 6th era of versatile remote organizations (6G) has previously begun for certain potential problematic innovations reverberating as empowering influences for driving the development of various inventive applications. Especially, 6G will be a conspicuous ally for the development of a genuinely Wise Transportation Framework and the acknowledgement of the smart art City idea by satisfying the limits of 5G, when vehicular organizations are turning out to be profoundly unique and complex with rigid necessities on low latency, highly complex and dynamic quality. Vehicular Specially appointed Organizations are a significant Is the set of MANETs. VANET is the gathering of the vehicles which are associated with one an another remotely. A security loss can be major damage for others . Guaranteeing security, (IDS) are carried out in VANETs for distinguishing any interruption. Here, IDS examines the organization and distinguishes any noxious hub if present. In this research paper, we examine the working of VANET with the help of the Intrusion Detection technique and associated with 6G technology.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A model to predict traffic accidents using information gathered from social media and open data, applying an ensemble Deep Learning Model, composed of Gated Recurrent Units and Convolutional Neural Networks is proposed.
Abstract: Traffic accidents are a major concern worldwide, since they have a significant impact on people’s safety, health, and well-being, and thus, they constitute an important field of research on the use of state-of-the-art techniques and algorithms to analyze and predict them. The study of traffic accidents has been conducted using the information published by traffic entities and road police forces, but thanks to the ubiquity and availability of social media platforms, it is possible to have detailed and real-time information about road accidents in a given region, which allows for detailed studies that include unrecorded road accident events. The focus of this paper is to propose a model to predict traffic accidents using information gathered from social media and open data, applying an ensemble Deep Learning Model, composed of Gated Recurrent Units and Convolutional Neural Networks. The results obtained are compared with baseline algorithms and results published by other researchers. The results show promising outcomes, indicating that in the context of the problem, the proposed ensemble Deep Learning model outperforms the baseline algorithms and other Deep Learning models reported by literature. The information provided by the model can be valuable for traffic control agencies to plan road accident prevention activities.

1 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper could serve as a general literature citation when one or more of the open-source SH ELX programs (and the Bruker AXS version SHELXTL) are employed in the course of a crystal-structure determination.
Abstract: An account is given of the development of the SHELX system of computer programs from SHELX-76 to the present day. In addition to identifying useful innovations that have come into general use through their implementation in SHELX, a critical analysis is presented of the less-successful features, missed opportunities and desirable improvements for future releases of the software. An attempt is made to understand how a program originally designed for photographic intensity data, punched cards and computers over 10000 times slower than an average modern personal computer has managed to survive for so long. SHELXL is the most widely used program for small-molecule refinement and SHELXS and SHELXD are often employed for structure solution despite the availability of objectively superior programs. SHELXL also finds a niche for the refinement of macromolecules against high-resolution or twinned data; SHELXPRO acts as an interface for macromolecular applications. SHELXC, SHELXD and SHELXE are proving useful for the experimental phasing of macromolecules, especially because they are fast and robust and so are often employed in pipelines for high-throughput phasing. This paper could serve as a general literature citation when one or more of the open-source SHELX programs (and the Bruker AXS version SHELXTL) are employed in the course of a crystal-structure determination.

81,116 citations


"Structure and characterization of a..." refers background in this paper

  • ...O1 stabilizes the crystal structure, forming R2(2)(8) dimmers....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the optical constants of amorphous Ge were determined for the photon energies from 0.08 to 1.6 eV, and the absorption is due to k-conserving transitions of holes between the valence bands as in p-type crystals.
Abstract: The optical constants of amorphous Ge are determined for the photon energies from 0.08 to 1.6 eV. From 0.08 to 0.5 eV, the absorption is due to k-conserving transitions of holes between the valence bands as in p-type crystals; the spin-orbit splitting is found to be 0.20 and 0.21 eV in non-annealed, and annealed samples respectively. The effective masses of the holes in the three bands are 0.49 m (respectively 0.43 m); 0.04 m, and 0.08 m. An absorption band is observed below the main absorption edge (at 300 °K the maximum of this band is at 0.86 eV); the absorption in this band increases with increasing temperature. This band is considered to be due to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, and these are presumably the same ones that play a decisive role in the transport properties and which are considered to be associated with vacancies. The absorption edge has the form: ω2ϵ2∼(hω−Eg)2 (Eg = 0.88 eV at 300 °K). This suggests that the optical transitions conserve energy but not k vector, and that the densities of states near the band extrema have the same energy-dependence as in crystalline Ge. A simple theory describing this situation is proposed, and comparison of it with the experimental results leads to an estimate of the localization of the conduction-band wavefunctions.

8,184 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a single-beam technique for measuring both the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient for a wide variety of materials is reported, including a comprehensive theoretical analysis.
Abstract: A sensitive single-beam technique for measuring both the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient for a wide variety of materials is reported. The authors describe the experimental details and present a comprehensive theoretical analysis including cases where nonlinear refraction is accompanied by nonlinear absorption. In these experiments, the transmittance of a sample is measured through a finite aperture in the far field as the sample is moved along the propagation path (z) of a focused Gaussian beam. The sign and magnitude of the nonlinear refraction are easily deduced from such a transmittance curve (Z-scan). Employing this technique, a sensitivity of better than lambda /300 wavefront distortion is achieved in n/sub 2/ measurements of BaF/sub 2/ using picosecond frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser pulses. >

7,717 citations


"Structure and characterization of a..." refers background in this paper

  • ...91(10)° with the amino benzoic acid ring 2 (C8– C13)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the relationship existing between the third-order nonlinear optical properties and the chemical structure of some poly(2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene) polymers was investigated.

154 citations