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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-21613-6

Structure-function analysis of oncogenic EGFR Kinase Domain Duplication reveals insights into activation and a potential approach for therapeutic targeting

02 Mar 2021-Nature Communications (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 12, Iss: 1, pp 1382-1382
Abstract: Mechanistic understanding of oncogenic variants facilitates the development and optimization of treatment strategies. We recently identified in-frame, tandem duplication of EGFR exons 18 - 25, which causes EGFR Kinase Domain Duplication (EGFR-KDD). Here, we characterize the prevalence of ERBB family KDDs across multiple human cancers and evaluate the functional biochemistry of EGFR-KDD as it relates to pathogenesis and potential therapeutic intervention. We provide computational and experimental evidence that EGFR-KDD functions by forming asymmetric EGF-independent intra-molecular and EGF-dependent inter-molecular dimers. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation reveals EGFR-KDD can form ligand-dependent inter-molecular homo- and hetero-dimers/multimers. Furthermore, we show that inhibition of EGFR-KDD activity is maximally achieved by blocking both intra- and inter-molecular dimerization. Collectively, our findings define a previously unrecognized model of EGFR dimerization, providing important insights for the understanding of EGFR activation mechanisms and informing personalized treatment of patients with tumors harboring EGFR-KDD. Finally, we establish ERBB KDDs as recurrent oncogenic events in multiple cancers.

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Topics: ErbB (54%), Tandem exon duplication (51%)

7 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13112748
01 Jun 2021-Cancers
Abstract: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has served as the founding member of the large family of growth factor receptors harboring intrinsic tyrosine kinase function. High abundance of EGFR and large internal deletions are frequently observed in brain tumors, whereas point mutations and small insertions within the kinase domain are common in lung cancer. For these reasons EGFR and its preferred heterodimer partner, HER2/ERBB2, became popular targets of anti-cancer therapies. Nevertheless, EGFR research keeps revealing unexpected observations, which are reviewed herein. Once activated by a ligand, EGFR initiates a time-dependent series of molecular switches comprising downregulation of a large cohort of microRNAs, up-regulation of newly synthesized mRNAs, and covalent protein modifications, collectively controlling phenotype-determining genes. In addition to microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs play critical roles in EGFR signaling. Along with driver mutations, EGFR drives metastasis in many ways. Paracrine loops comprising tumor and stromal cells enable EGFR to fuel invasion across tissue barriers, survival of clusters of circulating tumor cells, as well as colonization of distant organs. We conclude by listing all clinically approved anti-cancer drugs targeting either EGFR or HER2. Because emergence of drug resistance is nearly inevitable, we discuss the major evasion mechanisms.

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6 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10051132
Jerry D. Monroe1, Faiza Basheer2, Yann Gibert1Institutions (2)
07 May 2021-Cells
Abstract: Studies conducted in several fish species, e.g., Xiphophorus hellerii (green swordtail) and Xiphophorus maculatus (southern platyfish) crosses, Oryzias latipes (medaka), and Danio rerio (zebrafish), have identified an oncogenic role for the receptor tyrosine kinase, Xmrk, a gene product closely related to the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is associated with a wide variety of pathological conditions, including cancer. Comparative analyses of Xmrk and EGFR signal transduction in melanoma have shown that both utilize STAT5 signaling to regulate apoptosis and cell proliferation, PI3K to modulate apoptosis, FAK to control migration, and the Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK pathway to regulate cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Further, Xmrk and EGFR may also modulate similar chemokine, extracellular matrix, oxidative stress, and microRNA signaling pathways in melanoma. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), Xmrk and EGFR signaling utilize STAT5 to regulate cell proliferation, and Xmrk may signal through PI3K and FasR to modulate apoptosis. At the same time, both activate the Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK pathway to regulate cell proliferation and E-cadherin signaling. Xmrk models of melanoma have shown that inhibitors of PI3K and MEK have an anti-cancer effect, and in HCC, that the steroidal drug, adrenosterone, can prevent metastasis and recover E-cadherin expression, suggesting that fish Xmrk models can exploit similarities with EGFR signal transduction to identify and study new chemotherapeutic drugs.

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Topics: MAPK/ERK pathway (57%), Autocrine signalling (55%), Signal transduction (54%) ... read more

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NCRNA7030047
02 Aug 2021-Non-Coding RNA
Abstract: The cancer genome is characterized by extensive variability, in the form of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) or structural variations such as Copy Number Alterations (CNAs) across wider genomic areas. At the molecular level, most SNPs and/or CNAs reside in non-coding sequences, ultimately affecting the regulation of oncogenes and/or tumor-suppressors in a cancer-specific manner. Notably, inherited non-coding variants can predispose for cancer decades prior to disease onset. Furthermore, accumulation of additional non-coding driver mutations during progression of the disease, gives rise to genomic instability, acting as the driving force of neoplastic development and malignant evolution. Therefore, detection and characterization of such mutations can improve risk assessment for healthy carriers and expand the diagnostic and therapeutic toolbox for the patient. This review focuses on functional variants that reside in transcribed or not transcribed non-coding regions of the cancer genome and presents a collection of appropriate state-of-the-art methodologies to study them.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JTOCRR.2021.100194
01 Jul 2021-
Abstract: Introduction Lung adenocarcinomas in young patients ( Methods In this prospective study, patients less than 40 years old at the time of primary lung cancer diagnosis with confirmed lung carcinoma were recruited from four global sites and remotely by means of a website. Genotyping data were collected, if available, or obtained by means of next-generation sequencing using the FoundationOne platform. The prevalence of targetable alterations was quantified across patients with advanced adenocarcinoma. Results Overall, 133 patients across five continents were included, 41% of whom enrolled online. The mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 34 (5.2) years; 79% had stage IV disease at diagnosis. Among patients with adenocarcinoma (n = 115), 112 entered the study with previous genomic testing results and 86 (77%) had targetable alterations in EGFR, ALK, ROS1, MET, ERBB2, or RET. Among those without targetable alterations, 14 received further testing and a targetable alteration was identified in eight (57%). Conclusions This study revealed the feasibility of using a web-based platform to recruit young patients with lung cancer and revealed that 94 of 112 (84%) with adenocarcinoma at any stage had targetable genomic alterations. Among patients with stage IV adenocarcinoma, 85% had a targetable alteration, which is higher than historical expectations for the general population.

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Topics: Lung cancer (55%), Adenocarcinoma (53%), Population (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.4143/CRT.2021.385
Chaelin Lee1, Miso Kim1, Dong Wan Kim1, Tae Min Kim1  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Purpose Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain duplication (EGFR-KDD) is a rare and poorly understood oncogenic mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to investigate the acquired resistance mechanism of EGFR-KDD against EGFR-TKIs. Materials and methods We identified EGFR-KDD in tumor tissue obtained from a patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma and established the patient-derived cell line SNU-4784. We also established several EGFR-KDD Ba/F3 cell lines: EGFR-KDD wild type (EGFR-KDDWT), EGFR-KDD domain 1 T790M (EGFR-KDDD1T), EGFR-KDD domain 2 T790M (EGFR-KDDD2T), and EGFR-KDD both domain T790M (EGFR-KDDBDT). We treated the cells with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and performed cell viability assays, immunoblot assays, and ENU (N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis screening. Results In cell viability assays, SNU-4784 cells and EGFR-KDDWT Ba/F3 cells were sensitive to 2nd generation and 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In contrast, the T790M-positive EGFR-KDD Ba/F3 cell lines (EGFR-KDDT790M) were only sensitive to 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In ENU mutagenesis screening, we identified the C797S mutation in kinase domain 2 of EGFR-KDDBDT Ba/F3 cells. Based on this finding, we established an EGFR-KDD domain 1 T790M/domain 2 cis-T790M + C797S (EGFR-KDDT/T+C) Ba/F3 model, which was resistant to EGFR TKIs and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody combined with EGFR TKIs. Conclusion Our study reveals that the T790M mutation in EGFR-KDD confers resistance to 1st and 2nd generation EGFR TKIs, but is sensitive to 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In addition, we identified that the C797S mutation in kinase domain 2 of EGFR-KDDT790M mediates a resistance mechanism against 3rd generation EGFR TKIs.

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Topics: T790M (59%), Protein kinase domain (50%)


76 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/GIM.2015.30
Sue Richards1, Nazneen Aziz2, Nazneen Aziz3, Sherri J. Bale4  +9 moreInstitutions (11)
Abstract: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology

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11,349 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2010.06.011
Mark A. Lemmon1, Joseph Schlessinger2Institutions (2)
13 Oct 2000-Cell
Abstract: Recent structural studies of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have revealed unexpected diversity in the mechanisms of their activation by growth factor ligands. Strategies for inducing dimerization by ligand binding are surprisingly diverse, as are mechanisms that couple this event to activation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domains. As our understanding of these details becomes increasingly sophisticated, it provides an important context for therapeutically countering the effects of pathogenic RTK mutations in cancer and other diseases. Much remains to be learned, however, about the complex signaling networks downstream from RTKs and how alterations in these networks are translated into cellular responses.

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Topics: Receptor tyrosine kinase (67%), ROR1 (61%), Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (61%) ... read more

6,439 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE13385
01 Jan 2014-Nature
Abstract: Adenocarcinoma of the lung is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Here we report molecular profiling of 230 resected lung adenocarcinomas using messenger RNA, microRNA and DNA sequencing integrated with copy number, methylation and proteomic analyses. High rates of somatic mutation were seen (mean 8.9 mutations per megabase). Eighteen genes were statistically significantly mutated, including RIT1 activating mutations and newly described loss-of-function MGA mutations which are mutually exclusive with focal MYC amplification. EGFR mutations were more frequent in female patients, whereas mutations in RBM10 were more common in males. Aberrations in NF1, MET, ERBB2 and RIT1 occurred in 13% of cases and were enriched in samples otherwise lacking an activated oncogene, suggesting a driver role for these events in certain tumours. DNA and mRNA sequence from the same tumour highlighted splicing alterations driven by somatic genomic changes, including exon 14 skipping in MET mRNA in 4% of cases. MAPK and PI(3)K pathway activity, when measured at the protein level, was explained by known mutations in only a fraction of cases, suggesting additional, unexplained mechanisms of pathway activation. These data establish a foundation for classification and further investigations of lung adenocarcinoma molecular pathogenesis.

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Topics: Adenocarcinoma of the lung (60%), Germline mutation (57%), Exon (54%) ... read more

3,232 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/CT400341P
Daniel R. Roe1, Thomas E. Cheatham1Institutions (1)
Abstract: We describe PTRAJ and its successor CPPTRAJ, two complementary, portable, and freely available computer programs for the analysis and processing of time series of three-dimensional atomic positions (i.e., coordinate trajectories) and the data therein derived. Common tools include the ability to manipulate the data to convert among trajectory formats, process groups of trajectories generated with ensemble methods (e.g., replica exchange molecular dynamics), image with periodic boundary conditions, create average structures, strip subsets of the system, and perform calculations such as RMS fitting, measuring distances, B-factors, radii of gyration, radial distribution functions, and time correlations, among other actions and analyses. Both the PTRAJ and CPPTRAJ programs and source code are freely available under the GNU General Public License version 3 and are currently distributed within the AmberTools 12 suite of support programs that make up part of the Amber package of computer programs (see http://ambe...

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Topics: Source code (54%), Software (52%)

2,995 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2013.09.034
Cameron Brennan1, Roel G.W. Verhaak, Aaron McKenna2, Benito Campos3  +54 moreInstitutions (27)
10 Oct 2013-Cell
Abstract: We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors, including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA expression, supporting a role in telomerase reactivation. Correlative analyses confirm that the survival advantage of the proneural subtype is conferred by the G-CIMP phenotype, and MGMT DNA methylation may be a predictive biomarker for treatment response only in classical subtype GBM. Integrative analysis of genomic and proteomic profiles challenges the notion of therapeutic inhibition of a pathway as an alternative to inhibition of the target itself. These data will facilitate the discovery of therapeutic and diagnostic target candidates, the validation of research and clinical observations and the generation of unanticipated hypotheses that can advance our molecular understanding of this lethal cancer.

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Topics: Mesenchymal Glioblastoma (54%), DNA methylation (53%), PDGFRA (51%) ... read more

2,850 Citations