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Journal ArticleDOI

Studies of directed forgetting in older adults.

01 Jan 1996-Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition (American Psychological Association)-Vol. 22, Iss: 1, pp 143-156
TL;DR: A variety of findings indicated that this age group is less able than younger adults to suppress the processing and retrieval of items designated as to be forgotten (TBF).
Abstract: Younger and older adults were compared in 4 directed forgetting experiments. These varied in the use of categorized versus unrelated word lists and in the use of item by item versus blocked remember-forget cueing procedures. Consistent with L. Hasher and R. T. Zacks's (1988) hypothesis of impaired inhibitory mechanisms in older adults, a variety of findings indicated that this age group is less able than yoimger adults to suppress the processing and retrieval of items designated as to be forgotten (TBF). Specifically, in comparison with younger adults, older adults produced more TBF word intrusions on an immediate recall test (Experiments 1A and 1B), took longer to reject TBF items (relative to a neutral baseline) on an immediate recognition test (Experiment 3), and recalled (Experiments 1A, 1B, and 2) and recognized (Experiments 1B and 2) relatively more TBF items on delayed retention tests in which all studied items were designated as targets. In this article, we present four experiments comparing the performance of younger and older adults on directed forgetting tasks. In this type of task (e.g., see Bjork, 1989), participants are presented items to study, some of which they are told to remember and others of which they are told to forget. Because the cueing as to which items are to be remembered (TBR items) and which are to be forgotten (TBF items) occurs after the items have been presented for study, participants must pay some attention to each item as it is presented. Thus, the directed forgetting paradigm investigates the ability to forget some inputs that one has recently attended to while at the same time remembering others presented in the same context and near the same time. To the degree that one is successful at this task, as younger adults generally are, the following trends are seen: The presence of TBF items on a list does not reduce recall or recognition of TBR items; there are few intrusions of TBF items when participants are asked to report only TBR items; and performance on TBF items is relatively poor when, on a later retention test, participants are asked to report TBF as well as TBR items.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The emphasis in this chapter is on the cognitive dynamics of categorical social perception, and how integrative models of cognitive functioning may inform the understanding of categorically social perception.
Abstract: In attempting to make sense of other people, perceivers regularly construct and use categorical representations to simplify and streamline the person perception process. Noting the importance of categorical thinking in everyday life, our emphasis in this chapter is on the cognitive dynamics of categorical social perception. In reviewing current research on this topic, three specific issues are addressed: (a) When are social categories activated by perceivers, (b) what are the typical consequences of category activation, and (c) can perceivers control the influence and expression of categorical thinking? Throughout the chapter, we consider how integrative models of cognitive functioning may inform our understanding of categorical social perception.

1,174 citations


Cites background from "Studies of directed forgetting in o..."

  • ...Inhibitory efficiency can also be undermined by such diverse factors as depressive affect (Linville 1996) and the cognitive changes associated with aging (von Hippel et al 1999, Zacks et al 1996)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the cerebral substrates of the central executive component of the working memory model is presented in this article, where it is shown that different executive functions (manipulating and updating of information, dual-task coordination, inhibition and shifting processes) not only recruit various frontal areas but also depend upon posterior (mainly parietal) regions.

612 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Neuroimaging studies that have explored the cerebral substrates of executive functioning demonstrate that different executive functions not only recruit various frontal areas but also depend upon posterior (mainly parietal) regions, and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies show that the activity in cerebral areas involved in executive tasks can be transient or sustained.

438 citations


Cites background or methods from "Studies of directed forgetting in o..."

  • ...The other interpretation is that all three executive functions involve an inhibitory capacity, which is considered by certain authors as a basic unit of working memory or executive functioning (e.g., Dempster & Corkill, 1999; Zacks et al., 1996)....

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  • ...For example, inhibition has been evaluated by the Stroop test (Stroop, 1935), the Hayling task (Burgess & Shallice, 1996b), the stop-signal paradigm (Logan, 1994), the antisaccade task (Roberts, 1994), the negative priming (Tipper, 1991) and the directed forgetting paradigm (Zacks et al., 1996)....

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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2007

407 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...information (e.g., May, Zacks, Hasher, & Multhaup, 1999; Zacks, Radvansky, & Hasher, 1996 )...

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References
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Book
01 Jan 1955

5,425 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: This chapter discusses the theoretical and empirical literature that addresses aging and discourse comprehension and a series of five studies guided by a particular working memory viewpoint regarding the formation of inferences during discourse processing are described.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the theoretical and empirical literature that addresses aging and discourse comprehension. A series of five studies guided by a particular working memory viewpoint regarding the formation of inferences during discourse processing is described in the chapter. Compensatory strategies may be used with different degrees of likelihood across the life span largely as a function of efficiency with which inhibitory mechanisms function because these largely determine the facility with which memory can be searched. The consequences for discourse comprehension in particular may be profound because the establishment of a coherent representation of a message hinges on the timely retrieval of information necessary to establish coreference among certain critical ideas. Discourse comprehension is an ideal domain for assessing limited capacity frameworks because most models of discourse processing assume that multiple components, demanding substantially different levels of cognitive resources, are involved. For example, access to a lexical representation from either a visual array or an auditory message is virtually capacity free.

3,331 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Saul Sternberg1
05 Aug 1966-Science
TL;DR: When subjects judge whether a test symbol is contained in a short memorized sequence of symbols, their mean reaction-time increases linearly with the length of the sequence, implying the existence of an internal serial-comparison process.
Abstract: When subjects judge whether a test symbol is contained in a short memorized sequence of symbols, their mean reaction-time increases linearly with the length of the sequence. The linearity and slope of the function imply the existence of an internal serial-comparison process whose average rate is between 25 and 30 symbols per second.

3,245 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Four theoretical models of yes-no recognition memory are described and their associated measures of discrimination and response bias are presented and the indices from the acceptable models are used to characterize recognition memory deficits in dementia and amnesia.
Abstract: SUMMARY This article has two purposes. The first is to describe four theoretical models of yesno recognition memory and present their associated measures of discrimination and response bias. These models are then applied to a set of data from normal subjects to determine which pairs of discrimination and bias indices show independence between discrimination and bias. The following models demonstrated independence: a two-highthreshold model, a signal detection model with normal distributions using d' and C (rather than beta), and a signal detection model with logistic distributions and a bias measure analogous to C. Cis defined as the distance of criterion from the intersection of the two underlying distributions. The second purpose is to use the indices from the acceptable models to characterize recognition memory deficits in dementia and amnesia, \bung normal subjects, Alzheimer's disease patients, and parkinsonian dementia patients were tested with picture recognition tasks with repeated study-test trials. Huntington's disease patients, mixed etiology amnesics, and age-matched normals were tested by Butters, Wolfe, Martone, Granholm, and Cermak (1985) using the same paradigm with word stimuli. Demented and amnesic patients produced distinctly different patterns of abnormal memory performance. Both groups of demented patients showed poor discrimination and abnormally liberal response bias for words (Huntington's disease) and pictures (Alzheimer's disease and parkinsonian dementia), whereas the amnesic patients showed the worst discrimination but normal response bias for words. Although both signal detection theory and twohigh-threshold discrimination parameters showed identical results, the bias measure from the two-high-threshold model was more sensitive to change than the bias measure (C) from signal detection theory. Three major points are emphasized. First, any index of recognition memory performance assumes an underlying model. Second, even acceptable models can lead to different conclusions about patterns of learning and forgetting. Third, efforts to characterize and ameliorate abnormal memory should address both discrimination and bias deficits.

2,898 citations