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Journal ArticleDOI

Studies on some chemical aspects of kusum oil

01 Jan 1969-Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society (Springer-Verlag)-Vol. 46, Iss: 1, pp 23-27

AbstractChemical methods, chromatography and infrared spectroscopy have been applied to ascertain the location and nature of the cyanogenic compounds in kusum oil. Observations indicate the cyanogenic compounds to be a part of glyceride molecules in which one of the hydroxyl groups of the latter is bonded to the cyanogenic compound through an ether linkage. Chromatographic behavior of the isolated cyanogenic compounds further indicates that at least two glyceride molecules are involved. These glycerides are predominantly esterified with saturated fatty acids.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2010-Fuel
Abstract: Kusum (Schleichera triguga), a non-edible oil bearing plant has been used as an ideal feedstock for biodiesel development in the present study. Various physical and chemical parameters of the raw oil and the fatty acid methyl esters derived have been tested to confirm its suitability as a biodiesel fuel. The fatty acid component of the oil was tested by gas chromatography. The acid value of the oil was determined by titration and was found to 21.30 mg KOH/g which required two step transesterification. Acid value was brought down by esterification using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as a catalyst. Thereafter, alkaline transesterification was carried out using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst for conversion of kusum oil to its methyl esters. Various parameters such as molar ratio, amount of catalyst and reaction time were optimized and a high yield (95%) of biodiesel was achieved. The high conversion of the feedstock into esters was confirmed by analysis of the product on gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer (GC–MS). Viscosity and acid value of the product biodiesel were determined and found to be within the limits of ASTM D 6751 specifications. Elemental analysis of biodiesel showed presence of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and absence of nitrogen and sulfur after purification. Molar ratio of methanol to oil was optimized and found to be 10:1 for acid esterification, and 8:1 for alkaline transesterification. The amounts of H2SO4 and KOH, 1% (v/v) and 0.7% (w/w), respectively, were found to be optimum for the reactions. The time duration of 1 h for acid esterification followed by another 1 h for alkaline transesterification at 50 ± 0.5 °C was optimum for synthesis of biodiesel.

91 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: The cyanogenic glycosides, here defined as glycosidic derivatives of α-hydroxynitriles, represent a rather limited class of natural products, which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and, to a small extent, even in animals.
Abstract: The cyanogenic glycosides, here defined as glycosidic derivatives of α-hydroxynitriles, represent a rather limited class of natural products, which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and, to a small extent, even in animals. A characteristic feature of these glycosides is their ability to release hydrocyanic acid on treatment with dilute acids or appropriate enzymes. The term “cyanogenic” is used to designate this property, regardless of whether pure substances, plants, or animals, are serving as the source. In the latter cases the term “cyanophoric” is occasionally employed synonymously.

51 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present work has not only established the escalation obtained due to ultrasonication but also exemplified the two-step approach for synthesis of biodiesel from non-edible kusum oil based on the use of heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification step.
Abstract: Present work deals with the ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from low cost, substantial acid value kusum (Schleichera triguga) oil using a two-step method of esterification in presence of acid (H2SO4) catalyst followed by transesterification using a basic heterogeneous barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2) catalyst. The initial acid value of kusum oil was reduced from 21.65 to 0.84 mg of KOH/g of oil, by acid catalyzed esterification with 4:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration 1% (v/v), ultrasonic irradiation time 20 min at 40 °C. Then, Ba(OH)2 concentration of 3% (w/w), methanol to oil molar ratio of 9:1, ultrasonic irradiation time of 80 min, and temperature of 50 °C was found to be the optimum conditions for transesterification step and triglyceride conversion of 96.8% (wt) was achieved. This paper also examined the kinetics as well as the evaluation of thermodynamic parameters for both esterification and transesterification reactions. The lower value of activation energy and higher values of kinetic constants indicated a fast rate of reaction, which could be attributed to the physical effect of emulsification, in which the microturbulence generated due to radial motion of bubbles, creates an intimate mixing of the immiscible reactants causing the increase in the interfacial area, giving faster reaction kinetics. The positive values of Gibbs-free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and negative value of entropy (ΔS) revealed that both the esterification and transesterification were non-spontaneous, endothermic and endergonic reactions. Therefore, the present work has not only established the escalation obtained due to ultrasonication but also exemplified the two-step approach for synthesis of biodiesel from non-edible kusum oil based on the use of heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification step.

49 citations


Cites background from "Studies on some chemical aspects of..."

  • ...Fatty acid composition of kusum oil has earlier been reported in the literature [5-6] and is shown in Table S1....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1970-Lipids
Abstract: A number of sapindaceous seed oils have been investigated with respect to their cyanolipid constituents. All but one of the oils have this new class of lipids in amounts ranging from 13% to 55%. These cyanolipids are of four different types, but all consist of long-chain fatty acids esterified with an unsaturated isoprenoid hydroxy- or dihydroxynitrile. The large amounts of C20 acids usually found in these oils indicate an appreciable cyanolipid content because such acids are preferentially incorporated in nitrile-containing fractions.Cardiospermum halicacabum L. seed oil was shown to contain 49% of a diester having two fatty acid moieties esterified with 1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-2-ene-1-ol and 6% of another diester derived from 1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-1-ene-3-ol. Treatment of the latter diester with methanolic hydrogen chloride produces methyl 4,4-dimethoxy-3-(methoxymethyl) butyrate from the dihydroxynitrile moiety.

40 citations


References
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Book
01 Jan 1962
Abstract: This book should be of interest to senior undergraduates, postgraduates and research workers in physics, physical sciences, physical chemistry.

8,674 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A microprocedure for the direct determination of triglyceride concentrations in biologic specimens is presented and depends on the quantitative removal of phosphatides from the sample and the subsequent determination of esterified glycerol.
Abstract: A microprocedure for the direct determination of triglyceride concentrations in biologic specimens is presented. The method depends on the quantitative removal of phosphatides from the sample and the subsequent determination of esterified glycerol. The procedure has been tested on whole blood and plasma.

1,742 citations

Book
17 Apr 1965
TL;DR: Thin-Layer Chromatography edited by E. Stahl (+) is the standard laboratory reference book for applications of this analytical method in chemical, pharmaceutical and clinical analysis.
Abstract: Thin-Layer Chromatography edited by E. Stahl (+) is the standard laboratory reference book for applications of this analytical method in chemical, pharmaceutical and clinical analysis.

1,084 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

447 citations


"Studies on some chemical aspects of..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The component fatty acids of the oil differ widely, ranging from acetic (2,5, 6 ) to araehidie....

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  • ...25%) (2-4,7), remarkably low content of linoleie acid (within 5%) and the characteristic presence of a eyanogenic compound in a concentration of 0.03- 0.05% as HeN ( 6 ,8)....

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