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Journal ArticleDOI

Studies on the anticlastogenic effect of turmeric and curcumin on cyclophosphamide and mitomycin C in vivo.

01 Jan 1998-Food and Chemical Toxicology (Pergamon)-Vol. 36, Iss: 1, pp 73-76

TL;DR: Although curcumin is reported to be the active chemopreventive principle in turmeric effective against a number of potential carcinogens in several experimental systems, it was virtually ineffective against the clastogenicity of CP or MMC at the doses tested.

AbstractTurmeric and its main constituent curcumin were assessed in vivo for their anticlastogenic potential. In one experimental set, Swiss albino male mice were given turmeric (8, 12 and 16 mg/kg body weight) or curcumin (2, 4 and 8 mg/kg body weight) as a single intraperitoneal injection. In another set, the mice were given 8 mg/kg body weight of turmeric or one of three concentrations of curcumin (2, 4 and 8 mg/kg body weight) as a dietary supplement by gavage for 7 consecutive days. 30 min after the last dose the mice were administered a single acute dose of two known clastogens, cyclophosphamide (CP) (20 mg/kg body weight) or mitomycin C (MMC) (1.5 mg/kg body weight). After 18 hr, chromosome preparations were made from bone marrow cells. The endpoints studied were chromosome aberrations and damaged cells. Clastogenicity of the chemicals was compared using turmeric- or curcuminprimed and non-primed animals. As single agents turmeric and curcumin were not clastogenic even after 7 days of priming. Turmeric/curcumin could not inhibit CP- or MMC-induced clastogenicity. Although curcumin is reported to be the active chemopreventive principle in turmeric effective against a number of potential carcinogens in several experimental systems, it was virtually ineffective against the clastogenicity of CP or MMC at the doses tested.

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Citations
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Abstract: Curcuminoids, a group of phenolic compounds isolated from the roots of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), exhibit a variety of beneficial effects on health and on events that help in preventing certain diseases. A vast majority of these studies were carried out with curcumin (diferuloyl methane), which is a major curcuminoid. The most detailed studies using curcumin include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiviral, and antiinfectious activities. In addition, the wound healing and detoxifying properties of curcumin have also received considerable attention. As a result of extensive research on the therapeutic properties of curcumin, some understanding on the cellular, molecular, and biochemical mechanism of action of curcumin is emerging. These findings are summarized in this review.

650 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Three recommended lists of chemicals that would be appropriate to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of new/modified mammalian cell genotoxicity tests are updated and how these should be used for any test evaluation program is described.
Abstract: In 2008 we published recommendations on chemicals that would be appropriate to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of new/modified mammalian cell genotoxicity tests, in particular to avoid misleading positive results. In light of new data it is appropriate to update these lists of chemicals. An expert panel was convened and has revised the recommended chemicals to fit the following different sets of characteristics: • Group 1: chemicals that should be detected as positive in in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity tests. Chemicals in this group are all in vivo genotoxins at one or more endpoints, either due to DNA-reactive or non DNA-reactive mechanisms. Many are known carcinogens with a mutagenic mode of action, but a sub-class of probable aneugens has been introduced. • Group 2: chemicals that should give negative results in in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity tests. Chemicals in this group are usually negative in vivo and non-DNA-reactive. They are either non-carcinogenic or rodent carcinogens with a non-mutagenic mode of action. • Group 3: chemicals that should give negative results in in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity tests, but have been reported to induce gene mutations in mouse lymphoma cells, chromosomal aberrations or micronuclei, often at high concentrations or at high levels of cytotoxicity. Chemicals in this group are generally negative in vivo and negative in the Ames test. They are either non-carcinogenic or rodent carcinogens with an accepted non-mutagenic mode of action. This group contains comments as to any conditions that can be identified under which misleading positive results are likely to occur. This paper, therefore, updates these three recommended lists of chemicals and describes how these should be used for any test evaluation program.

113 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Under the present experimental conditions, CMN could prevent cisplatin-induced clastogenesis by acting as a free radical scavenger and the combination between antioxidants would not be effective in protecting against cisplatin-induced chromosomal damage in animals sacrificed 24 h after cisPlatin treatment.
Abstract: The use of dietary antioxidants to prevent antitumor agent-induced chromosomal damage in nontumor cells is currently eliciting considerable interest. Curcumin (CMN) is a dietary antioxidant that has been reported to protect against clastogenesis in in vivo and in vitro assays. This study was undertaken to investigate the modulatory effects of CMN on cisplatin-induced chromosomal aberrations in Wistar rat bone marrow cells and whether there is any potentiation of these effects with the combination between CMN and vitamin C (VC), which has been reported to reduce the clastogenic effect of many antitumor agents in in vivo assays. Animals treated with CMN plus a single dose of cisplatin, at 18, 24 or 72 h following treatment, presented a statistically significant reduction in the total amount of chromosomal damage and in the number of abnormal metaphases. The results also indicate that the combination between antioxidants would not be effective in protecting against cisplatin-induced chromosomal damage in animals sacrificed 24 h after cisplatin treatment. Under the present experimental conditions, CMN could prevent cisplatin-induced clastogenesis by acting as a free radical scavenger.

105 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results showed that bell pepper was effective in reducing the mutational events induced by EC and MMS and black pepper was only effective against EC.
Abstract: The wing Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster was used to study the modulating action of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) in combination with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and the promutagen agent ethyl carbamate (EC). Larvae trans-heterozygous for the third chromosome recessive markers multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare-3 [flr(3)] were fed genotoxins alone or in combination with each of the two spices. Genetic changes induced in somatic cells of the wing's imaginal discs lead to the formation of mutant clones on the wing blade. Our results showed that bell pepper was effective in reducing the mutational events induced by EC and MMS and black pepper was only effective against EC. Pretreatment of 2-day-old larvae with the spices for 24 h followed by a treatment with EC and MMS was only effective in reducing mutations induced by EC. Suppression of metabolic activation or interaction with the active groups of mutagens could be mechanisms by which the spices exert their antimutagenic action.

78 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results clearly indicate the exacerbated effect of turmeric and curcumin on radiation-induced clastogenicity, suggesting that these antioxidants are also potentiating agents depending on the experimental conditions.
Abstract: The effect of turmeric and curcumin, two natural antioxidants, on the frequencies of chromosome aberrations induced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by gamma-radiation was investigated. Cells were treated with three concentrations of each drug, turmeric (100, 250, and 500 microg/ml) and curcumin (2.5, 5, and 10 microg/ml), and then irradiated (2.5 Gy) during different phases of the cell cycle. Turmeric was not clastogenic by itself, whereas curcumin at 10 microg/ml enhanced the chromosomal damage frequency. Neither of the two antioxidants showed protective effect against the clastogenicity of gamma-radiation. Instead, an obvious increase in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations was observed when turmeric at 500 microg/ml was associated with gamma-radiation during G2/S phase, and curcumin at 10 microg/ml plus gamma-radiation during S and G2/S phases of the cell cycle. The results clearly indicate the exacerbated effect of turmeric and curcumin on radiation-induced clastogenicity, suggesting that these antioxidants are also potentiating agents depending on the experimental conditions.

51 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI

21,973 citations

Book
09 Jan 2018
TL;DR: Indian medicinal plants/, Indian medicinal plants /, مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اصاع رسانی, کδاوρزی
Abstract: Indian medicinal plants / , Indian medicinal plants / , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی

8,106 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

792 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Investigation of the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis and also the modulating effect of this agent on the colonic mucosal and tumor phospholipase A2, phospholIPase C gamma 1, lipoxygenase, and cyclo oxygengenase activities in male F344 rats indicates that dietary administration ofCurcumin significantly inhibited incidence of colon adenocarcinomas.
Abstract: Human epidemiological and laboratory animal model studies have suggested that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs reduce the risk of development of colon cancer and that the inhibition of colon carcinogenesis is mediated through the alteration in cyclooxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid. Curcumin, which is a naturally occurring compound, is present in turmeric, possesses both antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties, and has been tested for its chemopreventive properties in skin and forestomach carcinogenesis. The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on azozymethaneinduced colon carcinogenesis and also the modulating effect of this agent on the colonic mucosal and tumor phospholipase A 2 , phospholipase Cγ1, lipoxygenase, and cyclooxygenase activities in male F344 rats. At 5 weeks of age, groups of animals were fed the control (modified AIN-76A) diet or a diet containing 2000 ppm of curcumin. At 7 weeks of age, all animals, except those in the vehicle (normal saline)-treated groups, were given two weekly s.c. injections of azoxymethane at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg body weight. All groups were continued on their respective dietary regimen until the termination of the experiment at 52 weeks after the carcinogen treatment. Colonic tumors were evaluated histopathologically. Colonic mucosa and tumors were analyzed for phospholipase A 2 , phospholipase Cγ1, ex vivo prostaglandin (PG) E 2 , cyclooxygenase, and lipoxygenase activities. The results indicate that dietary administration of curcumin significantly inhibited incidence of colon adenocarcinomas ( P P P P 57% compared to the control diet. Animals fed the curcumin diet showed decreased activities of colonic mucosal and tumor phospholipase A 2 (50%) and phospholipase Cγ1 (40%) and levels of PGE 2 (>38%). The formation of prostaglandins such as PGE 2 , PGF 2α , PGD 2 , 6-keto PGF 1α , and thromboxane B 2 through the cyclooxygenase system and production of 5( S )-, 8( S )-, 12( S )-, and 15( S )-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids via the lipoxygenase pathway from arachidonic acid were reduced in colonic mucosa and tumors of animals fed the curcumin diet as compared to control diet. Although the precise mechanism by which curcumin inhibits colon tumorigenesis remains to be elucidated, it is likely that the chemopreventive action, at least in part, may be related to the modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism.

697 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Salmonella/microsome tests (Ames tests) and chromosomal aberration tests in vitro using a Chinese hamster fibroblast cell line were carried out on 190 synthetic food additives and 52 food additives derived from natural sources, all of which are currently used in Japan.
Abstract: Salmonella/microsome tests (Ames tests) and chromosomal aberration tests in vitro using a Chinese hamster fibroblast cell line were carried out on 190 synthetic food additives and 52 food additives derived from natural sources, all of which are currently used in Japan. Fourteen out of 200 tested in the Ames assay showed positive effects and 54 out of 242 were positive in the chromosome test. Three additives (erythorbic acid, chlorine dioxide and beet red) were positive only in the Ames test, although their mutagenic potentials were relatively weak, while 43 additives were positive only in the chromosome test. Eleven additives (calcium hypochlorite, cinnamic aldehyde, l -cysteine monohydrochloride, Food Green No. 3 (Fast Green FCF), hydrogen peroxide, potassium bromate, sodium chlorite, sodium hypochlorite, sodium nitrite, cacao pigment and caramel) were positive in both the Ames test and the chromosome test. The usefulness of such primary screening tests combining two different genetic end-points, gene mutation and chromosomal aberration, and some correlation between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of food additives are discussed.

599 citations