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Book ChapterDOI

Study of PVA/CA/NH 4 SCN/Ethylene Carbonate/Al 2 O 3 Polymer Nano-Composite Electrolyte System

01 Jan 2017-Vol. 189, pp 263-275
TL;DR: In this paper, a polyvinyl alcohol-cellulose acetate (PVA/CA) blend polymer doped with Ammonium thiocyanate salt in the presence of Ethylene Carbonate (EC) as a plasticizer was prepared by simple solution casting technique.
Abstract: Poly (vinyl alcohol)—Cellulose acetate (PVA/CA) blend polymer doped with Ammonium thiocyanate salt in the presence of Ethylene Carbonate (EC) as a plasticizer were prepared by simple solution casting technique. PVA/CA blend ratio was first optimized for highest conductivity value (3.63 × 10−6 S/cm). The ionic conductivity of PVA/CA blend was further enhanced by adding 0.5 mol wt% NH4SCN and 0.3 mol wt% EC. The value of the ionic conductivity at room temperature was increased to 7.7 × 10−4 S/cm. AC impedance spectroscopy studies were used to calculate ionic conductivity values. Fourier Transform—Infrared Spectroscopy measurements revealed the existence of blending and salt complexation with host polymer. Activation energy and relaxation time were observed for the prepared plasticized membranes using Arrhenius plot and loss tangent spectra. The ionic conductivity at room temperature was further increased to the value of 2.1 × 10−3 S/cm by the addition of nano-alumina particles.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Proton conducting solid polymer electrolytes comprising PEO: PVP blend with ammonium nitrate in different compositions are prepared by solution casting technique and they are characterized with different characteristics.
Abstract: Proton conducting solid polymer electrolytes comprising PEO: PVP blend with ammonium nitrate in different compositions are prepared by solution casting technique and they are characterized with dif...

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, polymer electrolyte with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blended with cellulose acetate (CA) was chosen to prepare composite electrolyte using ammonium triflate salt and nano sized alumina (Al2O3- < 50 nm).
Abstract: In the present study, polymer electrolyte with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended with cellulose acetate (CA) was chosen to prepare composite electrolyte using ammonium triflate salt and nano sized alumina (Al2O3- < 50 nm) by the solution casting method. The as prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry and AC impedance spectra. The loss tangent and dielectric studies were carried out for all the prepared samples using AC impedance analysis. Activation energy with regression values and relaxation time were calculated and found to be low for the highest conducting membranes. The presence of 0.1 mol content of nano alumina has enhanced the ionic conductivity significantly to the value of 2.012 × 10-3 S/cm from that of the filler-free electrolyte (2.93 × 10-4 S/cm). Ionic transference number was calculated by electrostatic polarization method and it was found to be 0.9684, which shows the conducting species were ions. A proton battery fabricated using the configuration Zn+ZnSO4. H2O || PVA-CA-0.5 mol NH4CF3SO3-0.1 mol Al2O3 || PbO2 + V2O5 produced a steady state open circuit voltage of 1.39 V, which proves the prepared composite electrolyte is suitable solid electrolyte for electrochemical devices.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the electrical conductivity of a polymer electrolyte system was investigated with the help of AC impedance analysis to the four different compositions of the synthesized system I with the addition of titanium dioxide of particle size 133 nm as filler and found to exhibit electrical conductivities of 10-6 to 10-7 S cm−1 at room temperature (303 K).
References
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Book
01 Jan 2001

19,319 citations

Book
01 Jan 1956
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a chemical analysis of X-ray diffraction by Xray Spectrometry and phase-diagram Determination of single crystal structures and phase diagrams.
Abstract: 1. Properties of X-rays. 2. Geometry of Crystals. 3. Diffraction I: Directions of Diffracted Beams. 4. Diffraction II: Intensities of Diffracted Beams. 5. Diffraction III: Non-Ideal Samples. 6. Laure Photographs. 7. Powder Photographs. 8. Diffractometer and Spectrometer. 9. Orientation and Quality of Single Crystals. 10. Structure of Polycrystalline Aggregates. 11. Determination of Crystal Structure. 12. Precise Parameter Measurements. 13. Phase-Diagram Determination. 14. Order-Disorder Transformation. 15. Chemical Analysis of X-ray Diffraction. 16. Chemical Analysis by X-ray Spectrometry. 17. Measurements of Residual Stress. 18. Polymers. 19. Small Angle Scatters. 20. Transmission Electron Microscope.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review describes the polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) that are both under development and commercialized for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) and outlines the prospects of the currently known membranes for DMFC.

843 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 1996-Polymer
TL;DR: In this paper, wide angle X-ray studies indicate that diffusion of water into semicrystalline samples of the polymer gradually destroys the crystalline regions of the polyvinyl alcohol, although water is found to not inhabit intact crystallites.

640 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the relationship between electrical conduction and free volume is discussed, where the free volume Vf, jump energy Ej, and ionic dissociation energy W were taken into consideration.
Abstract: Electrical conduction in polymers under a relatively low applied electric field is considered to be ionic and is affected strongly by the structural factors of the polymers. The following equation for the electrical conductivity σ was derived in which free volume Vf, jump energy Ej, and ionic dissociation energy W were taken into consideration: σ=σ0exp{− [γ Vi*/Vf+(Ej+W/2e)(kT)−1]}, where σo is a constant, γ the numerical factor to correct the overlap of free volume, Vi* the critical volume required for transport of an ion, e the dielectric constant, k Boltzmann's constant, and T the absolute temperature. This equation describes well the conduction phenomena in polymethylmethacrylate, polystyrene, and an unsaturated polyester. Relationships between electrical conduction and free volume are discussed.

348 citations