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Journal ArticleDOI

Suicide prevention strategies: a systematic review.

26 Oct 2005-JAMA (American Medical Association)-Vol. 294, Iss: 16, pp 2064-2074

TL;DR: Physician education in depression recognition and treatment and restricting access to lethal methods reduce suicide rates, and other interventions need more evidence of efficacy.
Abstract: ContextIn 2002, an estimated 877 000 lives were lost worldwide through suicide. Some developed nations have implemented national suicide prevention plans. Although these plans generally propose multiple interventions, their effectiveness is rarely evaluated.ObjectivesTo examine evidence for the effectiveness of specific suicide-preventive interventions and to make recommendations for future prevention programs and research.Data Sources and Study SelectionRelevant publications were identified via electronic searches of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and PsychINFO databases using multiple search terms related to suicide prevention. Studies, published between 1966 and June 2005, included those that evaluated preventative interventions in major domains; education and awareness for the general public and for professionals; screening tools for at-risk individuals; treatment of psychiatric disorders; restricting access to lethal means; and responsible media reporting of suicide.Data ExtractionData were extracted on primary outcomes of interest: suicidal behavior (completion, attempt, ideation), intermediary or secondary outcomes (treatment seeking, identification of at-risk individuals, antidepressant prescription/use rates, referrals), or both. Experts from 15 countries reviewed all studies. Included articles were those that reported on completed and attempted suicide and suicidal ideation; or, where applicable, intermediate outcomes, including help-seeking behavior, identification of at-risk individuals, entry into treatment, and antidepressant prescription rates. We included 3 major types of studies for which the research question was clearly defined: systematic reviews and meta-analyses (n = 10); quantitative studies, either randomized controlled trials (n = 18) or cohort studies (n = 24); and ecological, or population- based studies (n = 41). Heterogeneity of study populations and methodology did not permit formal meta-analysis; thus, a narrative synthesis is presented.Data SynthesisEducation of physicians and restricting access to lethal means were found to prevent suicide. Other methods including public education, screening programs, and media education need more testing.ConclusionsPhysician education in depression recognition and treatment and restricting access to lethal methods reduce suicide rates. Other interventions need more evidence of efficacy. Ascertaining which components of suicide prevention programs are effective in reducing rates of suicide and suicide attempt is essential in order to optimize use of limited resources.
Topics: Suicide prevention (64%), Suicide attempt (60%), Suicide intervention (58%), Systematic review (56%), Suicidal ideation (56%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Haidong Wang1, Mohsen Naghavi1, Christine Allen1, Ryan M Barber1  +841 moreInstitutions (293)
08 Oct 2016-The Lancet
TL;DR: The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015, finding several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS.
Abstract: Summary Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. Methods We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography–year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation processes, as well as data sources, in accordance with Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, life expectancy from birth increased from 61·7 years (95% uncertainty interval 61·4–61·9) in 1980 to 71·8 years (71·5–72·2) in 2015. Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy from 2005 to 2015, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence. From 2005 to 2015, male life expectancy in Syria dropped by 11·3 years (3·7–17·4), to 62·6 years (56·5–70·2). Total deaths increased by 4·1% (2·6–5·6) from 2005 to 2015, rising to 55·8 million (54·9 million to 56·6 million) in 2015, but age-standardised death rates fell by 17·0% (15·8–18·1) during this time, underscoring changes in population growth and shifts in global age structures. The result was similar for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with total deaths from these causes increasing by 14·1% (12·6–16·0) to 39·8 million (39·2 million to 40·5 million) in 2015, whereas age-standardised rates decreased by 13·1% (11·9–14·3). Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardised death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, gains largely attributable to decreases in mortality rates due to HIV/AIDS (42·1%, 39·1–44·6), malaria (43·1%, 34·7–51·8), neonatal preterm birth complications (29·8%, 24·8–34·9), and maternal disorders (29·1%, 19·3–37·1). Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders. Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. In 2015, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus) was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to diarrhoea (146 000 deaths, 118 000–183 000) and pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to lower respiratory infections (393 000 deaths, 228 000–532 000), although pathogen-specific mortality varied by region. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI. Country patterns of premature mortality (measured as years of life lost [YLLs]) and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases caused the most YLLs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with observed YLLs far exceeding expected YLLs for countries in which malaria or HIV/AIDS remained the leading causes of early death. Interpretation At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

3,795 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Examination of prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors.
Abstract: Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior.

1,868 citations


Cites background from "Suicide prevention strategies: a sy..."

  • ...A recent systematic review of suicide prevention programs revealed that restricting access to lethal means and training physicians to recognize and treat depression and suicidal behavior have shown impressive effects in reducing suicide rates (135)....

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  • ...Following this, efforts will be required to build on findings from recent natural experiments, quasi-experiments, and true experiments on methods of suicide prevention (135)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Matthew K. Nock1, Guilherme Borges2, Evelyn J. Bromet3, Jordi Alonso  +18 moreInstitutions (11)
TL;DR: There is cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behaviours, but strong consistency in the characteristics and risk factors for these behaviours.
Abstract: Background Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, the prevalence and risk factors for the immediate precursors to suicide – suicidal ideation, plans and attempts – are not wellknown, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Aims To report on the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behaviours across 17 countries. Method A total of 84 850 adults were interviewed regarding suicidal behaviours and socio-demographic and psychiatric risk factors. Results The cross-national lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts is 9.2% (s.e.=0.1), 3.1% (s.e.=0.1), and 2.7% (s.e.=0.1). Across all countries, 60% of transitions from ideation to plan and attempt occur within the first year after ideation onset. Consistent cross-national risk factors included being female, younger, less educated, unmarried and having a mental disorder. Interestingly, the strongest diagnostic risk factors were mood disorders in high-income countries but impulse control disorders in low- and middle-income countries. Conclusion There is cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behaviours, but strong consistency in the characteristics and risk factors for these behaviours. These findings have significant implications for the prediction and prevention of suicidal behaviours.

1,698 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
09 Oct 2010-The Lancet
TL;DR: It is concluded that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations.
Abstract: Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages.

1,566 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2015-JAMA Psychiatry
TL;DR: Estimates suggest that mental disorders rank among the most substantial causes of death worldwide, and efforts to quantify and address the global burden of illness need to better consider the role of mental disorders in preventable mortality.
Abstract: Importance Despite the potential importance of understanding excess mortality among people with mental disorders, no comprehensive meta-analyses have been conducted quantifying mortality across mental disorders. Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of mortality among people with mental disorders and examine differences in mortality risks by type of death, diagnosis, and study characteristics. Data sources We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and Web of Science from inception through May 7, 2014, including references of eligible articles. Our search strategy included terms for mental disorders (eg, mental disorders, serious mental illness, and severe mental illness), specific diagnoses (eg, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder), and mortality. We also used Google Scholar to identify articles that cited eligible articles. Study selection English-language cohort studies that reported a mortality estimate of mental disorders compared with a general population or controls from the same study setting without mental illness were included. Two reviewers independently reviewed the titles, abstracts, and articles. Of 2481 studies identified, 203 articles met the eligibility criteria and represented 29 countries in 6 continents. Data extraction and synthesis One reviewer conducted a full abstraction of all data, and 2 reviewers verified accuracy. Main outcomes and measures Mortality estimates (eg, standardized mortality ratios, relative risks, hazard ratios, odds ratios, and years of potential life lost) comparing people with mental disorders and the general population or people without mental disorders. We used random-effects meta-analysis models to pool mortality ratios for all, natural, and unnatural causes of death. We also examined years of potential life lost and estimated the population attributable risk of mortality due to mental disorders. Results For all-cause mortality, the pooled relative risk of mortality among those with mental disorders (from 148 studies) was 2.22 (95% CI, 2.12-2.33). Of these, 135 studies revealed that mortality was significantly higher among people with mental disorders than among the comparison population. A total of 67.3% of deaths among people with mental disorders were due to natural causes, 17.5% to unnatural causes, and the remainder to other or unknown causes. The median years of potential life lost was 10 years (n = 24 studies). We estimate that 14.3% of deaths worldwide, or approximately 8 million deaths each year, are attributable to mental disorders. Conclusions and relevance These estimates suggest that mental disorders rank among the most substantial causes of death worldwide. Efforts to quantify and address the global burden of illness need to better consider the role of mental disorders in preventable mortality.

1,382 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
05 Apr 1995-JAMA
TL;DR: A multifaceted intervention consisting of collaborative management by the primary care physician and a consulting psychiatrist, intensive patient education, and surveillance of continued refills of antidepressant medication improved adherence to antidepressant regimens in patients with major and with minor depression and resulted in more favorable depressive outcomes.
Abstract: Objective. —To compare the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention in patients with depression in primary care with the effectiveness of "usual care" by the primary care physician. Design. —A randomized controlled trial among primary care patients with major depression or minor depression. Patients. —Over a 12-month period a total of 217 primary care patients who were recognized as depressed by their primary care physicians and were willing to take antidepressant medication were randomized, with 91 patients meeting criteria for major depression and 126 for minor depression. Interventions. —Intervention patients received increased intensity and frequency of visits over the first 4 to 6 weeks of treatment (visits 1 and 3 with a primary care physician, visits 2 and 4 with a psychiatrist) and continued surveillance of adherence to medication regimens during the continuation and maintenance phases of treatment. Patient education in these visits was supplemented by videotaped and written materials. Main Outcome Measures. —Primary outcome measures included short-term (30-day) and long-term (90-day) use of antidepressant medication at guideline dosage levels, satisfaction with overall care for depression and antidepressant medication, and reduction in depressive symptoms. Results. —In patients with major depression, the intervention group had greater adherence than the usual care controls to adequate dosage of antidepressant medication for 90 days or more (75.5% vs 50.0%;P Conclusion. —A multifaceted intervention consisting of collaborative management by the primary care physician and a consulting psychiatrist, intensive patient education, and surveillance of continued refills of antidepressant medication improved adherence to antidepressant regimens in patients with major and with minor depression. It improved satisfaction with care and resulted in more favorable depressive outcomes in patients with major, but not minor, depression. (JAMA. 1995;273:1026-1031)

1,400 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two recent American studies have shown more than 90 per cent of suicides to be mentally ill before their death, and the familiar clinical observation that suicidal thoughts disappear when the illness is successfully treated provide a strong case for a medical policy of prevention.
Abstract: One hundred suicides were investigated retrospectively by interviewing surviving relatives. Nine-three per cent were diagnosed mentally ill, 85 per cent suffering from depression or alcoholism. Eighty per cent were seeing a doctor and 80 per cent were prescribed psychotropic drugs. Over a half had given warnings of suicidal thinking. Some suicides may be preventable with modern psychiatric treatment, but our investigation showed that these methods were not always being effectively deployed.

1,228 citations


"Suicide prevention strategies: a sy..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Mood disorders, principally major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, are associated with about 60% of suicides.(7,8,10,15,16) Other contributory factors include availability of lethal means, alcohol and drug abuse, access to psychiatric treatment, attitudes to suicide, help-seeking behavior, physical illness, marital status, age, and sex....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Alternative approaches to suicide-prevention efforts may be needed for those less likely to be seen in primary care or mental health specialty care, specifically young men.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study examined rates of contact with primary care and mental health care professionals by individuals before they died by suicide. METHOD: The authors reviewed 40 studies for which there was information available on rates of health care contact and examined age and gender differences among the subjects. RESULTS: Contact with primary care providers in the time leading up to suicide is common. While three of four suicide victims had contact with primary care providers within the year of suicide, approximately one-third of the suicide victims had contact with mental health services. About one in five suicide victims had contact with mental health services within a month before their suicide. On average, 45% of suicide victims had contact with primary care providers within 1 month of suicide. Older adults had higher rates of contact with primary care providers within 1 month of suicide than younger adults. CONCLUSIONS: While it is not known to what degree contact with mental health care and pr...

1,227 citations


"Suicide prevention strategies: a sy..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Suicide prevention is possible because up to 83% of suicides have had contact with a primary care physician within a year of their death and up to 66% within a month.(17,18) Thus, a key prevention strategy is improved screening of depressed patients by primary care physicians and better treatment of major depression....

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  • ...Prevention is possible because most suicides have had contact with a primary care physician within a month of death.(17,18) Primary care physicians’ lack of knowledge about or failure to screen patients for depression may contribute to nontreatment seen in most suicides....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A limited range of diagnoses--most commonly a mood disorder alone or in combination with conduct disorder and/or substance abuse--characterizes most suicides among teenagers.
Abstract: Background: The age, sex, and ethnic distribution of adolescents who commit suicide is significantly different from that of the general population. The present study was designed to examine psychiatric risk factors and the relationship between them and demographic variables. Methods: A case-control, psychologic autopsy study of 120 of 170 consecutive subjects (age, Results: By using parent informants only, 59% of subjects who committed suicide and 23% of control subjects who metDSM-IIIcriteria for a psychiatric diagnosis, 49% and 26%, respectively, had had symptoms for more than 3 years, and 46% and 29%, respectively, had had previous contact with a mental health professional. Best-estimate rates, based on multiple informants for these parameters, for suicides only, were 91%, 52%, and 46%, respectively. Previous attempts and mood disorder were major risk factors for both sexes; substance and/or alcohol abuse was a risk factor for males only. Mood disorder was more common in females, substance and/or alcohol abuse occurred exclusively in males (62% of 18-to 19-year-old suicides). The prevalence of a psychiatric diagnosis and, in particular, substance and/or alcohol abuse increased with age. Conclusion: A limited range of diagnoses—most commonly a mood disorder alone or in combination with conduct disorder and/or substance abuse—characterizes most suicides among teenagers.

1,216 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: While tremendous strides have been made in understanding of who is at risk for suicide, it is incumbent upon future research efforts to focus on the development and evaluation of empirically based suicide prevention and treatment protocols.
Abstract: Objective To review critically the past 10 years of research on youth suicide. Method Research literature on youth suicide was reviewed following a systematic search of PsycINFO and Medline. The search for school-based suicide prevention programs was expanded using two education databases: ERIC and Education Full Text. Finally, manual reviews of articles' reference lists identified additional studies. The review focuses on epidemiology, risk factors, prevention strategies, and treatment protocols. Results There has been a dramatic decrease in the youth suicide rate during the past decade. Although a number of factors have been posited for the decline, one of the more plausible ones appears to be the increase in antidepressants being prescribed for adolescents during this period. Youth psychiatric disorder, a family history of suicide and psychopathology, stressful life events, and access to firearms are key risk factors for youth suicide. Exciting new findings have emerged on the biology of suicide in adults, but, while encouraging, these are yet to be replicated in youths. Promising prevention strategies, including school-based skills training for students, screening for at-risk youths, education of primary care physicians, media education, and lethal-means restriction, need continuing evaluation studies. Dialectical behavior therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and treatment with antidepressants have been identified as promising treatments but have not yet been tested in a randomized clinical trial of youth suicide. Conclusions While tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of who is at risk for suicide, it is incumbent upon future research efforts to focus on the development and evaluation of empirically based suicide prevention and treatment protocols.

1,177 citations


"Suicide prevention strategies: a sy..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Other specific education strategies are aimed at youth, including school and community-based programs.(114,115) Few such programs are evidencebased, reflect the current state of knowledge in suicide prevention, or evaluate effectiveness and safety for preventing suicidal behavior....

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  • ...Few such programs are evidencebased, reflect the current state of knowledge in suicide prevention, or evaluate effectiveness and safety for preventing suicidal behavior.(114) A systematic review of studies published from 1980-1995 found that knowledge about suicide improved but there were both beneficial and harmful effects in terms of help-seeking, attitudes, and peer support....

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