scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Sure Everyone Can Be Replaced … But At What Cost? Turnover As A Predictor Of Unit-Level Performance

TL;DR: In this article, the authors viewed turnover as a key predictor in determining unit-level unit-levy performance and used it as a predictor of the unit level performance of employees.
Abstract: Most turnover research positions employee turnover as the dependent variable and focuses on identifying its antecedents. In this study, we viewed turnover as a key predictor in determining unit-lev...
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the effects of three dimensions of HR systems (skillsenhancing, motivationenhancing and opportunity-enhancing) on the ability-motivation-opportunity model.
Abstract: Drawing on the ability-motivation-opportunity model, this meta-analysis examined the effects of three dimensions of HR systems—skills-enhancing, motivation-enhancing, and opportunity-enhancing—on p...

1,624 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine the influence of psychological contract breach on 8 work-related outcomes, including actual turnover, attitude, commitment, and in-role performance.
Abstract: A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the influence of psychological contract breach on 8 work-related outcomes. Breach was related to all outcomes except actual turnover. Based on affective events theory, we developed a causal model integrating breach, affect (violation and mistrust), attitude (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions), and individual effectiveness (actual turnover, organizational citizenship behavior, and in-role performance). Structural equation modeling was used to test the model. The results indicated that affect mediates the effect of breach on attitude and individual effectiveness. Two moderators were also examined including the type of breach measure (global vs. composite) and the content of the psychological contract breach (transactional vs. relational). Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

1,331 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a multilevel model connecting micro, intermediate, and macro levels of scholarship is proposed for the conceptualization of the human capital resource, which is created from the emergence of individuals' knowledge, skills, abilities, or other characteristics.
Abstract: This article offers a new approach to the conceptualization of the human capital resource by developing a multilevel model connecting micro, intermediate, and macro levels of scholarship. We define human capital as a unit-level resource that is created from the emergence of individuals' knowledge, skills, abilities, or other characteristics. The model provides new insights into how strategically valuable human capital resources have their origins in the psychological attributes of individuals and are transformed through unit-level processes.

908 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluate the current state of the field of voluntary employee turnover in the past decade as well as new managerial approaches to employee retention, labor market dynamism, and evolution in research methodology and technology.
Abstract: Given the extensive research on the topic of voluntary employee turnover in the past decade as well as new managerial approaches to employee retention, labor market dynamism, and evolution in research methodology and technology, it is important that researchers evaluate the current state of the field. In

849 citations


Cites background from "Sure Everyone Can Be Replaced … But..."

  • ..., 2004]) and for the organization, especially organizational performance (e.g., Dess & Shaw, 2001; Kacmar et al., 2006; Koys, 2001; Shaw et al., 2005; McElroy et al., 2001)....

    [...]

  • ...…has been paid to the consequences of turnover for the individual (e.g., at the next job [Boswell et al., 2005; De Croon et al., 2004]) and for the organization, especially organizational performance (e.g., Dess & Shaw, 2001; Kacmar et al., 2006; Koys, 2001; Shaw et al., 2005; McElroy et al., 2001)....

    [...]

  • ...Further, Kacmar et al. (2006) reported that turnover at the unit level (both voluntary and involuntary turnover) was negatively related to unit performance and that this relationship was mediated by unit efficiency....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a meta-analysis of 239 effect sizes derived from 65 studies reveals that HRM bundles have significantly larger magnitudes of effects than their constituent individual practices, are positively related to business outcomes, and display effect sizes that are comparable to or larger than those of high-performance work systems.
Abstract: Human resource management bundles consisting of multiple complementary practices are typically considered superior to individual best practices in influencing firm performance. This study investigates the relationship between three such bundles (empowerment, motivation, and skill-enhancing) and business outcomes (retention, operating performance, financial performance, and overall performance ratings). A meta-analysis of 239 effect sizes derived from 65 studies reveals that HRM bundles have significantly larger magnitudes of effects than their constituent individual practices, are positively related to business outcomes, and display effect sizes that are comparable to or larger than those of high-performance work systems. These findings reaffirm the case for firm-level investments in synergistic HRM combinations and highlight the importance of investing in complementary practices. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

602 citations

References
More filters
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: The primary contribution of the paper is in exploring the coordination mechanisms through which firms integrate the specialist knowledge of their members, which has implications for the basis of organizational capability, the principles of organization design, and the determinants of the horizontal and vertical boundaries of the firm.
Abstract: Given assumptions about the characteristics of knowledge and the knowledge requirements of production, the firm is conceptualized as an institution for integrating knowledge. The primary contribution of the paper is in exploring the coordination mechanisms through which firms integrate the specialist knowledge of their members. In contrast to earlier literature, knowledge is viewed as residing within the individual, and the primary role of the organization is knowledge application rather than knowledge creation. The resulting theory has implications for the basis of organizational capability, the principles of organization design (in particular, the analysis of hierarchy and the distribution of decision-making authority), and the determinants of the horizontal and vertical boundaries of the firm. More generally, the knowledge-based approach sheds new light upon current organizational innovations and trends and has far-reaching implications for management practice.

12,839 citations


"Sure Everyone Can Be Replaced … But..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The relationship between turnover and effi ciency can be explained in terms of Grant's (1996) knowledge-based theory of organizations....

    [...]

  • ...Explicit knowledge is that which is written, easily commu nicated, and often contained in policies, proce dures, or rules within organizations (Grant, 1996)....

    [...]

  • ...Although knowledge transfer is important for training new employees, knowledge transfer in its purest form may lead to inefficiencies, since it is unnecessary for each individual to have a full working knowledge of every other organization member's tasks (Berman, Down, & HrH, 2002; Grant, 1996)....

    [...]

  • ...These links provide em pirical support for the knowledge-based view of organizations, including its assumptions of knowledge transfer and coordination (Grant, 1996)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore the coordination mechanisms through which firms integrate the specialist knowledge of their members, which has implications for the basis of organizational capability, the principles of organization design, and the determinants of the horizontal and vertical boundaries of the firm.
Abstract: Given assumptions about the characteristics of knowledge and the knowledge requirements of production, the firm is conceptualized as an institution for integrating knowledge. The primary contribution of the paper is in exploring the coordination mechanisms through which firms integrate the specialist knowledge of their members. In contrast to earlier literature, knowledge is viewed as residing within the individual, and the primary role of the organization is knowledge application rather than knowledge creation. The resulting theory has implications for the basis of organizational capability, the principles of organization design (in particular, the analysis of hierarchy and the distribution of decision-making authority), and the determinants of the horizontal and vertical boundaries of the firm. More generally, the knowledge-based approach sheds new light upon current organizational innovations and trends and has far-reaching implications for management practice.

11,779 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The notion of complementarity and reciprocity in functional theory is explored in this article, enabling a reanalysis of the concepts of "survival" and "exploitation" and the need to distinguish between complementarity, reciprocity, and the generalized moral norm of reciprocity.
Abstract: The manner in which the concept of reciprocity is implicated in functional theory is explored, enabling a reanalysis of the concepts of "survival" and "exploitation." The need to distinguish between the concepts of complementarity and reciprocity is stressed. Distinctions are also drawn between (1) reciprocity as a pattern of mutually contingent exchange of gratifications, (2) the existential or folk belief in reciprocity, and (3) the generalized moral norm of reciprocity. Reciprocity as a moral norm is analyzed; it is hypothesized that it is one of the universal "principal components" of moral codes. As Westermarck states, "To requite a benefit, or to be grateful to him who bestows it, is probably everywhere, at least under certain circumstances, regarded as a duty. This is a subject which in the present connection calls for special consideration." Ways in which the norm of reciprocity is implicated in the maintenance of stable social systems are examined.

10,277 citations

Book
01 Feb 1993
TL;DR: In this paper, Bollen et al. proposed a model fitting metric for Structural Equation Models, which is based on the Monte Carlo evaluation of Goodness-of-Fit measures.
Abstract: Introduction - Kenneth A Bollen and J Scott Long Multifaceted Conceptions of Fit in Structural Equation Models - J S Tanaka Monte Carlo Evaluations of Goodness-of-Fit Indices for Structural Equation Models - David W Gerbing and James C Anderson Some Specification Tests for the Linear Regression Model - J Scott Long and Pravin K Trivedi Bootstrapping Goodness-of-Fit Measures in Structural Equation Models - Kenneth A Bollen and Robert A Stine Alternative Ways of Assessing Model Fit - Michael W Browne and Robert Cudeck Bayesian Model Selection in Structural Equation Models - Adrian E Raftery Power Evaluations in Structural Equation Models - Willem E Saris and Albert Satorra Goodness-of-Fit with Categorical and Other Nonnormal Variables - Bengt O Muthen Some New Covariance Structure Model Improvement Statistics - P M Bentler and Chih-Ping Chou Nonpositive Definite Matrices in Structural Modeling - Werner Wothke Testing Structural Equation Models - Karl G Joreskog

9,377 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the linkages between systems of high performance work practices and firm performance and found that these practices have an economically and statistically significant impact on both intermediate outcomes (turnover and productivity) and short and long-term measures of corporate financial performance.
Abstract: This paper comprehensively examined the linkages between systems of High Performance Work Practices and firm performance. Results based on a national sample of nearly one thousand firms indicate that these practices have an economically and statistically significant impact on both intermediate outcomes (turnover and productivity) and short- and long-term measures of corporate financial performance. Support for the predictions that the impact of High Performance Work Practices is in part contingent on their interrelationships and links with competitive strategy was limited.

8,131 citations


"Sure Everyone Can Be Replaced … But..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Recently, reduced turnover has been examined as one outcome of "high-involvement human re source systems," which can ultimately be linked with organizationally valued outcomes, including performance measures such as sales and profit (Batt, 2002; Huselid, 1995)....

    [...]