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Journal ArticleDOI

Surface studies by scanning tunneling microscopy

05 Jul 1982-Physical Review Letters (American Physical Society)-Vol. 49, Iss: 1, pp 57-61
TL;DR: In this paper, surface microscopy using vacuum tunneling has been demonstrated for the first time, and topographic pictures of surfaces on an atomic scale have been obtained for CaIrSn 4 and Au.
Abstract: Surface microscopy using vacuum tunneling is demonstrated for the first time. Topographic pictures of surfaces on an atomic scale have been obtained. Examples of resolved monoatomic steps and surface reconstructions are shown for (110) surfaces of CaIrSn 4 and Au.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The atomic force microscope as mentioned in this paper is a combination of the principles of the scanning tunneling microscope and the stylus profilometer, which was proposed as a method to measure forces as small as 10-18 N. As one application for this concept, they introduce a new type of microscope capable of investigating surfaces of insulators on an atomic scale.
Abstract: The scanning tunneling microscope is proposed as a method to measure forces as small as 10-18 N. As one application for this concept, we introduce a new type of microscope capable of investigating surfaces of insulators on an atomic scale. The atomic force microscope is a combination of the principles of the scanning tunneling microscope and the stylus profilometer. It incorporates a probe that does not damage the surface. Our preliminary results in air demonstrate a lateral resolution of 30 A and a vertical resolution less than 1 A.

12,344 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The most relevant features of WSXM, a freeware scanning probe microscopy software based on MS-Windows, are described and some relevant procedures of the software are carried out.
Abstract: In this work we briefly describe the most relevant features of WSXM, a freeware scanning probe microscopy software based on MS-Windows. The article is structured in three different sections: The introduction is a perspective on the importance of software on scanning probe microscopy. The second section is devoted to describe the general structure of the application; in this section the capabilities of WSXM to read third party files are stressed. Finally, a detailed discussion of some relevant procedures of the software is carried out.

6,996 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The atomic force microscope (AFM) is not only used to image the topography of solid surfaces at high resolution but also to measure force-versus-distance curves as discussed by the authors, which provide valuable information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness, Hamaker constant, adhesion and surface charge densities.

3,281 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Jerry Tersoff1, D. R. Hamann1
TL;DR: In this paper, a metal tip is scanned along the surface while ad justing its height to maintain constant vacuum tunneling current, and a contour map of the surface is generated.
Abstract: The recent development of the “scanning tunneling microscope” (STM) by Binnig et al. [8.1–5] has made possible the direct real-space imaging of surface topography. In this technique, a metal tip is scanned along the surface while ad justing its height to maintain constant vacuum tunneling current. The result is essentially a contour map of the surface. This contribution reviews the the ory [8.6–8] of STM, with illustrative examples. Because the microscopic structure of the tip is unknown, the tip wave functions are modeled as s-wave functions in the present approach [8.6, 7]. This approximation works best for small effective tip size. The tunneling current is found to be proportional to the surface local density of states (at the Fermi level), evaluated at the position of the tip. The effective resolution is roughly [2A(R+d)]1/2, where R is the effective tip radius and d is the gap distance. When applied to the 2x1 and 3x1 reconstructions of the Au(l10) surface, the theory gives excellent agreement with experiment [8.4] if a 9 A tip radius is assumed. For dealing with more complex or aperiodic surfaces, a crude but convenient calculational technique based on atom charge superposition is introduced; it reproduces the Au(l10) results reasonably well. This method is used to test the structure-sensitivity of STM. The Au(l10) image is found to be rather insensitive to the position of atoms beyond the first atomic layer.

3,192 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
D. M. Eigler1, E. K. Schweizer1
01 Apr 1990-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, Binnig and Rohrer used the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) to position individual xenon atoms on a single-crystal nickel surface with atomic pre-cision.
Abstract: SINCE its invention in the early 1980s by Binnig and Rohrer1,2, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) has provided images of surfaces and adsorbed atoms and molecules with unprecedented resolution The STM has also been used to modify surfaces, for example by locally pinning molecules to a surface3 and by transfer of an atom from the STM tip to the surface4 Here we report the use of the STM at low temperatures (4 K) to position individual xenon atoms on a single-crystal nickel surface with atomic pre-cision This capacity has allowed us to fabricate rudimentary structures of our own design, atom by atom The processes we describe are in principle applicable to molecules also In view of the device-like characteristics reported for single atoms on surfaces5,6, the possibilities for perhaps the ultimate in device miniaturization are evident

2,765 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the main features of the extraction of electrons from cold metals by intense electric fields are well known, and an approximate theory of the effect was first developed by Schottky.
Abstract: 1. Introduction .—The main features of the phenomenon of the extraction of electrons from cold metals by intense electric fields are well known, and an approximate theory of the effect was first developed by Schottky. More recently the experimental data have been much improved, notably by Millikan and Eyring, and Millikan and Lauritsen. The theory has been considered afresh by O. W. Richardson and by Houston working with Sommerfeld. It seems to us, however, that there is still room for improvement in the theoretical exposition and its correlation with the experiments. Neither O. W. Richardson nor Houston really treat the theory in the simple straightforward way which is now possible in the new mechanics, using the revived electron theory of metals which we owe to Sommerfeld. Again, while Millikan and Lauritsen seem to have established quite definitely the laws of dependence of the emission on the field strength F, they speak of the implications of their result in a way which is hard to justify and might in certain circumstances prove to be definitely misleading. Millikan and Lauritsen show that a plot of log I, where I is the current, against 1/F yields a good straight line whenever the experimental conditions are sufficiently stable. At ordinary temperatures these currents are completely independent of the temperature. The formula for these current is I = C e ─a /F, (1) Which is, of course, indistinguishable from I = CF2 e ─a /F. (2) Millikan and his associates have also shown that as the higher temperatures, at which ordinary thermionic emission begins, are approached, the strong field emission does become sensitive to temperature and finally blends into the thermionic.

5,151 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the first successful tunneling experiment with an externally and reproducibly adjustable vacuum gap is reported, based on the exponential dependence of the tunneling resistance on the width of the gap.
Abstract: We report on the first successful tunneling experiment with an externally and reproducibly adjustable vacuum gap. The observation of vacuum tunneling is established by the exponential dependence of the tunneling resistance on the width of the gap. The experimental setup allows for simultaneous investigation and treatment of the tunnel electrode surfaces.

1,685 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a non-contacting instrument for measuring the microtopography of metallic surfaces has been developed to the point where the feasibility of constructing a prototype instrument has been demonstrated.
Abstract: A noncontacting instrument for measuring the microtopography of metallic surfaces has been developed to the point where the feasibility of constructing a prototype instrument has been demonstrated. The resolution of the preprototype unit is 30 A perpendicular to the surface and 4000 A in the plane of the surface. Inherent noise in the perpendicular direction corresponds to 3 A or one atomic layer. By using a typical field emitter with radius of 100 A, an ultimate limit of 200 A would be expected for the horizontal resolution. Topographic maps of an infrared diffraction grating have been measured in order to demonstrate the performance of the instrument in measuring a well characterized surface. The instrument has been shown to conform to the Fowler‐Nordheim description of field emission while spaced at the usual operating distances from the surface. When moved to within 30 A of the surface, its performance is compatible with Simmons' theory of MVM tunneling. In the MVM mode, the instrument is capable of p...

322 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an extensive analysis of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) intensities, using dynamical (multiple scattering) calculations, was performed on the surface reconstruction of the Ir(100, Pt(100), and Au(100) crystal surfaces, and it was found that a hexagonal rearrangement of the top monolayer is a likely explanation of surface reconstruction.

210 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a contact between two solid conducting bodies is visualized as a small gap between them, which can be described as a potential-hill over which electrons, according to the wave-mechanical theory, can pass even with insufficient kinetic energy.
Abstract: A contact between two solid conducting bodies is visualized as a small gap between them. This gap can be described as a potential-hill over which electrons, according to the wave-mechanical theory, can pass even with insufficient kinetic energy. The general expression of the resulting current intensity as function of the potential-difference is obtained and discussed for the case of two identical or different bodies in connection with the resistance of granular structures (thin metallic films) and the rectifying action of certain contacts.

155 citations