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Journal ArticleDOI

Sustainable tourism development in mountain areas in Šumadija and Western Serbia

01 Mar 2021-Journal of Mountain Science (Science Press)-Vol. 18, Iss: 3, pp 735-748
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the sustainable tourism development level in the most developed and most visited regions in Serbia, namely, Sumadija and Western Serbia, by using five groups of the EU's comparative indicators: economic, social, cultural, environmental and tourist satisfaction indicators.
Abstract: Sustainable tourism, as an integral part of sustainable development, emerged as a logical outcome of preventing the uncontrolled and excessive use of tourism resources and attractions. This study analyzes whether mountain tourism development in Serbia can be sustainable and feasible in the long term. Given the heterogeneity of mountains in Serbia in terms of tourism development, the subject of this research is the achieved level of sustainable tourism development in mountains in the most developed and most visited region in Serbia — Sumadija and Western Serbia: Zlatibor, Kopaonik, Tara, Zlatar, Mokra Gora and Goc. The sustainable tourism development level was analyzed by using five groups of the EU’s comparative indicators: economic, social, cultural, environmental and tourist satisfaction indicators. The results showed that the development of tourism in the examined mountains is not fully aligned with sustainable development. The tourist satisfaction indicator has the most acceptable values, which is a good basis for further harmonization of tourism development on the principles of sustainability. Economic indicators, especially the ratio of overnight stays and accommodation capacities, show the most unacceptable values, which indicate the need for implementing changes in the process of tourism development in the coming period. The analysis of sustainable tourism in mountain areas in Sumadija and the Western Serbia undoubtfully points out that it is necessary to significantly change the current tourism product portfolio, which implies harmonizing mountain tourism development with global trends. Certainly, a comparative analysis that looks at the degree of sustainability of mountain tourism in some countries of the Alpine region, such as Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia, contributes to this. The more intensive development of tourism throughout the year would significantly improve indicators of sustainable tourism in all analyzed mountain areas of Sumadija and Western Serbia. This would improve the value of economic indicators, which are marked as the most unsustainable. The development of tourism in the summer season, especially recreational and adventure tourism, would improve the social and cultural component of sustainable tourism. Environmental dimension of sustainable tourism would be enhanced by the development of ecotourism. By connecting spatially close mountains (Zlatibor, Zlatar, Tara and Mokra Gora) into a unique and integrated tourism destination, synergistic effects would be achieved resulting in international recognition and making the region of Sumadija and Western Serbia competitive on the European market.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Liyun Zeng1
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors identified the most influential journal articles, researchers, and countries in mountain tourism research as indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) database during 2010-2020.
Abstract: Due to hectic city lives and the growing health concerns in light of the global pandemic, mountain tourism has become increasingly popular worldwide, which has increased the related research. Based on traditional bibliometric laws, such as those authored by Price, Bradford, Lotka, and Zipf, this study acquired 1413 mountain tourism journal articles via bibliometric analysis and identified the most influential journal articles, researchers, and countries in mountain tourism research as indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) database during 2010–2020. The keyword analysis revealed mountain tourism’s emerging research topics, including climate change, sustainable development, sustainability, sustainable tourism, protected areas, rural tourism, and conservation. The most influential journal was Sustainability in the mountain tourism. The research results showed that China, the U.S., and Romania produced the most significant mountain tourism articles indexed in the WoS. Most developed countries in Europe had the highest average and average normalized citations, which indicated that they may have more influence in this field as compared to other countries. Some developing countries, such as India, Nepal, and China, had higher citations, average citations, and/or average normalized citations than other countries. The main research trend was the sustainable development aspect of mountain-based tourism during the COVID-19 pandemic. We identified the research gap in WoS; although there is some research shedding light on tourism via bibliometrics, mountain tourism bibliometric analysis and science mapping via VOSViewer is scarce. The paper summarizes the critical aspects of the current discussion of sustainable mountain tourism, such as transport and coopetition (i.e., combing with cooperation and competition) in mountain tourism areas. The results indicated that government agencies and destination managers need to strike a balance between sustainable mountain tourism development and environment and natural landscape conservation after COVID-19.

20 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the impact of the perception of the local population and visitors and their satisfaction with the development of tourism in the protected mountain area of Fruška Gora National Park was analyzed.
Abstract: Sustainable development can be an element of tourism success if its principles are included in the process of strategic tourism development planning, and if such a concept is one of the strategic development goals. The paper analyzes the impact of the perception of the local population and visitors and their satisfaction with the development of tourism in the protected mountain area of Fruška Gora National Park, which has an abundance of natural, cultural, and social tourism resources that are directly included in the tourism offer. Maintaining natural and social values within this sensitive tourist destination, eliminating negative effects of tourism, strengthening the role of residents and visitors in tourism planning and development, and initiating special and other forms of tourism should be the basis of tourism development in this preserved area. The purpose of the research was to obtain important results on the residents’ attitudes and visitors’ satisfaction with the state of sustainable tourism within this national park, using quantitative methodology and an SPSS analysis of the conducted questionnaire. The respondents’ attitudes referred to environmental, economic, sociocultural, and institutional sustainability as being significant foundations of sustainable tourism development. The results revealed not only that tourism in Fruška Gora National Park was partially sustainable, but also that there was a need to improve all dimensions of sustainability. Such results could be used to transform tourism development strategies by emphasizing the growth of sustainable forms of tourism activities. The construction of tourist facilities and infrastructures must be based on environmental protection and residents must be directly involved in tourism development planning.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors examined the function that the selected protected areas have in the sustainable development of tourism, and found that the four dimensions of sustainability have significant values and that these selected areas have an important function in tourism.
Abstract: Biosphere reserves are protected areas vital for the preservation of living and inanimate nature, including the protection of anthropogenic values and cultural heritage. The basins of the Mura, Drava, and Danube rivers stretch through Slovenia, Croatia, Austria, Hungary, and Serbia and form a unique spatial unity. The Biosphere Reserve concept defines about 300,000 hectares of core and buffer zones and around 700,000 hectares of transition zones. This large, primarily marshy area is rich in natural and cultural heritage. This area is called “the Amazon of Europe” and represents the world’s first Transboundary UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, “Mura-Drava-Danube,” among five countries. This biosphere reserve is important for the preservation of the natural and cultural values of the entire region. Especially rare plant and animal representatives live in this unique geographical unity. Some species inhabit only this area. A total of 900,000 people living around this reserve have a rich cultural tradition and heritage that needs to be protected. The objective of the research is to examine the function that the selected protected areas have in the sustainable development of tourism. Quantitative methodology was used in the research. An analysis of the conducted questionnaire was performed using the SPSS v.21 software, as well as a comparative analysis of the attitudes of 1295 residents from three countries. Residents’ attitudes refer to the level of ecological, economic, socio-cultural, and institutional sustainability of this biosphere reserve as a tourist destination. The research results indicate that the four dimensions of sustainability have significant values and that the selected areas have an important function in the sustainable development of tourism.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors evaluated and analyzed the knowledge of young Romanian students about ecotourism and the main eco-tourism destinations in Romania, their behavior in relation to the practice of sustainable tourism at the local level in the last two years (2020 and 2021), and people's use of the Internet for planning holidays and digital applications while traveling in nature.
Abstract: The knowledge, perception, and behavior of young people toward ecotourism are important for the sustainable development of this sector. The purpose of this research is to evaluate and analyze the knowledge of young Romanian students about ecotourism and the main ecotourism destinations in Romania, their behavior in relation to the practice of this form of sustainable tourism at the local level in the last 2 years (2020 and 2021), and people’s use of the Internet for planning holidays and digital applications while traveling in nature. A quantitative research was conducted based on a self-administered questionnaire, structured in 13 sections on ecotourism, to which were added the sociodemographic data of the respondents. The conclusions of the research are that young people know well the main ecotourism destinations in Romania; they choose them according to the beauty of the landscape, multitude of outdoor activities, and the hospitality of the hosts. In the last 2 years of the pandemic, young people have visited several times the main existing ecotourism destinations locally, with an average vacation duration of 1–3 days. The Internet remains the main source of information, and in the field, they use mobile applications that allow the download of digital maps and recognize different plant species. By integrating various activities in nature, in close connection with the local culture, ecotourism can contribute to the sustainable use of local tourism resources. This study provides a detailed and realistic picture of the knowledge and the type of ecotourism experience that young people want. The implications are theoretical and managerial, highlighting the importance of assessing the preferences of young ecotourists, as a basis for developing ecotourism strategies, sustainable use of local tourism resources, and management of protected areas.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Yong Liu, Jinhao He, Qian Chen, Bing Fu, Erwei Dong 
TL;DR: Based on Breakwell's Place Identity Process Theory of distinctiveness, continuity, self-esteem, and selfefficacy, this article investigated the factors influencing the place identity of Tibetan mountain guides, in Mt. Siguniang Town, in the context of the development of mountain outdoor tourism.
Abstract: This paper aimed to investigate the factors influencing the place identity of Tibetan mountain guides, in Mt. Siguniang Town, in the context of the development of mountain outdoor tourism. Based on Breakwell’s Place Identity Process Theory of distinctiveness, continuity, self-esteem, and self-efficacy, this paper analyzed data, collected by semi-structured interviews and the observation method, through content analysis and interpretivism. The research analysis provided the following conclusions: (1) The influencing factors on self-efficacy are economic income, family reunion, and community development; (2) The influencing factors on self-esteem are external evaluation, host–guest interaction, professional identity, and self-identity; (3) The influencing factors on continuity are career change, host–guest interaction, and personal growth; (4) The influencing factors on distinctiveness are sense of belonging and natural environment; (5) Among the factors, only influencing factors on distinctiveness had no significant association with mountain outdoor tourism. Factors regarding the other three dimensions were correlated with mountain outdoor tourism. The findings of this study could contribute to further research in mountain outdoor tourism and place identity, as well as provide references for local management and tourism development.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Ralf Buckley1
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the mainstream tourism sector worldwide, in five categories: population, peace, prosperity, pollution and protection, and concluded that the main driver for improvement is regulation rather than market measures, and that tourism advocates still use political approaches to avoid environmental restrictions, and to gain access to public natural resources.

727 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The emerging picture of green consumption is of a process that is strongly influenced by consumer values, norms, and habits, yet is highly complex, diverse, and context dependent as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Developing more environmentally sustainable consumption and production systems depends upon consumers' willingness to engage in “greener” consumption behaviors. Research efforts have sought to identify, analyze, and understand the “green consumer.” Initial marketing and economics research, focusing on purchasing activities, has been complemented by research from fields such as industrial ecology and sociology, providing a more holistic picture of green consumption as a process. Much of the research has focused on areas with the greatest environmental impacts, namely peoples' homes and household management, their food choices and behaviors, and their transport behaviors for work, leisure, and travel. The emerging picture of green consumption is of a process that is strongly influenced by consumer values, norms, and habits, yet is highly complex, diverse, and context dependent. There are opportunities for future research that provides greater interdisciplinarity and challenges our assumptions and expectations about consumption and the nature of the consumer society.

597 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of consumer behaviour in tourism is presented, focusing on the key concepts, external influences and opportune research contexts in contemporary tourism consumer behaviour research, including decision making, values, motivations, self-concept and personality, expectations, attitudes, perceptions satisfaction, trust and loyalty.
Abstract: Although consumer behaviour is one of the most researched areas in the field of tourism, few extensive reviews of the body of knowledge in this area exist. This review article examines what we argue are the key concepts, external influences and opportune research contexts in contemporary tourism consumer behaviour research. Using a narrative review, we examine the consumer behaviour literature published in three major tourism journals from 2000 to 2012. Of 519 articles identified and reviewed, 191 are included in this article. We examine the development of and scope for future research on nine key concepts, including decision making, values, motivations, self-concept and personality, expectations, attitudes, perceptions satisfaction, trust and loyalty. We then examine three important external influences on tourism behaviour, technology, Generation Y and the rise in concern over ethical consumption. Lastly, we identify and discuss five research contexts that represent major areas for future scholarship: group and joint decision making, under-researched segments, cross-cultural issues in emerging markets, emotions and consumer misbehaviour. Our examination of key research gaps is concluded by arguing that the hedonic and affective aspects of consumer behaviour research in tourism must be brought to bear on the wider consumer behaviour and marketing literature.

499 citations

Book
01 Feb 2005
TL;DR: Robinson and Novelli as discussed by the authors discuss the future of niche tourism, and propose a way forward to sustainability in the field of tourism in peripheral regions, focusing on the traditional and culture based tourism.
Abstract: Foreword (Robinson) Niche Tourism: An Introduction (Robinson & Novelli) Part one - Special Interest Tourism Photographic tourism (Palmer & Lester) Geotourism (Hose) Youth tourism (Richards & Wilson) Dark tourism (Tarlow) Genealogy tourism (Birtwistle) Gastronomic tourism (Hall & Mitchell) Transport tourism (Hall) Part two - Tradition and Culture Based Tourism Tribal tourism (Burns & Figurova) Cultural heritage tourism (Wickens) Tourism in peripheral regions (Ivona & Grumo) Research tourism (Benson) Part three - Activity Based Tourism Small ship cruising(Douglas & Douglas) Sport tourism (Ritchie) Wildlife tourism (Novelli & Humavindu) Volunteer tourism (Callanan & Thomas) Adventure tourism (Shephard & Evans) Part four - The Future of Niche Tourism Space tourism (Duval) Virtual tourism (Arnold) Ethical tourism (Weeden) Niche Tourism: A way forward to sustainability (Novelli & Benson) Index.

413 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a case study from Eastern Indonesia provides theoretical coverage and practical ideas of how community participation can be moved from the passive, rhetorical end of the participation scale towards empowerment.
Abstract: Sustainable tourism is a sub-branch of sustainable development that was put on the world agenda with the publication of the Bruntland report. The report focused on environmental issues and the natural environment has remained a central theme. Sociocultural issues have been overshadowed or marginalised. Community participation, although considered essential in sustainable tourism, is a concept subject to much interpretation. Based on longitudinal action research this case study, from Eastern Indonesia, provides theoretical coverage and practical ideas of how community participation can be moved from the passive, rhetorical end of the participation scale towards empowerment. Tourism has the potential to empower communities and the sustainable tourism agenda needs to focus on how to bring this about. As the case study illustrates, understanding tourists and tourism processes is the first stage to empowering the local community to make informed and appropriate decisions about their tourism development. Consid...

403 citations

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What is the relevance of sustainable mountain development?

The paper discusses the relevance of sustainable tourism development in mountain areas in Šumadija and Western Serbia.