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Proceedings ArticleDOI

SVM regression based robust image watermarking technique in joint DWT-DCT domain

01 Jul 2017-pp 1426-1433

TL;DR: A robust image watermarking technique has been proposed based on the combination of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosinetransform (DCT) and the experimental results show that the algorithm provides adequate robustness against both the geometric and non-geometric attacks.
Abstract: In this paper, a robust image watermarking technique has been proposed based on the combination of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT). SVM regression model has been incorporated for geometric distortion correction to achieve improved robustness against de-synchronization attacks such as rotation, translation etc. Low order Pseudo Zernike (PZ) moments have used as a feature vector in SVM regression model. The 3-level DWT transformed DCT coefficients are modified to embed a binary bit. The performance of algorithm has been observed against both intentional and non-intentional attacks. The scheme provides an average imperceptibility of around 42.45 dB. The effect of rotation and translation attack has been estimated using trained SVM regression model. The robustness against de-synchronization attack is performed after correcting the attacked watermarked images. The experimental results show that the algorithm provides adequate robustness against both the geometric and non-geometric attacks.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The experimental results show that the watermarked test images are highly transparent and robust against scalable wavelet-based image coding even at very low bit-rate coding.
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel human vision system based, spread spectrum method to scalable image watermarking. A scalable decomposition of the watermark is spread into the entire frequency sub-bands of the wavelet decomposed image. At each wavelet sub-band, the watermark data are inserted into the selected coefficients of the sub-band in a manner that the watermark embedding visual artifact occurs in the highly textured, highly contrasted and very dark/bright areas of the image. In the lowest frequency sub-band of wavelet transform, the coefficients are selected by independent analysis of texture, contrast and luminance information. In high frequency sub-bands, the coefficient selection is done by analyzing coefficients amplitude and local entropy. The experimental results show that the watermarked test images are highly transparent and robust against scalable wavelet-based image coding even at very low bit-rate coding. The proposed approach can guarantee content authentication for scalable coded images, especially on heterogeneous networks which different users with different process capabilities and network access bandwidth use unique multimedia sources.

5 citations


Cites methods from "SVM regression based robust image w..."

  • ...Some of these methods have been designed as uncompressed domain methods [5, 8, 25, 34, 46, 48, 64] and some others are designed as joint compression-watermarking methods [11, 14, 59]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A broader view is provided as how much work has been carried so far and what are the different dimensions that have been taken into consideration to watermark color images using discrete wavelet transformation.
Abstract: In today’s knowledge driven society and technology driven economy, when data is considered to be one of the most important corporate resource of an organization, equally important is the security of the same to prevent unauthorized users to access and manipulate it. Watermarking being an appropriate solution for claiming authorization has prompted many researchers to work in this direction and accordingly a substantial amount of research work has been done using different schemes on various media types. The main impetus in writing this paper is to provide a broader view as how much work has been carried so far and what are the different dimensions that have been taken into consideration to watermark color images using discrete wavelet transformation. The paper will help prospective researchers to gain more insight about the work that has been done and pave a way for them to design and implement better techniques.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel beamforming algorithm (named as SVR-CMT algorithm) is presented for controlling the sidelobes and the nullling level and can improve the output signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) performance even if the direction-of-arrival (DOA) errors exist.
Abstract: Minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamformer is an adaptive beamforming technique that provides a method for separating the desired signal from interfering signals. Unfortunately, the MVDR beamformer may have unacceptably low nulling level and high sidelobes, which may lead to significant performance degradation in the case of unexpected interfering signals such as the rapidly moving jammer environments. Via support vector machine regression (SVR), a novel beamforming algorithm (named as SVR-CMT algorithm) is presented for controlling the sidelobes and the nullling level. In the proposed method, firstly, the covariance matrix is tapered based on Mailloux covariance matrix taper (CMT) procedure to broaden the width of nulls for interference signals. Secondly, the equality constraints are modified into inequality constraints to control the sidelobe level. By the ε-insensitive loss function for the sidelobe controller, the modified beamforming optimization problem is formulated as a standard SVR problem so that the weight vector can be obtained effectively. Compared with the previous works, the proposed SVR-CMT method provides better beamforming performance. For instance, (1) it can effectively control the sidelobe and nullling level, (2) it can improve the output signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) performance even if the direction-of-arrival (DOA) errors exist. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the presented approach.

2 citations


Cites background from "SVM regression based robust image w..."

  • ...The theory of SVR is initially introduced by Vapnik [17] based on the principle of structural risk minimization and is applied in a number of communications problems such as wireless sensor networks [18] and digital image processing [19]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The prime objective of this manuscript is to reveal the research problem and the efficient requirement to implement robust watermarking technique after analyzing the progress of water marking schemes and current research trend.
Abstract: Nowadays digital media has reached the general level of resource sharing system and become a convenient way for sharing lots of information among various individuals. However, these digital data are stored and shared over an internet which is an entirely unsecured and most frequently attacked by several attackers, resulting in a massive loss at various parameters and creates severe issues of copyright protection, ownership protection, authentication, secure communication, etc. In recent years, digital watermarking technology has received extensive attention from users and researchers for content protection and digital data authentication. However, before implementing digital watermarking techniques in practical applications, there are still many problems that need to be solved technically and efficiently. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a detailed survey on current research techniques of digital watermarking techniques for all media formats with their applications and operational process. The prime objective of this manuscript is to reveal the research problem and the efficient requirement to implement robust watermarking technique after analyzing the progress of watermarking schemes and current research trend.

2 citations


Cites methods from "SVM regression based robust image w..."

  • ...The system then uses the syntactic tool list, WordNet and dictionary and generates the proper watermarked sentence with the help of secret-key [24]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed method for the digital watermarking is based on the wavelet transform and is robust to a variety of signal distortions, such as JPEG, image cropping, sharpening, median filtering, and incorporating attacks.
Abstract: In this paper, an image accreditation technique by embedding digital watermarks in images is proposed. The proposed method for the digital watermarking is based on the wavelet transform. This is unlike most previous work, which used a random number of a sequence of bits as a watermark and where the watermark can only be detected by comparing an experimental threshold value to determine whether a sequence of random signals is the watermark. The proposed approach embeds a watermark with visual recognizable patterns, such as binary, gray, or color image in images by modifying the frequency part of the images. In the proposed approach, an original image is decomposed into wavelet coefficients. Then, multi-energy watermarking scheme based on the qualified significant wavelet tree (QSWT) is used to achieve the robustness of the watermarking. Unlike other watermarking techniques that use a single casting energy, QSWT adopts adaptive casting energy in different resolutions. The performance of the proposed watermarking is robust to a variety of signal distortions, such as JPEG, image cropping, sharpening, median filtering, and incorporating attacks.

337 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Nasrin M. Makbol1, Bee Ee Khoo1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A new image watermarking scheme based on the Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transform (RDWT) and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) that showed a high level of robustness not only against the image processing attacks but also against the geometrical attacks which are considered as difficult attacks to resist.
Abstract: Copyright protection and proof of ownership are two of the main important applications of the digital image watermarking. The challenges faced by researchers interested in digital image watermarking applications lie in the creation of new algorithms to serve those applications and to be resistant to most types of attacks, especially the geometrical attacks. Robustness, high imperceptibility, security, and large capacity are four essential requirements in any watermarking scheme. This paper presents a new image watermarking scheme based on the Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transform (RDWT) and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The gray scale image watermark was embedded directly in the singular values of the RDWT sub-bands of the host image. The scheme achieved a large capacity due to the redundancy in the RDWT domain and at the same time preserved high imperceptibility due to SVD properties. Embedding the watermarking pixel's values without any modification inside the wavelet coefficient of the host image overcomes the security issue. Furthermore, the experimental results of the proposed scheme showed a high level of robustness not only against the image processing attacks but also against the geometrical attacks which are considered as difficult attacks to resist.

196 citations


"SVM regression based robust image w..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Different decomposition techniques like singular value decomposition (SVD) [9-10], QR decomposition also have been integrated with transformation technique to achieve better performance....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents two vector watermarking schemes that are based on the use of complex and quaternion Fourier transforms and demonstrates, for the first time, how to embed watermarks into the frequency domain that is consistent with the human visual system.
Abstract: This paper presents two vector watermarking schemes that are based on the use of complex and quaternion Fourier transforms and demonstrates, for the first time, how to embed watermarks into the frequency domain that is consistent with our human visual system. Watermark casting is performed by estimating the just-noticeable distortion of the images, to ensure watermark invisibility. The first method encodes the chromatic content of a color image into the CIE chromaticity coordinates while the achromatic content is encoded as CIE tristimulus value. Color watermarks (yellow and blue) are embedded in the frequency domain of the chromatic channels by using the spatiochromatic discrete Fourier transform. It first encodes and as complex values, followed by a single discrete Fourier transform. The most interesting characteristic of the scheme is the possibility of performing watermarking in the frequency domain of chromatic components. The second method encodes the components of color images and watermarks are embedded as vectors in the frequency domain of the channels by using the quaternion Fourier transform. Robustness is achieved by embedding a watermark in the coefficient with positive frequency, which spreads it to all color components in the spatial domain and invisibility is satisfied by modifying the coefficient with negative frequency, such that the combined effects of the two are insensitive to human eyes. Experimental results demonstrate that the two proposed algorithms perform better than two existing algorithms - ac- and discrete cosine transform-based schemes.

196 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Shinfeng D. Lin1, Shih-Chieh Shie2, J. Y. Guo1Institutions (2)
TL;DR: Simulation results demonstrate that the embedded watermarks can be almost fully extracted from images compressed with very high compression ratio.
Abstract: A DCT-based image watermarking technique is proposed in this article. To improve the robustness of watermark against JPEG compression, the most recently proposed techniques embed watermark into the low-frequency components of the image. However, these components hold significant information of the image. Directly replacing the low-frequency components with watermark may introduce undesirable degradation to image quality. To preserve acceptable visual quality for watermarked images, we propose a watermarking technique that adjusts the DCT low-frequency coefficients by the concept of mathematical remainder. Simulation results demonstrate that the embedded watermarks can be almost fully extracted from the JPEG-compressed images with very high compression ratios.

193 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Ante Poljičak1, Lidija Mandić1, Darko Agić1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A watermarking method, which minimizes the impact of the watermark implementation on the overall quality of an image, is developed using a peak signal-to-noise ratio to evaluate quality degradation.
Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate the degradation of an image due to the implementation of a watermark in the frequency domain of the image. As a result, a watermarking method, which minimizes the impact of the watermark implementation on the overall quality of an image, is developed. The watermark is embedded in magnitudes of the Fourier transform. A peak signal-to-noise ratio is used to evaluate quality degradation. The obtained results were used to develop a watermarking strategy that chooses the optimal radius of the implementation to minimize quality degradation. The robustness of the proposed method was evaluated on the dataset of 1000 images. Detection rates and receiver operating characteristic performance showed considerable robustness against the print-scan process, print-cam process, amplitude modulated, halftoning, and attacks from the StirMark benchmark software.

104 citations