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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10640266.2019.1642034

Symptoms of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have differential relationships to borderline personality disorder symptoms.

04 Mar 2021-Eating Disorders (Routledge)-Vol. 29, Iss: 2, pp 1-14
Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly comorbid. BPD is characterized by the presence of at least five of nine symptoms. Given the number/variety of emotional a...

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Topics: Anorexia nervosa (differential diagnoses) (75%), Bulimia nervosa (70%), Eating disorders (65%) ... show more
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JCLP.22916
Abstract: Objective The current study used network analysis to explore associations between specific groupings of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and eating disorder (ED) symptoms, and other transdiagnostic variables including insecure attachment, rejection sensitivity, emotion dysregulation, a theory of mind, and emotion recognition. Method Network analysis was undertaken on self-report data from 753 adults (81.5% women), of whom 109 reported a lifetime ED diagnosis. Results Comorbidity between BPD and ED symptoms was only partially conceptualized through the transdiagnostic variables. The centrality indices from the network analysis indicated that emotion dysregulation and abandonment were the most central elements in the network. Conversely, the theory of mind and emotion recognition had very few connections with the other transdiagnostic variables in the network. Discussion The findings provide empirical insight into the nature of the observed co-occurrence between BPD and ED symptoms and serve to improve clinical decision-making regarding psychological interventions for both problem sets.

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7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYG.2020.01801
Emily T. Troscianko1, Michael Leon2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Mainstream forms of psychiatric talk therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy do not reliably generate lasting recovery for eating disorders. We discuss widespread assumptions regarding the nature of eating disorders as fundamentally psychological disorders and highlight the problems that underlie these notions, as well as related practical problems in the implementation of mainstream treatments. We then offer a theoretical and practical alternative: a dynamical systems model of eating disorders in which behavioral interventions in general are foregrounded as powerful mediators between psychological and physical states. We go on to present empirical evidence for behavioral modification of eating speed in the treatment of eating disorders, and a hypothesis accounting for the etiology and progression, as well as the effective treatment, of the full spectrum of eating problems. A dynamical systems approach mandates that in any dietary and lifestyle change as profound as recovery from an eating disorder, acknowledgement must be made of the full range of pragmatic (psychological, cultural, social, etc.) factors involved. However, normalizing eating speed may be necessary if not sufficient for the development of a reliable treatment for the full spectrum of eating disorders, in its role as a mediator in the complex feedback loops that connect the biology and the psychology with the behaviors of eating.

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5 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40479-021-00149-7
11 Mar 2021-
Abstract: Data on patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and comorbid Borderline personality disorder (AN+BPD) are scarce. Therefore, we investigated (1) whether patients with AN and AN+BPD differ in characteristics related to admission to, discharge from, and course of specialized inpatient eating disorder treatment and (2) how comorbid BPD affects treatment outcome. One-thousand one-hundred and sixty inpatients with AN (97.2% female, 5.9% with comorbid BPD; mean age = 26.15, SD = 9.41) were administered the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) at admission and discharge. Data were extracted by a retrospective chart review of naturalistic treatment data. Age, sex, weekly weight gain, length of stay, and discharge characteristics were compared with independent t-tests and χ2-tests. Changes in outcome variables, including body mass index (BMI), were analyzed with longitudinal multilevel mixed-effects models. No differences in age or sex were found between patients with AN and AN+BPD, but groups differed in previous inpatient treatments, BMI at admission, and frequency of at least one additional comorbidity with higher values for AN+BPD. Higher levels of disorder-specific and general psychopathology at admission were found for AN+BPD. Patients with AN showed statistically significant improvement in all examined variables, patients with AN+BPD improved in all variables except EDI-2 body dissatisfaction. Strongest improvements in patients with AN+BPD occurred in BMI (Cohen’s d = 1.08), EDI-2 total score (Cohen’s d = 0.99), EDI-2 interpersonal distrust (d = 0.84). Significant Group x Time Interactions were observed for BSI GSI, GAF, and EDI-2 body dissatisfaction, indicating a reduced benefit from inpatient treatment in AN+BPD. At discharge, no differences were found in weekly weight gain, BMI, length of stay, or discharge characteristics (e.g., ability to work, reason for discharge), however, patients with AN+BPD were more frequently treated with medication. Patients with AN+BPD differ from patients with AN in that they show higher general and specific eating disorder psychopathology and only partially improve under specialized inpatient treatment. In particular, aspects of emotion regulation and core AN symptoms like body dissatisfaction and perfectionism need to be even more targeted in comorbid patients.

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1 Citations


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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PSYCHRES.2011.06.006
Vijay A. Mittal1, Elaine F. Walker2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Given the recent attention to movement abnormalities in psychosis spectrum disorders (e.g., prodromal/high-risk syndromes, schizophrenia) (Mittal et al., 2008; Pappa and Dazzan, 2009), and an ongoing discussion pertaining to revisions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM) for the upcoming 5th edition, we would like to take this opportunity to highlight an issue concerning the criteria for tic disorders, and how this might affect classification of dyskinesias in psychotic spectrum disorders. Rapid, non-rhythmic, abnormal movements can appear in psychosis spectrum disorders, as well as in a host of commonly co-occurring conditions, including Tourette’s Syndrome and Transient Tic Disorder (Kerbeshian et al., 2009). Confusion can arise when it becomes necessary to determine whether an observed movement (e.g., a sudden head jerk) represents a spontaneous dyskinesia (i.e., spontaneous transient chorea, athetosis, dystonia, ballismus involving muscle groups of the arms, legs, trunk, face, and/or neck) or a tic (i.e., stereotypic or patterned movements defined by the relationship to voluntary movement, acute and chronic time course, and sensory urges). Indeed, dyskinetic movements such as dystonia (i.e., sustained muscle contractions, usually producing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures or positions) closely resemble tics in a patterned appearance, and may only be visually discernable by attending to timing differences (Gilbert, 2006). When turning to the current DSM-IV TR for clarification, the description reads: “Tic Disorders must be distinguished from other types of abnormal movements that may accompany general medical conditions (e.g., Huntington’s disease, stroke, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Wilson’s disease, Sydenham’s chorea, multiple sclerosis, postviral encephalitis, head injury) and from abnormal movements that are due to the direct effects of a substance (e.g., a neuroleptic medication)”. However, as it is written, it is unclear if psychosis falls under one such exclusionary medical disorder. The “direct effects of a substance” criteria, referencing neuroleptic medications, further contributes to the uncertainty around this issue. As a result, ruling-out or differentiating tics in psychosis spectrum disorders is at best, a murky endeavor. Historically, the advent of antipsychotic medication in the 1950s has contributed to the confusion about movement signs in psychiatric populations. Because neuroleptic medications produce characteristic movement disorder in some patients (i.e. extrapyramidal side effects), drug-induced movement disturbances have been the focus of research attention in psychotic disorders. However, accumulating data have documented that spontaneous dyskinesias, including choreoathetodic movements, can occur in medication naive adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Pappa and Dazzan, 2009), as well as healthy first-degree relatives of chronically ill schizophrenia patients (McCreadie et al., 2003). Taken together, this suggests that movement abnormalities may reflect pathogenic processes underlying some psychotic disorders (Mittal et al., 2008; Pappa and Dazzan, 2009). More specifically, because spontaneous hyperkinetic movements are believed to reflect abnormal striatal dopamine activity (DeLong and Wichmann, 2007), and dysfunction in this same circuit is also proposed to contribute to psychosis, it is possible that spontaneous dyskinesias serve as an outward manifestation of circuit dysfunction underlying some schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms (Walker, 1994). Further, because these movements precede the clinical onset of psychotic symptoms, sometimes occurring in early childhood (Walker, 1994), and may steadily increase during adolescence among populations at high-risk for schizophrenia (Mittal et al., 2008), observable dyskinesias could reflect a susceptibility that later interacts with environmental and neurodevelopmental factors, in the genesis of psychosis. In adolescents who meet criteria for a prodromal syndrome (i.e., the period preceding formal onset of psychotic disorders characterized by subtle attenuated positive symptoms coupled with a decline in functioning), there is sometimes a history of childhood conditions which are also characterized by suppressible tics or tic like movements (Niendam et al., 2009). On the other hand, differentiating between tics and dyskinesias has also complicated research on childhood disorders such as Tourette syndrome (Kompoliti and Goetz, 1998; Gilbert, 2006). We propose consideration of more explicit and operationalized criteria for differentiating tics and dyskinesias, based on empirically derived understanding of neural mechanisms. Further, revisions of the DSM should allow for the possibility that movement abnormalities might reflect neuropathologic processes underlying the etiology of psychosis for a subgroup of patients. Psychotic disorders might also be included among the medical disorders that are considered a rule-out for tics. Related to this, the reliability of movement assessment needs to be improved, and this may require more training for mental health professionals in movement symptoms. Although standardized assessment of movement and neurological abnormalities is common in research settings, it has been proposed that an examination of neuromotor signs should figure in the assessment of any patient, and be as much a part of the patient assessment as the mental state examination (Picchioni and Dazzan, 2009). To this end it is important for researchers and clinicians to be aware of differentiating characteristics for these two classes of abnormal movement. For example, tics tend to be more complex than myoclonic twitches, and less flowing than choreoathetodic movements (Kompoliti and Goetz, 1998). Patients with tics often describe a sensory premonition or urge to perform a tic, and the ability to postpone tics at the cost of rising inner tension (Gilbert, 2006). For example, one study showed that patients with tic disorders could accurately distinguish tics from other movement abnormalities based on the subjective experience of some voluntary control of tics (Lang, 1991). Another differentiating factor derives from the relationship of the movement in question to other voluntary movements. Tics in one body area rarely occur during purposeful and voluntary movements in that same body area whereas dyskinesia are often exacerbated by voluntary movement (Gilbert, 2006). Finally, it is noteworthy that tics wax and wane in frequency and intensity and migrate in location over time, often becoming more complex and peaking between the ages of 9 and 14 years (Gilbert, 2006). In the case of dyskinesias among youth at-risk for psychosis, there is evidence that the movements tend to increase in severity and frequency as the individual approaches the mean age of conversion to schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Mittal et al., 2008). As revisions to the DSM are currently underway in preparation for the new edition (DSM V), we encourage greater attention to the important, though often subtle, distinctions among subtypes of movement abnormalities and their association with psychiatric syndromes.

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Topics: Tics (65%), Tourette syndrome (62%), Dyskinesia (59%) ... show more

52,117 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/A0024338
Abstract: The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2001, American Psychological Association, 2010) calls for the reporting of effect sizes and their confidence intervals. Estimates of effect size are useful for determining the practical or theoretical importance of an effect, the relative contributions of factors, and the power of an analysis. We surveyed articles published in 2009 and 2010 in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, noting the statistical analyses reported and the associated reporting of effect size estimates. Effect sizes were reported for fewer than half of the analyses; no article reported a confidence interval for an effect size. The most often reported analysis was analysis of variance, and almost half of these reports were not accompanied by effect sizes. Partial η2 was the most commonly reported effect size estimate for analysis of variance. For t tests, 2/3 of the articles did not report an associated effect size estimate; Cohen's d was the most often reported. We provide a straightforward guide to understanding, selecting, calculating, and interpreting effect sizes for many types of data and to methods for calculating effect size confidence intervals and power analysis.

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2,381 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.61.4.271
Abstract: The evidence-based practice movement has become an important feature of health care systems and health care policy. Within this context, the APA 2005 Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice defines and discusses evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP). In an integration of science and practice, the Task Force's report describes psychology's fundamental commitment to sophisticated EBPP and takes into account the full range of evidence psychologists and policymakers must consider. Research, clinical expertise, and patient characteristics are all supported as relevant to good outcomes. EBPP promotes effective psychological practice and enhances public health by applying empirically supported principles of psychological assessment, case formulation, therapeutic relationship, and intervention. The report provides a rationale for and expanded discussion of the EBPP policy statement that was developed by the Task Force and adopted as association policy by the APA Council of Representatives in August 2005.

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Topics: Evidence-based practice (57%), Consulting psychology (56%), School psychology (56%) ... show more

1,679 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1176/AJP.155.12.1733
Abstract: Objective:The purpose of this study was to assess the lifetime rates of occurrence of a full range of DSM-III-R axis I disorders in a group of patients with criteria-defined borderline personality disorder and comparison subjects with other personality disorders. Method:The axis I comorbidity of 504 inpatients with personality disorders was assessed by interviewers who were blind to clinical diagnosis and who used a semistructured research interview of demonstrated reliability.Results:Four new findings emerged from this study. First, anxiety disorders were found to be almost as common among borderline patients (N=379) as mood disorders but far more discriminating from axis II comparison subjects (N=125). Second, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was found to be a common but not universal comorbid disorder among borderline patients, a finding inconsistent with the view that borderline personality disorder is actually a form of chronic PTSD. Third, male and female borderline patients were found to differ...

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808 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1348/014466505X53902
Abstract: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is highly valued by people with the disorder. It is also a highly visible disorder, evoking intense emotional responses from others, particularly those closest to the person. A maintenance model of restricting anorexia nervosa, combining intra- and interpersonal factors is proposed. Four main maintaining factors (perfectionism/cognitive rigidity, experiential avoidance, pro-anorectic beliefs, response of close others) are suggested and the evidence supporting these is examined. These factors need to be integrated with what is known about starvation-related maintenance factors. This model departs from other models of AN in that it does not emphasize the role of weight and shape-related factors in the maintenance of AN; that is, it is culture-free. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

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747 Citations


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