Abstract: Substitution of the chlorido ligand in (N,N′-dialkylbenzimidazolin-2-ylidene)gold(I) chlorides (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl) succeeded by treatment of the gold chlorido complexes with lithium bromide in acetone, which leads to the gold complexes of the type [AuBr(NHC)] (1–4). Furthermore, the Au–Ccarbene bond in complexes 1–4 is inert towards a change of the oxidation state of the metal atom. Complexes 1–4 were oxidized chemically with elemental bromine leading to the gold(III) carbene complexes of the type [AuBr3(NHC)] (5–8). The molecular structures of the gold(I) complexes 1, 2, and 4, which exhibit a linear topology, are presented together with the two molecular structures of the square-planar gold(III) complexes 6 and 8.
TL;DR: Reactions of the Au(III) complexes towards anionic ligands like carboxylates, phenolates and thiophenolates were investigated and result in a complete or partial reduction to a Au(I) complex.
Abstract: Gold(I) complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) of the type (NHC)AuBr (3a/3b) [NHC = 1-methyl-3-benzylimidazol-2-ylidene (= MeBnIm), and 1,3-dibenzylimidazol-2-ylidene (= Bn2Im)] are prepared by transmetallation reactions of (tht)AuBr (tht = tetrahydrothiophene) and (NHC)AgBr (2a/2b). The homoleptic, ionic complexes [(NHC)2Au]Br (6a/6b) are synthesized by the reaction with free carbene. Successive oxidation of 3a/3b and 6a/6b with bromine gave the respective (NHC)AuBr3 (4a/4b) and [(NHC)2AuBr2]Br (7a/7b) in good overall yields as yellow powders. All complexes were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Reactions of the Au(III) complexes towards anionic ligands like carboxylates, phenolates and thiophenolates were investigated and result in a complete or partial reduction to a Au(I) complex. Irradiation of the Au(III) complexes with UV light yield the Au(I) congeners in a clean photo-reaction.
Abstract: 1-[2-(Dialkylamino)ethyl]-3-methylimidazolium salts (alkyl = Me (1a), i-Pr (1b)) have been prepared and used as precursors for the synthesis of the corresponding [(NHC)2Ag][AgCl2] complexes (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene, Me (2a), i-Pr (2b)). Upon treatment of 2a with HBF4, crystals of the unprecedented, NHC-stabilized silver cluster [(NHC)4Ag10Cl10] (5) were obtained and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure reveals that the carbene carbon atom exists in the rare μ2-coordination pattern, bridging two Ag(I) atoms with further stabilization of the cluster by numerous argentophilic interactions and a coordination of the amino nitrogen donor to one of the silver atoms. Transmetalation of 2a,b with (R2S)AuCl leads to the respective Au(I) complexes 3a,b, which are further oxidized with Br2 to (NHC)AuBr2Cl (4a,b). In red crystals of 4a the gold atom is coordinated in the unusual square-pyramidal geometry with the amine nitrogen atom in the axial position. Upon dissolution in wet organic solve...
Abstract: A series of dinuclear N-heterocyclic bis-dicarbene gold(III) complexes of the general formula [Au2Br4(RIm-Y-ImR)2](PF6)2 (Im = imidazol-2-ylidene; 1b, R = Me, Y = CH2; 2b, R = Me, Y = (CH2)2; 3b, R = Me, Y = (CH2)3; 4b, R = Me, Y = (CH2)4; 5b, R = Cy, Y = CH2; 6b, R = Me, Y = m-xylylene) were successfully synthesized by oxidative addition of bromine to the corresponding dicarbene gold(I) complexes 1a–6a. The stability of the digold(III) complexes depends on the length of the bridge Y between the carbene units. The complex with Y = CH2 undergoes a partial reductive elimination, giving the first example of the mixed-valence gold(I)/gold(III) dinuclear bis-dicarbene complex 1c, together with a minor quantity of the neutral digold(III) mono-dicarbene complex [Au2Br6(MeIm-CH2-ImMe)] (1d). The X-ray crystal structures of complexes 1c,d, 3b, and 6b were determined. Besides complex 3b, the addition of bromine to complex 3a gives complex 3b′, a coordination metallopolymer, formed by an infinite chain of AuBr2 unit...
TL;DR: Reaction of the benzene-1,3,5-trisimidazolium salt H3-1(Br)3 with [Rh(Cp*)(Cl)2]2 results in the formation of the dinuclear, doubly orthometalated complex Br, which yields, depending on the metal source provided, either a triply orthometricated heterotrimetallic Rh2/Ir complex  or trinuclear heterot
Abstract: Reaction of the benzene-1,3,5-trisimidazolium salt H3-1(Br)3 with [Rh(Cp*)(Cl)2]2 results in the formation of the dinuclear, doubly orthometalated complex Br, which yields, depending on the metal source provided, either a triply orthometalated heterotrimetallic Rh2/Ir complex  or trinuclear heterotrimetallic Rh2/Au complexes of types [4a] or [4b].
Abstract: Oxidative addition of chlorine to dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene gold(I) complexes of formula [Au2(RIm–Y–ImR)2](PF6)2 (R = Me, Y = (CH2)1–4; R = Cy, Y = CH2) affords in high yield stable Au(III)/Au(III) and Au(II)/Au(II) complexes The nature of the products depends on the bridge between the two carbene moieties With Y = methylene, ethylene and butylene, Au(III)/Au(III) dinuclear dicarbene complexes are formed Only in the case of the propylene bridge the main product is an Au(II)/Au(II) complex The same reaction output is now proposed also in the oxidative addition of bromine, as fully supported by the X-ray structure of complex [Au2Br2(MeIm–(CH2)3–ImMe)2](PF6)2
TL;DR: This paper could serve as a general literature citation when one or more of the open-source SH ELX programs (and the Bruker AXS version SHELXTL) are employed in the course of a crystal-structure determination.
Abstract: An account is given of the development of the SHELX system of computer programs from SHELX-76 to the present day. In addition to identifying useful innovations that have come into general use through their implementation in SHELX, a critical analysis is presented of the less-successful features, missed opportunities and desirable improvements for future releases of the software. An attempt is made to understand how a program originally designed for photographic intensity data, punched cards and computers over 10000 times slower than an average modern personal computer has managed to survive for so long. SHELXL is the most widely used program for small-molecule refinement and SHELXS and SHELXD are often employed for structure solution despite the availability of objectively superior programs. SHELXL also finds a niche for the refinement of macromolecules against high-resolution or twinned data; SHELXPRO acts as an interface for macromolecular applications. SHELXC, SHELXD and SHELXE are proving useful for the experimental phasing of macromolecules, especially because they are fast and robust and so are often employed in pipelines for high-throughput phasing. This paper could serve as a general literature citation when one or more of the open-source SHELX programs (and the Bruker AXS version SHELXTL) are employed in the course of a crystal-structure determination.
Abstract: A number of extensions to the multisolution approach to the crystallographic phase problem are discussed in which the negative quartet relations play an important role. A phase annealing method, related to the simulated annealing approach in other optimization problems, is proposed and it is shown that it can result in an improvement of up to an order of magnitude in the chances of solving large structures at atomic resolution. The ideas presented here are incorporated in the program system SHELX-90; the philosophical and mathematical background to the direct-methods part (SHELXS) of this system is described.
TL;DR: The ways in which selectivity can be controlled in homogeneous Au catalysis are enumerated, in the hope that lessons to guide catalyst selection and the design of new catalysts may be distilled from a thorough evaluation of ligand, counterion, and oxidation state effects as they influence chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity in homogeneity AuCatalysis.
Abstract: 1.1. Context and Meta-Review
Despite the ubiquity of metallic gold (Au) in popular culture, its deployment in homogeneous catalysis has only recently undergone widespread investigation. In the past decade, and especially since 2004, great progress has been made in developing efficient and selective Au-catalyzed transformations, as evidenced by the prodigious number of reviews available on various aspects of this growing field. Hashmi has written a series of comprehensive reviews outlining the progression of Au-catalyzed reaction development,1 and a number of more focused reviews provide further insight into particular aspects of Au catalysis. A brief meta-review of the available range of perspectives published on Au catalysis helps to put this Chemical Reviews article in context.
The vast majority of reactions developed with homogeneous Au catalysts have exploited the propensity of Au to activate carbon-carbon π-bonds as electrophiles. Gold has come to be regarded as an exceedingly mild, relatively carbophilic Lewis acid, and the broad array of newly developed reactions proceeding by activation of unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds has been expertly reviewed.2
Further reviews and highlights on Au catalysis focus on particular classes of synthetic reactions. An excellent comprehensive review of Au-catalyzed enyne cycloisomerizations is available.3 Even more focused highlights on hydroarylation of alkynes,4 hydroamination of C-C multiple bonds,5 and reactions of oxo-alkynes6 and propargylic esters7 provide valuable perspectives on progress and future directions in the development of homogeneous Au catalysis.
Most of the reviews on Au catalysis emphasize broad or specific advances in synthetic utility. Recently, we have invoked relativistic effects to provide a framework for understanding the observed reactivity of Au catalysts, in order to complement empirical advancements.8 In this Chemical Reviews article, we attempt to enumerate the ways in which selectivity can be controlled in homogeneous Au catalysis. It is our hope that lessons to guide catalyst selection and the design of new catalysts may be distilled from a thorough evaluation of ligand, counterion, and oxidation state effects as they influence chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity in homogeneous Au catalysis.
TL;DR: Thanks to gold-based catalysts, various organic transformations have been accessible under facile conditions with both high yields and chemoselectivity.
Abstract: Thanks to its unusual stability, metallic gold has been used for thousands of years in jewelry, currency, chinaware, and so forth. However, gold had not become the chemists’ “precious metal” until very recently. In the past few years, reports on gold-catalyzed organic transformations have increased substantially. Thanks to gold-based catalysts, various organic transformations have been accessible under facile conditions with both high yields and chemoselectivity.