Synthesis and evaluation of hardness and sliding wear resistance of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni–Fe–W alloys
01 Jan 2006-Materials Science and Technology (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 22, Iss: 1, pp 14-20
TL;DR: In this article, the hardness and sliding wear resistance of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Fe-W alloys were investigated. But the hardness was not evaluated.
Abstract: The present work involves synthesis, characterisation and evaluation of hardness and sliding wear resistance of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni–Fe–W alloys. The crystallite size reduced...
TL;DR: In this paper, the electrodeposition process, effective parameters, properties, and application of Ni-Fe were summarized considering the previous studies, as the evaluation of previous researches will be valuable to guide future researches.
Abstract: Electrodeposition is considered as an easy and cost effective technique for preparation of alloy coating. A wide variety of properties for coatings can be achieved by selecting different parameters of electrodeposition. The electrodeposited Ni-Fe coating is employed in many fields such as corrosion, wear, magnetic and electrical applications, and electrocatalytic materials. In this study, as the evaluation of previous researches will be valuable to guide future researches, electrodeposition of Ni-Fe coating was investigated from different aspects. The electrodeposition process, effective parameters, properties, and application of Ni-Fe were summarized considering the previous studies.
15 Jul 2007-Materials Science and Engineering A-structural Materials Properties Microstructure and Processing
TL;DR: In this article, the corrosion behavior of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-W and Ni-Fe-W alloys was evaluated using polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques in 3.5% NaCl solution while their passivation behaviour was studied in 1N sulphuric acid solution.
Abstract: The present work deals with evaluation of corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni–W and Ni–Fe–W alloys. Corrosion behaviour of the coatings deposited on steel substrates was studied using polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques in 3.5% NaCl solution while their passivation behaviour was studied in 1N sulphuric acid solution. The corrosion resistance of Ni–W alloys increased with tungsten content up to 7.54 at.% and then decreased. In case of Ni–Fe–W alloys it increased with tungsten content up to 9.20 at.% and then decreased. The ternary alloy coatings exhibited poor corrosion resistance compared to binary alloy coatings due to preferential dissolution of iron from the matrix. Regardless of composition all the alloys exhibited passivation behaviour over a wide range of potentials due to the formation of tungsten rich film on the surface.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide an overview of the wear behavior of nickel-based electrodeposited coatings including their composites and alloys with the focus on the parameters affecting wear rate, coefficient of friction, hardness, and roughness.
Abstract: Among various methods used for protecting the industrial components from wear/abrasion failures, electrodeposition has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of its advantages such as being efficient, accurate, affordable, and easy to perform. In this regard, electrodeposition of nickel-based composite and alloy coatings is an inexpensive method compared with other coating methods such as chemical vapor deposition and physical vapor deposition. Furthermore, nickel-based composite electrodeposition is an eco-friendly substitute for conventional toxic coatings such as hard chrome. Embedding hard particles within the metallic matrix improves the wear resistance by increasing the ductility of the matrix in the contact area, changing the preferred grain growth direction to close-packed directions, and boosting dispersion and grain-refinement strength. In addition, lubricant particles provide superior anti-abrasive behavior because of their non-sticky nature. Several factors affect the incorporation of the particles into the electrodeposited coating and therefore the wear behavior of these coatings is related to different parameters such as current density, bath composition, pH, amount and size of the embedded particles. This review paper provides an overview of the wear behavior of nickel-based electrodeposited coatings including their composites and alloys with the focus on the parameters affecting wear rate, coefficient of friction, hardness, and roughness.
TL;DR: In this paper, the microstructural factors such as tungsten and matrix composition, chemistry, shape, size and distributions of tengsten particles in matrix, and interface-bonding strength between the tngsten particle and matrix in addition to processing factors are discussed.
Abstract: Tungsten heavy alloys (WHAs) belong to a group of two-phase composites, based on W-Ni-Cu and W-Ni-Fe alloys. Due to their combinations of high density, strength, and ductility, WHAs are used as radiation shields, vibration dampers, kinetic energy penetrators and heavy-duty electrical contacts. This paper presents recent progresses in processing, microstructure, and mechanical properties of WHAs. Various processing techniques for the fabrication of WHAs such as conventional powder metallurgy (PM), advent of powder injection molding (PIM), high-energy ball milling (MA), microwave sintering (MW), and spark-plasma sintering (SPS) are reviewed for alloys. This review reveals that key factors affecting the performance of WHAs are the microstructural factors such as tungsten and matrix composition, chemistry, shape, size and distributions of tungsten particles in matrix, and interface-bonding strength between the tungsten particle and matrix in addition to processing factors. SPS approach has a better performance than those of others, followed by extrusion process. Moreover, deformation behaviors of WHA penetrator and depleted uranium (DU) Ti alloy impacting at normal incidence both rigid and thick mild steel target are studied and modelled as elastic thermoviscoplastic. Height of the mushroomed region is smaller for and it forms sooner in each penetrator as compared to that for .
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used an ammoniacal citrate bath with a cation exchange membrane cell for electroplating Ni-Fe-W alloys and obtained the maximum Vickers hardness value of 1350.
Abstract: Ni-Fe-W alloys were obtained by electroplating using an ammoniacal citrate bath with a cation exchange membrane cell. The addition of 8 atom % iron to the Ni-W alloy (Ni 78 Fe 8 W 14 ) removed surface microcracks on the deposits and increased the iron content, which was paralleled by an apparent increase in the tungsten content. To improve the microhardness, deposits were heat-treated at various temperatures. The maximum Vickers hardness value of 1350 was obtained after heat-treatment at 500°C. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the increasing annealing temperature induced both grain growth and precipitation of new phases, especially NiW0 4 . Transmission electron microscopy and selected area diffraction observations revealed that annealing at 500°C led to a significant hardening of the deposits due to the precipitation of new phases with nanosized grains. However, as the annealing temperature was increased above 500°C, the microhardness began to fall with increasing grain size.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an overview of the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline metals and alloys with the objective of assessing recent advances in the experimental and computational studies of deformation, damage evolution, fracture and fatigue, and highlighting opportunities for further research.
Abstract: Nanocrystalline metals and alloys, with average and range of grain sizes typically smaller than 100 nm, have been the subject of considerable research in recent years. Such interest has been spurred by progress in the processing of materials and by advances in computational materials science. It has also been kindled by the recognition that these materials possess some appealing mechanical properties, such as high strength, increased resistance to tribological and environmentally-assisted damage, increasing strength and/or ductility with increasing strain rate, and potential for enhanced superplastic deformation at lower temperatures and faster strain rates. From a scientific standpoint, advances in nanomechanical probes capable of measuring forces and displacements at resolutions of fractions of a picoNewton and nanometer, respectively, and developments in structural characterization have provided unprecedented opportunities to probe the mechanisms underlying mechanical response. In this paper, we present an overview of the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline metals and alloys with the objective of assessing recent advances in the experimental and computational studies of deformation, damage evolution, fracture and fatigue, and highlighting opportunities for further research.
TL;DR: In this paper, the role of solid solution additions of ~13 at% W were considered with respect to the structure and mechanical properties of electrodeposited Ni alloys with grain sizes below 10 nm.
Abstract: Although pure metals with grain sizes below about 10 nm are very difficult to prepare, alloying enables the realization of finer grain sizes, often down to the amorphous limit. In this work, the role of solid solution additions of ~13 at% W are considered with respect to the structure and mechanical properties of electrodeposited Ni alloys with grain sizes below 10 nm. Structure of the nanocrystalline alloys is analyzed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and related to the mechanical properties assessed by instrumented nanoindentation and nano-scratch experiments. The Ni-W alloys exhibit higher hardness and scratch resistance as compared to the finest pure nanocrystalline Ni alloys, although the contribution of solid solution strengthening from W is expected to be essentially negligible. The improved properties are therefore most likely due to the finer length scale available in multicomponent nanocrystalline alloys, and suggest that alloying may suppress the breakdown of Hall-Petch strengthening to finer grain sizes. Finally, the present data are shown to smoothly bridge the hardness-grain size trend between nanocrystalline Ni (grain size>10 nm) and amorphous Ni-based alloys.
TL;DR: In this article, Ni-SiC composite coatings containing 4−5 vol.% submicron SiC particles were evaluated in uni-and bi-directional sliding tests against corundum balls.
Abstract: SiC particles of three different sizes, namely 5, 0.7 and 0.3 μm, were codeposited with nickel from Watts’ solutions. It was found that for a given number density of particles in the plating solution, the number density of particles in the coating increases with decreasing particle size. The friction and wear behavior of these composite coatings was evaluated in uni- and bi-directional sliding tests against corundum balls. The best sliding wear resistance was obtained with Ni–SiC composite coatings containing 4–5 vol.% submicron SiC particles.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of grain size reduction on the wear resistance of electrodeposited nanoc-rystalline pure nickel coatings was investigated quantitatively by the Taber abrasive wear test, astandard test often applied in industrial testing.
Abstract: Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, University of Toronto, 184 College Street,Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3E4*Integran Technologies Inc, 1 Meridian Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M9W 4Z6(Received August 25, 2000)(Accepted September 13, 2000)Keywords: Nanocrystalline nickel; Wear; Electroplating; Grain boundariesIntroductionNanocrystalline materials, as a result of the considerable reduction of grain size and their significantvolume fraction of grain boundaries and triple junctions, have exhibited many unusual mechanical,physical, chemical and electrochemical properties compared with conventional polycrystalline oramorphous materials [eg 1,2] For many engineering applications, wear resistance is one of the mostimportant mechanical properties because wear accounts for more than 50% loss of all materials inservice  Grain size reduction has been previously shown to lead to significant improvements of thewear resistance in nanocrystalline materials For the case of nanostructured WC-Co composites, forexample, the reduction of WC grain size to 70 nm nearly doubled the abrasive wear resistance overconventional cermets  Nanocrystalline nickel with 10 ; 20 nm grain size made by electrodepositionshowed 100 ; 170 times higher wear resistance and 45 ; 50% lower friction coefficient thanpolycrystalline nickel with 10 ; 100 mm grain size in the pin-on-disk test  When the grain size ofaluminum was reduced from 1 mm to 16 nm, the peak coefficient of friction decreased by 57% in theminiature pin-on-disk test In this study, the effect of grain size reduction on the wear resistance of electrodeposited nanoc-rystalline pure nickel coatings was investigated quantitatively by the Taber abrasive wear test, astandard test often applied in industrial testingExperimentalThe substrates for nanocrystalline nickel coatings were AISI 1010 mild steel with a size of 10 3 10 cm
TL;DR: Inoue et al. this paper proposed a new method to solve the problem of the "missing link" problem in this paper, which they called the "hidden link problem".
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