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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.2019285118

T cells selectively filter oscillatory signals on the minutes timescale.

02 Mar 2021-Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)-Vol. 118, Iss: 9
Abstract: T cells experience complex temporal patterns of stimulus via receptor-ligand-binding interactions with surrounding cells. From these temporal patterns, T cells are able to pick out antigenic signals while establishing self-tolerance. Although features such as duration of antigen binding have been examined, our understanding of how T cells interpret signals with different frequencies or temporal stimulation patterns is relatively unexplored. We engineered T cells to respond to light as a stimulus by building an optogenetically controlled chimeric antigen receptor (optoCAR). We discovered that T cells respond to minute-scale oscillations of activation signal by stimulating optoCAR T cells with tunable pulse trains of light. Systematically scanning signal oscillation period from 1 to 150 min revealed that expression of CD69, a T cell activation marker, reached a local minimum at a period of ∼25 min (corresponding to 5 to 15 min pulse widths). A combination of inhibitors and genetic knockouts suggest that this frequency filtering mechanism lies downstream of the Erk signaling branch of the T cell response network and may involve a negative feedback loop that diminishes Erk activity. The timescale of CD69 filtering corresponds with the duration of T cell encounters with self-peptide-presenting APCs observed via intravital imaging in mice, indicating a potential functional role for temporal filtering in vivo. This study illustrates that the T cell signaling machinery is tuned to temporally filter and interpret time-variant input signals in discriminatory ways.

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Topics: T cell (61%)

7 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22105300
Abstract: Biological signals are sensed by their respective receptors and are transduced and processed by a sophisticated intracellular signaling network leading to a signal-specific cellular response. Thereby, the response to the signal depends on the strength, the frequency, and the duration of the stimulus as well as on the subcellular signal progression. Optogenetic tools are based on genetically encoded light-sensing proteins facilitating the precise spatiotemporal control of signal transduction pathways and cell fate decisions in the absence of natural ligands. In this review, we provide an overview of optogenetic approaches connecting light-regulated protein-protein interaction or caging/uncaging events with steering the function of signaling proteins. We briefly discuss the most common optogenetic switches and their mode of action. The main part deals with the engineering and application of optogenetic tools for the control of transmembrane receptors including receptor tyrosine kinases, the T cell receptor and integrins, and their effector proteins. We also address the hallmarks of optogenetics, the spatial and temporal control of signaling events.

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Topics: Optogenetics (54%), Signal transduction (52%)

2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/E23040437
08 Apr 2021-Entropy
Abstract: The thymus hosts the development of a specific type of adaptive immune cells called T cells. T cells orchestrate the adaptive immune response through recognition of antigen by the highly variable T-cell receptor (TCR). T-cell development is a tightly coordinated process comprising lineage commitment, somatic recombination of Tcr gene loci and selection for functional, but non-self-reactive TCRs, all interspersed with massive proliferation and cell death. Thus, the thymus produces a pool of T cells throughout life capable of responding to virtually any exogenous attack while preserving the body through self-tolerance. The thymus has been of considerable interest to both immunologists and theoretical biologists due to its multi-scale quantitative properties, bridging molecular binding, population dynamics and polyclonal repertoire specificity. Here, we review experimental strategies aimed at revealing quantitative and dynamic properties of T-cell development and how they have been implemented in mathematical modeling strategies that were reported to help understand the flexible dynamics of the highly dividing and dying thymic cell populations. Furthermore, we summarize the current challenges to estimating in vivo cellular dynamics and to reaching a next-generation multi-scale picture of T-cell development.

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Topics: T cell (58%), Acquired immune system (56%), T-cell receptor (55%) ... read more

1 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IT.2021.09.004
Abstract: How T lymphocytes tune their responses to different strengths of stimulation is a fundamental question in immunology. Recent work using new optogenetic, single-cell genomic, and live-imaging approaches has revealed that stimulation strength controls the rate of individual cell responses within a population. Moreover, these responses have been found to use shared molecular programs, regardless of stimulation strength. However, additional data indicate that stimulation duration or cytokine feedback can impact later gene expression phenotypes of activated cells. In-depth molecular studies have suggested mechanisms by which stimulation strength might modulate the probability of T cell activation. This emerging model allows activating T cells to achieve a wide range of population responses through probabilistic control within individual cells.

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Topics: T cell (56%), Stimulation (54%), Population (54%)

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41540-021-00192-8
17 Aug 2021-
Abstract: Covalent modification cycles (CMCs) are basic units of signaling systems and their properties are well understood. However, their behavior has been mostly characterized in situations where the substrate is in excess over the modifying enzymes. Experimental data on protein abundance suggest that the enzymes and their target proteins are present in comparable concentrations, leading to substrate sequestration by the enzymes. In this enzyme-in-excess regime, CMCs have been shown to exhibit signal termination, the ability of the product to return to a stationary value lower than its peak in response to constant stimulation, while this stimulation is still active, with possible implications for the ability of systems to adapt to environmental inputs. We characterize the conditions leading to signal termination in CMCs in the enzyme-in-excess regime. We also demonstrate that this behavior leads to a preferred frequency response (band-pass filters) when the cycle is subjected to periodic stimulation, whereas the literature reports that CMCs investigated so far behave as low-pass filters. We characterize the relationship between signal termination and the preferred frequency response to periodic inputs and we explore the dynamic mechanism underlying these phenomena. Finally, we describe how the behavior of CMCs is reflected in similar types of responses in the cascades of which they are part. Evidence of protein abundance in vivo shows that enzymes and substrates are present in comparable concentrations, thus suggesting that signal termination and frequency-preference response to periodic inputs are also important dynamic features of cell signaling systems, which have been overlooked.

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59 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2010.06.011
Mark A. Lemmon1, Joseph Schlessinger2Institutions (2)
13 Oct 2000-Cell
Abstract: Recent structural studies of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have revealed unexpected diversity in the mechanisms of their activation by growth factor ligands. Strategies for inducing dimerization by ligand binding are surprisingly diverse, as are mechanisms that couple this event to activation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domains. As our understanding of these details becomes increasingly sophisticated, it provides an important context for therapeutically countering the effects of pathogenic RTK mutations in cancer and other diseases. Much remains to be learned, however, about the complex signaling networks downstream from RTKs and how alterations in these networks are translated into cellular responses.

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Topics: Receptor tyrosine kinase (67%), ROR1 (61%), Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (61%) ... read more

6,439 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1215134
Abstract: Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells with specificity for CD19 have shown promise in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It remains to be established whether chimeric antigen receptor T cells have clinical activity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Two children with relapsed and refractory pre-B-cell ALL received infusions of T cells transduced with anti-CD19 antibody and a T-cell signaling molecule (CTL019 chimeric antigen receptor T cells), at a dose of 1.4×10(6) to 1.2×10(7) CTL019 cells per kilogram of body weight. In both patients, CTL019 T cells expanded to a level that was more than 1000 times as high as the initial engraftment level, and the cells were identified in bone marrow. In addition, the chimeric antigen receptor T cells were observed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where they persisted at high levels for at least 6 months. Eight grade 3 or 4 adverse events were noted. The cytokine-release syndrome and B-cell aplasia developed in both patients. In one child, the cytokine-release syndrome was severe; cytokine blockade with etanercept and tocilizumab was effective in reversing the syndrome and did not prevent expansion of chimeric antigen receptor T cells or reduce antileukemic efficacy. Complete remission was observed in both patients and is ongoing in one patient at 11 months after treatment. The other patient had a relapse, with blast cells that no longer expressed CD19, approximately 2 months after treatment. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells are capable of killing even aggressive, treatment-refractory acute leukemia cells in vivo. The emergence of tumor cells that no longer express the target indicates a need to target other molecules in addition to CD19 in some patients with ALL.

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Topics: Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy (78%), T cell (68%), Adoptive cell transfer (68%) ... read more

2,635 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(94)90334-4
Arthur Weiss1, Dan R. Littman2Institutions (2)
28 Jan 1994-Cell
Abstract: Despite the differences in the antigens that they recognize and in the effector functions they carry out, B and T lymphocytes utilize remarkably similar signal transduction components to initiate responses. They both use oligomeric receptors that contain distinct recognition and signal transduction subunits. Antigen receptors on both cells interact with at least two distinct families of PTKs via common sequence motifs, ARAMs, in the cytoplasmic tails of their invariant chains, which have likely evolved from a common evolutionary precursor. Coreceptors appear to serve to increase the sensitivity of both of these receptor systems through events that influence ligand binding and signal transduction. The critical role of tyrosine phosphorylation of downstream signaling components, such as phospholipase C, is the net result of changes in the balance of the action of antigen receptor-regulated PTKs and PTPases. The identification of downstream effectors, including calcineurin and Ras, that regulate cellular responses, such as lymphokine gene expression, promises the future possibility of connecting the complex pathway from the plasma membrane to the nucleus in lymphocytes. Insight gained from studies of the signaling pathways downstream of TCR and BCR stimulation is likely to contribute significantly to future understanding of mechanisms responsible for lymphocyte differentiation and for the discrimination of self from nonself in developing and mature cells.

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Topics: T-cell receptor (59%), Signal transduction (58%), Lymphocyte differentiation (57%) ... read more

2,096 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE02238
08 Jan 2004-Nature
Abstract: Primary T-cell responses in lymph nodes (LNs) require contact-dependent information exchange between T cells and dendritic cells (DCs). Because lymphocytes continually enter and leave normal LNs, the resident lymphocyte pool is composed of non-synchronized cells with different dwell times that display heterogeneous behaviour in mouse LNs in vitro. Here we employ two-photon microscopy in vivo to study antigen-presenting DCs and naive T cells whose dwell time in LNs was synchronized. During the first 8 h after entering from the blood, T cells underwent multiple short encounters with DCs, progressively decreased their motility, and upregulated activation markers. During the subsequent 12 h T cells formed long-lasting stable conjugates with DCs and began to secrete interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma. On the second day, coinciding with the onset of proliferation, T cells resumed their rapid migration and short DC contacts. Thus, T-cell priming by DCs occurs in three successive stages: transient serial encounters during the first activation phase are followed by a second phase of stable contacts culminating in cytokine production, which makes a transition into a third phase of high motility and rapid proliferation.

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Topics: T cell (59%), Dendritic cell (59%), Priming (immunology) (57%) ... read more

1,575 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV.BIOCHEM.62.1.453
Abstract: This is a free sample of content from Signaling by Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Click here for more information or to buy the book. This is a free sample of content from Signaling by Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Click here for more information or to buy the book. Front cover artwork: Stylized representations of the 20 different receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) families found in humans—accounting for a total of 58 different receptors. The common intra-cellular tyrosine kinase domain (lower part of each receptor) is shown as a red rectangle. Domains in the extracellular region (upper part of each receptor) are much more variable across families and include immunoglobulin domains (blue), fibronectin type III domains (orange), and many others. The chapters in this volume describe mechanisms by which ligand binding to the extracellular region controls activity of the intracellular kinase domain, which vary substantially across the family and drive a variety of intracellular signaling pathways. All World Wide Web addresses are accurate to the best of our knowledge at the time of printing. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, provided that the appropriate fee is paid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC). Write or call CCC at 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 (978-750-8400) for information about fees and regulations. Prior to photocopying items for educational classroom use, contact CCC at the above address. Additional information on CCC can be obtained at CCC Online at

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Topics: Receptor tyrosine kinase (79%), ROR1 (71%), Mitogen-activated protein kinase (71%) ... read more

1,528 Citations

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