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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1681/ASN.2020101407

Targeted Single-Cell RNA-seq Identifies Minority Cell Types of Kidney Distal Nephron.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of The American Society of Nephrology (J Am Soc Nephrol)-Vol. 32, Iss: 4, pp 886-896
Abstract: Background Proximal tubule cells dominate the kidney parenchyma numerically, although less abundant cell types of the distal nephron have disproportionate roles in water and electrolyte balance. Methods Coupling of a FACS-based enrichment protocol with single-cell RNA-seq profiled the transcriptomes of 9099 cells from the thick ascending limb (CTAL)/distal convoluted tubule (DCT) region of the mouse nephron. Results Unsupervised clustering revealed Slc12a3 +/Pvalb + and Slc12a3 +/Pvalb - cells, identified as DCT1 and DCT2 cells, respectively. DCT1 cells appear to be heterogeneous, with orthogonally variable expression of Slc8a1, Calb1, and Ckb. An additional DCT1 subcluster showed marked enrichment of cell cycle-/cell proliferation-associated mRNAs (e.g., Mki67, Stmn1, and Top2a), which fit with the known plasticity of DCT cells. No DCT2-specific transcripts were found. DCT2 cells contrast with DCT1 cells by expression of epithelial sodium channel β- and γ-subunits and much stronger expression of transcripts associated with calcium transport (Trpv5, Calb1, S100g, and Slc8a1). Additionally, scRNA-seq identified three distinct CTAL (Slc12a1 +) cell subtypes. One of these expressed Nos1 and Avpr1a, consistent with macula densa cells. The other two CTAL clusters were distinguished by Cldn10 and Ptger3 in one and Cldn16 and Foxq1 in the other. These two CTAL cell types were also distinguished by expression of alternative Iroquois homeobox transcription factors, with Irx1 and Irx2 in the Cldn10 + CTAL cells and Irx3 in the Cldn16 + CTAL cells. Conclusions Single-cell transcriptomics revealed unexpected diversity among the cells of the distal nephron in mouse. Web-based data resources are provided for the single-cell data.

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Topics: Distal convoluted tubule (56.99%), Macula densa (55%), Cell type (53%) ... show more
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11 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1681/ASN.2020101406
Lihe Chen1, Chun-Lin Chou1, Mark A. Knepper1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Background The repertoire of protein expression along the renal tubule depends both on regulation of transcription and regulation of alternative splicing that can generate multiple proteins from a single gene. Methods A full-length, small-sample RNA-seq protocol profiled transcriptomes for all 14 renal tubule segments microdissected from mouse kidneys. Results This study identified >34,000 transcripts, including 3709 that were expressed in a segment-specific manner. All data are provided as an online resource (https://esbl.nhlbi.nih.gov/MRECA/Nephron/). Many of the genes expressed in unique patterns along the renal tubule were solute carriers, transcription factors, or G protein-coupled receptors that account for segment-specific function. Mapping the distribution of transcripts associated with Wnk-SPAK-PKA signaling, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone signaling, and cystic diseases of the kidney illustrated the applications of the online resource. The method allowed full-length mapping of RNA-seq reads, which facilitated comprehensive, unbiased characterization of alternative exon usage along the renal tubule, including known isoforms of Cldn10, Kcnj1 (ROMK), Slc12a1 (NKCC2), Wnk1, Stk39 (SPAK), and Slc14a2 (UT-A urea transporter). It also identified many novel isoforms with segment-specific distribution. These included variants associated with altered protein structure (Slc9a8, Khk, Tsc22d1, and Scoc), and variants that may affect untranslated, regulatory regions of transcripts (Pth1r, Pkar1a, and Dab2). Conclusions Full-length, unbiased sequencing of transcripts identified gene-expression patterns along the mouse renal tubule. The data, provided as an online resource, include both quantitative and qualitative differences in transcripts. Identification of alternative splicing along the renal tubule may prove critical to understanding renal physiology and pathophysiology.

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Topics: Alternative splicing (53%), Kidney (53%), Nephron (52%) ... show more

11 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.07.28.454201
Blue B. Lake1, Rajasree Menon2, Seth Winfree3, Qiwen Hu4  +40 moreInstitutions (14)
29 Jul 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Understanding kidney disease relies upon defining the complexity of cell types and states, their associated molecular profiles, and interactions within tissue neighborhoods. We have applied multiple single-cell or -nucleus assays (>400,000 nuclei/cells) and spatial imaging technologies to a broad spectrum of healthy reference (n = 42) and disease (n = 42) kidneys. This has provided a high resolution cellular atlas of 100 cell types that include rare and novel cell populations. The multi-omic approach provides detailed transcriptomic profiles, epigenomic regulatory factors, and spatial localizations for major cell types spanning the entire kidney. We further identify and define cellular states altered in kidney injury, encompassing cycling, adaptive or maladaptive repair, transitioning and degenerative states affecting several segments. Molecular signatures of these states permitted their localization within injury neighborhoods using spatial transcriptomics, and large-scale 3D imaging analysis of ∼1.2 million neighborhoods provided linkages to active immune responses. These analyses further defined biological pathways relevant to injury niches, including signatures underlying the transition from reference to predicted maladaptive states that were associated with a decline in kidney function during chronic kidney disease. This human kidney cell atlas, including injury cell states and neighborhoods, will be a valuable resource for future studies.

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5 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2020.07.23.216507
Jens Hansen1, Rachel Sealfon2, Rajasree Menon3, Michael T. Eadon4  +38 moreInstitutions (13)
15 Sep 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Kidney Precision Medicine Project (KPMP) is building a spatially-specified human tissue atlas at the single-cell resolution with molecular details of the kidney in health and disease. Here, we describe the construction of an integrated reference tissue map of cells, pathways and genes using unaffected regions of nephrectomy tissues and undiseased human biopsies from 55 subjects. We use single-cell and -nucleus transcriptomics, subsegmental laser microdissection bulk transcriptomics and proteomics, near-single-cell proteomics, 3-D nondestructive and CODEX imaging, and spatial metabolomics data to hierarchically identify genes, pathways and cells. Integrated data from these different technologies coherently describe cell types/subtypes within different nephron segments and interstitium. These spatial profiles identify cell-level functional organization of the kidney tissue as indicative of their physiological functions and map different cell subtypes to genes, proteins, metabolites and pathways. Comparison of transcellular sodium reabsorption along the nephron to levels of mRNAs encoding the different sodium transporter genes indicate that mRNA levels are largely congruent with physiological activity.This reference atlas provides an initial framework for molecular classification of kidney disease when multiple molecular mechanisms underlie convergent clinical phenotypes.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1152/AJPRENAL.00077.2021
Brian G. Poll1, Lihe Chen1, Chung-Lin Chou1, Viswanathan Raghuram1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Kidney transport and other renal functions are regulated by multiple G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed along the renal tubule. The rapid, recent appearance of comprehensive unbiased gene expression data in the various renal tubule segments, chiefly RNA sequencing and protein mass spectrometry data, has provided a means of identifying patterns of GPCR expression along the renal tubule. To allow for comprehensive mapping, we first curated a comprehensive list of GPCRs in the genomes of mice, rats, and humans (https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/GPCRs/) using multiple online data sources. We used this list to mine segment-specific and cell type-specific expression data from RNA-sequencing studies in microdissected mouse tubule segments to identify GPCRs that are selectively expressed in discrete tubule segments. Comparisons of these mapped mouse GPCRs with other omics datasets as well as functional data from isolated perfused tubule and micropuncture studies confirmed patterns of expression for well-known receptors and identified poorly studied GPCRs that are likely to play roles in the regulation of renal tubule function. Thus, we provide data resources for GPCR expression across the renal tubule, highlighting both well-known GPCRs and understudied receptors to provide guidance for future studies.

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Topics: Tubule (57.99%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.KINT.2021.09.034
Kamal Khan1, Dina Ahram2, Yangfan P. Liu3, Rik Westland4  +8 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Advances in clinical diagnostics and molecular tools have improved our understanding of the genetically heterogeneous causes underlying congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). However, despite a sharp incline of CAKUT reports in the literature within the past 2 decades, there remains a plateau in the genetic diagnostic yield that is disproportionate to the accelerated ability to generate robust genome-wide data. Explanations for this observation include (i) diverse inheritance patterns with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity, (ii) rarity of single-gene drivers such that large sample sizes are required to meet the burden of proof, and (iii) multigene interactions that might produce either intra- (e.g., copy number variants) or inter- (e.g., effects in trans) locus effects. These challenges present an opportunity for the community to implement innovative genetic and molecular avenues to explain the missing heritability and to better elucidate the mechanisms that underscore CAKUT. Here, we review recent multidisciplinary approaches at the intersection of genetics, genomics, in vivo modeling, and in vitro systems toward refining a blueprint for overcoming the diagnostic hurdles that are pervasive in urinary tract malformation cohorts. These approaches will not only benefit clinical management by reducing age at molecular diagnosis and prompting early evaluation for comorbid features but will also serve as a springboard for therapeutic development.

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56 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.DEVCEL.2010.04.008
Frank Costantini1, Raphael Kopan2Institutions (2)
18 May 2010-Developmental Cell
Abstract: The two major components of the kidney, the collecting system and the nephron, have different developmental histories. The collecting system arises by the reiterated branching of a simple epithelial tube, while the nephron forms from a cloud of mesenchymal cells that coalesce into epithelial vesicles. Each develops into a morphologically complex and highly differentiated structure, and together they provide essential filtration and resorption functions. In this review, we will consider their embryological origin and the genes controlling their morphogenesis, patterning, and differentiation, with a focus on recent advances in several areas.

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Topics: Kidney development (51%)

558 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRM.2016.94
Sarah J. Bray1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The highly conserved Notch signalling pathway functions in many different developmental and homeostatic processes, which raises the question of how this pathway can achieve such diverse outcomes. With a direct route from the membrane to the nucleus, the Notch pathway has fewer opportunities for regulation than do many other signalling pathways, yet it generates exquisitely patterned structures, including sensory hair cells and branched arterial networks. More confusingly, its activity promotes tissue growth and cancers in some circumstances but cell death and tumour suppression in others. Many different regulatory mechanisms help to shape the activity of the Notch pathway, generating functional outputs that are appropriate for each context. These mechanisms include the receptor-ligand landscape, the tissue topology, the nuclear environment and the connectivity of the regulatory networks.

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540 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.89.24.11993
Abstract: Tubular-fluid reabsorption by specialized cells of the nephron at the junction of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubule, termed the macula densa, releases compounds causing vasoconstriction of the adjacent afferent arteriole. Activation of this tubuloglomerular feedback response reduces glomerular capillary pressure of the nephron and, hence, the glomerular filtration rate. The tubuloglomerular feedback response functions in a negative-feedback mode to relate glomerular capillary pressure to tubular-fluid delivery and reabsorption. This system has been implicated in renal autoregulation, renin release, and longterm body fluid and blood-pressure homeostasis. Here we report that arginine-derived nitric oxide, generated in the macula densa, is an additional intercellular signaling molecule that is released during tubular-fluid reabsorption and counters the vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole. Antibody to rat cerebellar constitutive nitric oxide synthase stained rat macula densa cells specifically. Microperfusion of the macula densa segment of single nephrons with N omega-methyl-L-arginine (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) or with pyocyanin (a lipid-soluble inhibitor of endothelium-derived relaxation factor) showed that generation of nitric oxide can vasodilate the afferent arteriole and increase glomerular capillary pressure; this effect was blocked by drugs that prevent tubular-fluid reabsorption. We conclude that nitric oxide synthase in macula densa cells is activated by tubular-fluid reabsorption and mediates a vasodilating component to the tubuloglomerular feedback response. These findings imply a role for arginine-derived nitric oxide in body fluid-volume and blood-pressure homeostasis, in addition to its established roles in modulation of vascular tone by the endothelium and in neurotransmission.

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Topics: Tubuloglomerular feedback (76%), Macula densa (69%), Afferent arterioles (66%) ... show more

523 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.AAR2131
Jihwan Park1, Rojesh Shrestha1, Chengxiang Qiu1, Ayano Kondo1  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
18 May 2018-Science
Abstract: Our understanding of kidney disease pathogenesis is limited by an incomplete molecular characterization of the cell types responsible for the organ’s multiple homeostatic functions. To help fill this knowledge gap, we characterized 57,979 cells from healthy mouse kidneys by using unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing. On the basis of gene expression patterns, we infer that inherited kidney diseases that arise from distinct genetic mutations but share the same phenotypic manifestation originate from the same differentiated cell type. We also found that the collecting duct in kidneys of adult mice generates a spectrum of cell types through a newly identified transitional cell. Computational cell trajectory analysis and in vivo lineage tracing revealed that intercalated cells and principal cells undergo transitions mediated by the Notch signaling pathway. In mouse and human kidney disease, these transitions were shifted toward a principal cell fate and were associated with metabolic acidosis.

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Topics: Cellular differentiation (57.99%), Cell fate determination (56%), Cell type (56%) ... show more

508 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.95.24.14552
Abstract: Although the collecting duct is regarded as the primary site at which mineralocorticoids regulate renal sodium transport in the kidney, recent evidence points to the distal convoluted tubule as a possible site of mineralocorticoid action. To investigate whether mineralocorticoids regulate the expression of the thiazide-sensitive Na–Cl cotransporter (TSC), the chief apical sodium entry pathway of distal convoluted tubule cells, we prepared an affinity-purified, peptide-directed antibody to TSC. On immunoblots, the antibody recognized a prominent 165-kDa band in membrane fractions from the renal cortex but not from the renal medulla. Immunofluorescence immunocytochemistry showed TSC labeling only in distal convoluted tubule cells. Semiquantitative immunoblotting studies demonstrated a large increase in TSC expression in the renal cortex of rats on a low-NaCl diet (207 ± 21% of control diet). Immunofluorescence localization in tissue sections confirmed the strong increase in TSC expression. Treatment of rats for 10 days with a continuous subcutaneous infusion of aldosterone also increased TSC expression (380 ± 58% of controls). Furthermore, 7-day treatment of rats with an orally administered mineralocorticoid, fludrocortisone, increased TSC expression (656 ± 114% of controls). We conclude that the distal convoluted tubule is an important site of action of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone, which strongly up-regulates the expression of TSC.

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Topics: Distal convoluted tubule (68%), Mineralocorticoid (60%), Renal medulla (57.99%) ... show more

385 Citations


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