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Teaching listening comprehension

01 Jan 1984-
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss listening to English as a foreign language (EFL) and planning exercises to understand spoken English in a classroom environment, and suggest suggestions for classroom activities.
Abstract: List of illustrations Acknowledgements Part I. Understanding Spoken English: 1. Real-life listening 2. Listening to English as a foreign language 3. Planning exercises Part II. Suggestions for Classroom Activities: 4. Listening for perception 5. Listening for comprehension A postscript Bibliography Index.
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Motivation is considered to be one of the main determining factors in success in developing a second or foreign language (34), both referred to as L2 learning as mentioned in this paper, and motivation determines the extent of active, personal involvement in learning.
Abstract: does Mary Ellen want to learn French? What motivates Yu Jia to learn English in China? What is the reason for Maury's interest and effort in Japanese? Why does Louise work so hard at learning Russian? What does Eyhab think he will achieve in studying English in the US? The answers to these questions are important, because motivation is considered by many to be one of the main determining factors in success in developing a second or foreign language (34), both referred to as L2. Motivation determines the extent of active, personal involvement in L2 learning. Conversely, unmotivated students are insufficiently involved and therefore unable to develop their potential L2 skills.

1,330 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviewed the factors that may influence second language (L2) listening comprehension, referring, in some cases, to factors isolated for first language learning (2; 29; 36; 37; 37, 42; 43; 70; 72).
Abstract: ing activities in student textbooks and even in methodology texts designed specifically for listening (2; 99; 120; 121). In the past decade, scholars have reviewed the factors that may influence second language (L2) listening comprehension (19; 38; 39; 44; 68; 69; 84; 98; 99), referring, in some cases, to factors isolated for first language (L1) learning (2; 29; 36; 37; 42; 43; 70; 72). Surprisingly few of the myriad of factors listed in these reviews have been researched and, of those that have, even fewer have been subjected to adequate experimental controls. In the main, many factors are cited as relevant either because they are suspected on logical grounds to affect listening or because they are thought to be relevant based on parallels found in reading research. Of those factors that have been researched, most have been the object of only a limited number of research studies, often only on one of the more commonly taught languages. Finally, most of the research results are based on listening comprehension measures that have not been standardized, making it difficult to compare results. There is, however, a small-but growingbody of research on listening comprehension that forms a lively, ongoing dialogue about how learners interact with oral input. How and when do learners rely on top-down factors (background knowledge, semantics) and on bottom-

462 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, three dimensions of conceptualization, planning, and performance involved in the teaching of listening comprehension are considered, referred to as approach, design, and procedure (Richards and Rodgers 1982).
Abstract: This article outlines three dimensions in the teaching of listening comprehension. In approach, it discusses the nature of spoken discourse and offers a theory of listening comprehension that takes into account the processes that listeners make use of. In design, it analyzes learners' listening needs, proposes a taxonomy of microskills, and establishes objectives for teaching these skills. And finally, in procedure, it presents classroom activities and exercise types that can be used to attain these objectives. Not to let a word get in the way of its sentence Nor to let a sentence get in the way of its intention, But to send your mind out to meet the intention as a guest; THAT is understanding. Chinese proverb, fourth century B.C. In this article, three dimensions of conceptualization, planning, and performance involved in the teaching of listening comprehension are considered. These are referred to as approach, design, and procedure (Richards and Rodgers 1982). Initially, an outline of some of what is known about the processes involved in listening is presented. This is the level of approach, where assumptions about how listeners proceed in decoding utterances to extract meanings are spelled out. The next level, that of design, is where an operationalization is made of the component micro-skills which constitute our competence as listeners. This in turn enables objectives to be defined for the teaching of listening comprehension. At the third level, that of procedure, questions concerning exercise types and teaching techniques are examined. These three levels illustrate the domain of methodology in language teaching.

459 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a metacognitive approach for teaching listening is discussed, drawing on understandings from educational research as well as second language listening studies, and the theoretical rationale and principles for carrying out metACognitive instruction are discussed.
Abstract: There has been a growing interest in and concern for the teaching of listening in the last 40 years. Looking back over the years, we can see how the emphases on teaching listening and the focus of listening instruction have changed. Although instructional practices were initially heavily influenced by models of the written language and a behaviourist approach, the focus has since moved to developing listening as a skill needed for constructing and communicating meaning. More recently, discussions about listening instruction have emphasized the role of strategy training and learner metacognition in facilitating comprehension. In this paper I discuss a metacognitive approach, drawing on understandings from educational research as well as second language listening studies. I explain its theoretical rationale and identify principles for carrying out metacognitive instruction, as well as outline general instructional objectives and learning activities for this purpose. Finally, I suggest possible research dire...

353 citations


Cites background from "Teaching listening comprehension"

  • ...These understandings can be seen in one of the key innovations during the CLT period, namely the role of pre-listening phases (Anderson and Lynch 1988; Underwood 1989; Ur 1984)....

    [...]

Book
John Field1
23 Feb 2009
TL;DR: This paper argued that a preoccupation with the notion of "comprehension" has led teachers to focus upon the product of listening, in the form of answers to questions, ignoring the listening process itself.
Abstract: This book challenges the orthodox approach to the teaching of second language listening, which is based upon the asking and answering of comprehension questions. The book's central argument is that a preoccupation with the notion of 'comprehension' has led teachers to focus upon the product of listening, in the form of answers to questions, ignoring the listening process itself. The author provides an informed account of the psychological processes which make up the skill of listening, and analyses the characteristics of the speech signal from which listeners have to construct a message. Drawing upon this information, the book proposes a radical alternative to the comprehension approach and provides for intensive small-scale practice in aspects of listening that are perceptually or cognitively demanding for the learner. Listening in the Language Classroom was winner of the Ben Warren International Trust House Prize in 2008.

348 citations


Cites background from "Teaching listening comprehension"

  • ...Lists of similar frequent formulae are provided in Gimson, 1994: 261–2 and in Ur, 1984: 46....

    [...]

  • ...My aim is not to provide a detailed exposition of current practice; other sources (Ur, 1984; Underwood, 1989; Wilson, 2008) already do that comprehensively, if in rather different ways from the historical angle adopted here....

    [...]

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Motivation is considered to be one of the main determining factors in success in developing a second or foreign language (34), both referred to as L2 learning as mentioned in this paper, and motivation determines the extent of active, personal involvement in learning.
Abstract: does Mary Ellen want to learn French? What motivates Yu Jia to learn English in China? What is the reason for Maury's interest and effort in Japanese? Why does Louise work so hard at learning Russian? What does Eyhab think he will achieve in studying English in the US? The answers to these questions are important, because motivation is considered by many to be one of the main determining factors in success in developing a second or foreign language (34), both referred to as L2. Motivation determines the extent of active, personal involvement in L2 learning. Conversely, unmotivated students are insufficiently involved and therefore unable to develop their potential L2 skills.

1,330 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviewed the factors that may influence second language (L2) listening comprehension, referring, in some cases, to factors isolated for first language learning (2; 29; 36; 37; 37, 42; 43; 70; 72).
Abstract: ing activities in student textbooks and even in methodology texts designed specifically for listening (2; 99; 120; 121). In the past decade, scholars have reviewed the factors that may influence second language (L2) listening comprehension (19; 38; 39; 44; 68; 69; 84; 98; 99), referring, in some cases, to factors isolated for first language (L1) learning (2; 29; 36; 37; 42; 43; 70; 72). Surprisingly few of the myriad of factors listed in these reviews have been researched and, of those that have, even fewer have been subjected to adequate experimental controls. In the main, many factors are cited as relevant either because they are suspected on logical grounds to affect listening or because they are thought to be relevant based on parallels found in reading research. Of those factors that have been researched, most have been the object of only a limited number of research studies, often only on one of the more commonly taught languages. Finally, most of the research results are based on listening comprehension measures that have not been standardized, making it difficult to compare results. There is, however, a small-but growingbody of research on listening comprehension that forms a lively, ongoing dialogue about how learners interact with oral input. How and when do learners rely on top-down factors (background knowledge, semantics) and on bottom-

462 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, three dimensions of conceptualization, planning, and performance involved in the teaching of listening comprehension are considered, referred to as approach, design, and procedure (Richards and Rodgers 1982).
Abstract: This article outlines three dimensions in the teaching of listening comprehension. In approach, it discusses the nature of spoken discourse and offers a theory of listening comprehension that takes into account the processes that listeners make use of. In design, it analyzes learners' listening needs, proposes a taxonomy of microskills, and establishes objectives for teaching these skills. And finally, in procedure, it presents classroom activities and exercise types that can be used to attain these objectives. Not to let a word get in the way of its sentence Nor to let a sentence get in the way of its intention, But to send your mind out to meet the intention as a guest; THAT is understanding. Chinese proverb, fourth century B.C. In this article, three dimensions of conceptualization, planning, and performance involved in the teaching of listening comprehension are considered. These are referred to as approach, design, and procedure (Richards and Rodgers 1982). Initially, an outline of some of what is known about the processes involved in listening is presented. This is the level of approach, where assumptions about how listeners proceed in decoding utterances to extract meanings are spelled out. The next level, that of design, is where an operationalization is made of the component micro-skills which constitute our competence as listeners. This in turn enables objectives to be defined for the teaching of listening comprehension. At the third level, that of procedure, questions concerning exercise types and teaching techniques are examined. These three levels illustrate the domain of methodology in language teaching.

459 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a metacognitive approach for teaching listening is discussed, drawing on understandings from educational research as well as second language listening studies, and the theoretical rationale and principles for carrying out metACognitive instruction are discussed.
Abstract: There has been a growing interest in and concern for the teaching of listening in the last 40 years. Looking back over the years, we can see how the emphases on teaching listening and the focus of listening instruction have changed. Although instructional practices were initially heavily influenced by models of the written language and a behaviourist approach, the focus has since moved to developing listening as a skill needed for constructing and communicating meaning. More recently, discussions about listening instruction have emphasized the role of strategy training and learner metacognition in facilitating comprehension. In this paper I discuss a metacognitive approach, drawing on understandings from educational research as well as second language listening studies. I explain its theoretical rationale and identify principles for carrying out metacognitive instruction, as well as outline general instructional objectives and learning activities for this purpose. Finally, I suggest possible research dire...

353 citations

Book
John Field1
23 Feb 2009
TL;DR: This paper argued that a preoccupation with the notion of "comprehension" has led teachers to focus upon the product of listening, in the form of answers to questions, ignoring the listening process itself.
Abstract: This book challenges the orthodox approach to the teaching of second language listening, which is based upon the asking and answering of comprehension questions. The book's central argument is that a preoccupation with the notion of 'comprehension' has led teachers to focus upon the product of listening, in the form of answers to questions, ignoring the listening process itself. The author provides an informed account of the psychological processes which make up the skill of listening, and analyses the characteristics of the speech signal from which listeners have to construct a message. Drawing upon this information, the book proposes a radical alternative to the comprehension approach and provides for intensive small-scale practice in aspects of listening that are perceptually or cognitively demanding for the learner. Listening in the Language Classroom was winner of the Ben Warren International Trust House Prize in 2008.

348 citations