Abstract: Hydrogen is a renewable energy carrier that is one of the most competent fuel options for the future. The majority of hydrogen is currently produced from fossil fuels and their derivatives. These technologies have a negative impact on the environment. Furthermore, these resources are rapidly diminishing. Recent research has focused on environmentally friendly and pollution-free alternatives to fossil fuels. The advancement of bio-hydrogen technology as a development of new sustainable and environmentally friendly energy technologies was examined in this paper. Key chemical derivatives of biomass such as alcohols, glycerol, methane-based reforming for hydrogen generation was briefly addressed. Biological techniques for producing hydrogen are an appealing and viable alternative. For bio-hydrogen production, these key biological processes, including fermentative, enzymatic, and biocatalyst, were also explored. This paper also looks at current developments in the generation of hydrogen from biomass. Pretreatment, reactor configuration, and elements of genetic engineering were also briefly covered. Bio-H2 production has two major challenges: a poor yield of hydrogen and a high manufacturing cost. The cost, benefits, and drawbacks of different hydrogen generation techniques were depicted. Finally, this article discussed the promise of biohydrogen as a clean alternative, as well as the areas in which additional study is needed to make the hydrogen economy a reality.
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