scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Telomeres in Cancer: Length, Positioning and Epigenetics

29 Jul 2016-Vol. 2016, Iss: 01, pp 1-7
TL;DR: An account of how telomere shortening, lengthening, positioning in the nucleus and its associated epigenetic modifications set cancer cells apart from normal cells is given.
Abstract: Telomeres, the tandem nucleotide sequences at the termini of the DNA, enables the masking of DNA from repair mechanisms, thus protecting them from being considered as double stranded breaks. When the maintenance of telomeres goes awry, several diseases including cancer are resulted. Here in this review, we give an account of how telomere shortening, lengthening, positioning in the nucleus and its associated epigenetic modifications set cancer cells apart from normal cells.
Citations
More filters
01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: The function of genetics in medical science is extending in high manner, single-gene disorders is beginning to complete many areas of medical science across primary and specialty care.
Abstract: Genomics is an endeavor term 10 years ago which is achieving momentum across the entire clinical continuum from risk assessment in healthy individuals to genome-guided treatment in patients with complex diseases The review process is going on the latest achievements in genomic research and their significance on modern system of medicine, primarily in the past decade Advances in technology have enabled the development of genomic tools that are responsible for transformation not only the science of medicine but also the health care application The importance of genomics includes cancer pharmacogenomics, in the diagnosis of rare disorders, and in the tracking of infectious disease The function of genetics in medical science is extending in high manner, single-gene disorders is beginning to complete many areas of medical science across primary and specialty care

17 citations


Cites background from "Telomeres in Cancer: Length, Positi..."

  • ...The use of pharmacogenomics and targeted drug therapy in treatment [1-7] is a revolutionary technology....

    [...]

01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: Every off spring inherits genes from both of their biological parents and these genes in turn express specific traits of diseases which are hereditary from parents to offspring’s.
Abstract: Genetics is the study of heredity and heredity is a biological process where a gene from a parent passes into their children or offspring Every off spring inherits genes from both of their biological parents and these genes in turn express specific traits of diseases which are hereditary from parents to offspring’s A genetic syndrome is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome; especially the condition arises from birth Sometimes the genetic disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every thousands or millions Most of the genes are the building blocks of heredity They are mainly passed from parent to offspring’s They are the carriers of DNA and proteins Proteins do most of the work in cells The main function of the proteins they move molecules from one cell to another

16 citations


Cites background from "Telomeres in Cancer: Length, Positi..."

  • ...Elias Matouk clearly explained the C - reactive protein in Stable Cystic Fibrosis: An Additional Indicator of Clinical Disease Activity and Risk of Future Pulmonary Exacerbations [62-80]....

    [...]

  • ...Matouk E, Nguyen D, Benedetti A, et al. C-Reactive Protein in Stable Cystic Fibrosis: An Additional Indicator of Clinical Disease Activity and Risk of Future Pulmonary Exacerbations....

    [...]

Journal Article
TL;DR: How might antioxidants help in preventing cancer along with prospective study of antioxidants their mechanism and role in cancer therapy and the biochemical process by which antioxidants can prevent neuronal death occurring in neurodegenerative disorders are explained.
Abstract: Antioxidants are the substances which protects cells from damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. Free radical damage may lead to cancer and many neurodegenerative disorders. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) over production will results in oxidative stress which can leads to neuronal damage and results in cancer and Neurodegenerative. An antioxidant defence mechanism involves removal of this reactive oxygen, nitrogen species and their precursors thereby inhibit formation of ROS. Scientific research confirms that free radicals have a major role in the development of cancer, heart disease, cataracts, aging and impairment of the immune system. Nutritional antioxidants might exert some protective activity on Alzimers Disease, Parkinson Disease. This review explains that how might antioxidants help in preventing cancer along with prospective study of antioxidants their mechanism and role in cancer therapy and the biochemical process by which antioxidants can prevent neuronal death occurring in neurodegenerative disorders.

4 citations


Cites background from "Telomeres in Cancer: Length, Positi..."

  • ...RRJMHS | Volume 5 | Issue 3 | 2016 a beneficial role in reducing extraneous oxidative damage, thereby reducing the problems involved in production of ROS and neurodegenerative disorders [33-38]....

    [...]

Journal Article
TL;DR: Metformin helps to control sugar levels in the blood by decreasing the production of glucose in the liver and increases body’s response to insulin, which naturally controls glucose levels in blood, hence it can be used in the treatment of cancers which are associated with hyperinsulinemia.
Abstract: Metformin belongs to the class biguanides Unlike metformin, phenformin and buformin also belong to biguanides which are developed for type-2 diabetes These biguanides are derived from the herb Galega officinalis (French lilac, also known as Goat's Rue or Italian Fitch) Among these Metformin is used widely and taken orally as it is used as anticancer agent The trade name of Metformin in the market is Glucophage Metformin helps to control sugar levels in the blood by decreasing the production of glucose in the liver It also decreases the amount of glucose that is absorbed from the food and increases body’s response to insulin, which naturally controls glucose levels in blood Hence it can be used in the treatment of cancers which are associated with hyperinsulinemia, such as those of the breast and colon Metformin was discovered in 1922 and it was introduced in 1950s along with phenformin in to the market Unlike metformin, the other biguanides (phenformin, buformin) were toxic and often caused fatal condition, hence removed from the US market in 1977 This affected the use of metformin in the market It is also used to treat people with polycystic ovary syndrome in females but cannot be used to treat people with liver diseases or kidney disorders It has common side effects like nausea, vomitings, diarrhoea, weakness, breathlessness, abdominal pain Hence, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required large safety studies of metformin The review would cover the topics like How the drug has come into the society? How far the drug was useful to the society and pharmaceutical industries? What advantages and disadvantages the drug has? How it can be used as an anticancer agent? How it improves the survival of some breast cancer patients?

3 citations


Cites background from "Telomeres in Cancer: Length, Positi..."

  • ...Incomprehensibly, at least in one cell model framework, loss of capacity of LKB1 sensitized cells to the inhibitory impacts of metformin under states of low glucose [73-75]....

    [...]

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: A genetic disorder is a genetic condition which is a result of one or more abnormalities in the genome, which is mostly observed from birth (congenital) and generally depends on environmental factors and events in his development.
Abstract: A genetic disorder is a genetic condition which is a result of one or more abnormalities in the genome, which is mostly observed from birth (congenital) Majority of the genetic disorders are rare and affect one in every several thousands or millions These disorders may be hereditarily passed down from the parents' genes or may be resulted by new mutations or changes in the DNA In the latter case, the disorder will be passed down unless it occurs in the germ line A same disorder may be caused due to an inherited genetic condition or by new mutations and mainly due to environmental factors eg some types of cancers A person with a genetic defect or abnormality will actually suffer from the disease generally depends on environmental factors and events in his development