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Journal ArticleDOI

Temperature Control in Wood Distillation

01 Mar 1916-Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 8, Iss: 3, pp 283-284

About: This article is published in Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.The article was published on 1916-03-01 and is currently open access. It has received 1 citation(s) till now. The article focuses on the topic(s): Vacuum distillation & Distillation.
Topics: Vacuum distillation (83%), Distillation (72%)

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Mar.,
1916
THE JOURNAL
OF
INDUSTRIAL
SOME
OVERLOOKED
INVESTIGATIONS ON WHEAT
Editor
of
the Journal
of
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry:
The Chemical Section of the Colorado Experiment Station
has been engaged for several years in a study of Colorado wheat,
to find out, if possible:
(I)
whether Colorado wheat has any
distinctive quality which may be considered characteristic
of
it;
(2)
to determine the factor
or
factors in‘our conditions which
are accountable for the same.
The result of our first two years’ work was the publication of
Bulletin
205
of this Station, entitled “Yellow-berry in Wheaf;
Its
Cause and Prevention.” Further reports
on
this work are
contained in
Bulletin
208
already issued, and
217
which will
appear
soon.
I
endeavored to give credit in these publications
to
everyone
to whom
I
am in any way indebted.
I
hold this to be the im-
perative duty of every author, even if his production should be
of insignificant importance. Since the manuscript of
Bulletin
217
was turned over to the Director of the Station,
I
have found
that
H.
Ritthausen and Dr. R. Potts carried out
a
series
of
ex-
periments in
1872,
an account of which may be found in
Die
landwirtschaftlichen Versuchs-Station,
Band XVI,
1873,
pp.
384-399,
which, in the main,
is
parallel to mine to such. an ex-
tent, and the conclusions are
so
similar, that it might be thought
that
I
had copied their plan of experimentation and adopted their
conclusions. This applies to the bulletin on Yellow-berry to
such an extent that some of my conclusions look like paraphrases
of theirs.
It
does not apply to
Bulletins
208
and
217
to the same
extent. Still, it applies in some measure, and a portion of the
work still to be reported will again be parallel.
Ritthausen and Dr. Potts used spring or summer wheat.
They used nitrates and phosphorus
on
some of their plots alone
and in excessive quantities. I, also, did these things, and for
the same reasons, but
I
used potash
on
some other plots and
they did not.
They hold that climatic conditions
as
a
cause for the quality
of wheat is
so
general, indefinite and unsatisfactory that one
must seek some more evident one-a view that
I
have repeatedly
expressed, and which
I,
in
a
general way, maintain in
Bulletin
205,
in which
I
show that it is insufficient
as
an explanation.
They state that their check plots produced light-colored,
half-mealy or transitional kernels. The plots to which phos-
phoric acid
or
superphosphates were applied, produced
the
same
kind of seed.
I
record that my check plots produced grain affected with
yellow-berry, mealy or half-mealy kernels, and that this con-
dition was not affected by the application of phosphorus as super-
phosphate.
They record the effects of nitrate to be the production of small,
well-formed kernels which were hard, flinty and dark-colored.
My statement is that the application of nitrate depresses
or entirely prevents yellow-berry and produces small, flinty,
and often shrunken berries.
They observed that nitrates used in conjunction with other
fertilizers produced effects similar to those produced by nitrates
alone.
I
used potash
on
three series of plots and they did not.
I
observed that potash greatly increased the amount of yellow-
berry. They did not.
The examination of the kernels and flour also will run in
their larger features parallel, which, of course, is to be expected.
The two studies are not identical, but the general features are
so
similar that one might readily be considered
a
copy of the
other,
which
is
not the case.
My work was planned and three seasons’ work done
on
my
general project before
I
learned of the existence of this article,
giving the record of this work done by these authors at Poppels-
dorf.
I
shall
in
no
wise change the plan of my work,
as
I
boped
from the beginning to carry my investigation
far
beyond
its
I
have made the same observation.
AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY
283
present stage. The work
so
far done seemed necessary, before
it would be justifiable for me, or anyone else, to assign any cause
or causes for the characteristics of our wheat. Indeed, it is
not even yet certain that one can properly speak of Colorado
wheats as having any predominant and fixed characteristic.
It
is
a
matter of surprise to me that this work of Ritthausen’s
has received apparently
no
attention.
I
found an abstract
of the article in the
Journal
of
the Chemical Society,
London.
This abstract did not give
a
very adequate idea of the facts
presented in the article.
I
have also found it mentioned in the
literature given by Schindler, in his “Der Getreidebau” at the
end of the section “Der Weizen.”
COLORADA
EXPERIMENT
STATION
W.
P.
HEADDEN
FORT
COLLINS, COLORADO,
January
21,
1916
TEMPERATURE CONTROL IN WOOD DISTILLATION
Editor
of
the Journal
of
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry:
The note by Mr.
R.
B.
Goetschius in
THIS
JOURNAL
8
(1916),
196,
on
“Temperature Control in Wood Distillation Plants”
has been read with
much
interest. Since much of the agitation
on
this subject referred to by him has been largely the result
of experiments made by the United States Forest Products
Laboratory the discussion is timely and of especial interest,
as it affords an opportunity to clear up several points which are
apparently misunderstood.
It
is probably correct that the present design of wood dis-
tillation plants is not adapted to the greatest possible increases
in products resulting from scientific temperature control but
experiments in the laboratory, and also in commercial plants,
subject to all the variables of factory operation have shown
much greater possibilities along this line than is generally sup-
posed by plant operators. The results of preliminary experi-
ments which form the basis for this statement were given in
Fortunately, it is not possible to control the distillation
irrespective of any variation in size of pieces in
a
commercial
size retort,
so
that all the water is distilled out of the charge
before destruetive decomposition takes place. Any control em-
bodying such a conception would certainly result in a very great
absence
of
control during the latter stages of the distillation
as the decomposition of
a
large volume of very dry wood is
likely to be extremely violent.
Experiments by the Forest Products Laboratory have shown
that apparently certain well defined relations exist between
the rate of rise of the temperature in the retort, the flow
of
dis-
tillate, and the yield of products. The interaction between
the various products in the retort in the presence of the hot
charcoal undoubtedly plays an important part in the yields.
Temperature control in the distillation of wood, as interpreted
by these experiments,
is
then to make the greatest possible
proportion of the distillations follow the proper combination
of these factors which will give the best yields. A technical
operation involving the rate of rise of the temperature
as
an im-
portant factor is obviously best conducted by employing
pyrometers.
In
a
continuation of these studies in longer tests in com-
mercial plants, results of which have not yet been published,
it was found, strangely enough, that about equal mixtures
of large pieces of split wood and smaller pieces of sawed wood
more readily gave the desired rate of rise of-temperature than
either of the two kinds alone. Therefore, instead of requiring
evenly sized wood in order to secure good results with pyrometers,
possibly by proper control the variability of the size of wood
may even prove an advantage.
Asidg from this more scientific basis for the application of
control there are other reasons which it would Seem were alone
sufficient for employing pyrometers in wood distillation plants.
The great variability of raw material in size, moisture content,
THIS
JOURNAL
7
(IgIS),
663.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Chaoguang Gu1, Feifei Li2, Jibo Xiao2, Shuyi Chu  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: It is suggested that Rotala Rotundifolia can be used to effectively remove nitrogen and phosphorus in eutrophic waters.
Abstract: The vegetative growth and remediation potential of Rotala rotundifolia, a novel submerged aquatic plant, for eutrophic waters were investigated on different sediments, and under a range of nitrogen concentrations. Rotala Rotundifolia grew better on silt than on sand and gravel in terms of plant height, tiller number and biomass accumulation. Percent increment of biomass was enhanced at low water nitrogen (ammonium nitrogen concentration ≤10 mg/L). The maximum total nitrogen and total phosphorus removals in the overlying water were between 54% to 66% and 42% to 57%, respectively. Nitrogen contents in the sediments increased with increasing water nitrogen levels, whereas, nitrogen contents in the plant tissues showed no apparent regularity, and the greatest value was obtained at ammonium nitrogen concentration 15 mg/L. Both phosphorus contents in the sediments and tissues of plants were not affected significantly by additional nitrogen supply. Direct nitrogen uptake by plants was in the range of 16% to 39% when total phosphorus concentration was 1.0 mg/L. These results suggested that Rotala Rotundifolia can be used to effectively remove nitrogen and phosphorus in eutrophic waters.

4 citations


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