INVESTIGATIONS ON WHEAT
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry:
The Chemical Section of the Colorado Experiment Station
has been engaged for several years in a study of Colorado wheat,
to find out, if possible:
whether Colorado wheat has any
distinctive quality which may be considered characteristic
to determine the factor
factors in‘our conditions which
are accountable for the same.
The result of our first two years’ work was the publication of
of this Station, entitled “Yellow-berry in Wheaf;
Cause and Prevention.” Further reports
this work are
already issued, and
endeavored to give credit in these publications
am in any way indebted.
hold this to be the im-
perative duty of every author, even if his production should be
of insignificant importance. Since the manuscript of
was turned over to the Director of the Station,
Ritthausen and Dr. R. Potts carried out
an account of which may be found in
which, in the main,
parallel to mine to such. an ex-
tent, and the conclusions are
similar, that it might be thought
had copied their plan of experimentation and adopted their
conclusions. This applies to the bulletin on Yellow-berry to
such an extent that some of my conclusions look like paraphrases
does not apply to
to the same
extent. Still, it applies in some measure, and a portion of the
work still to be reported will again be parallel.
Ritthausen and Dr. Potts used spring or summer wheat.
They used nitrates and phosphorus
some of their plots alone
and in excessive quantities. I, also, did these things, and for
the same reasons, but
some other plots and
they did not.
They hold that climatic conditions
cause for the quality
of wheat is
general, indefinite and unsatisfactory that one
must seek some more evident one-a view that
expressed, and which
general way, maintain in
show that it is insufficient
They state that their check plots produced light-colored,
half-mealy or transitional kernels. The plots to which phos-
superphosphates were applied, produced
kind of seed.
record that my check plots produced grain affected with
yellow-berry, mealy or half-mealy kernels, and that this con-
dition was not affected by the application of phosphorus as super-
They record the effects of nitrate to be the production of small,
well-formed kernels which were hard, flinty and dark-colored.
My statement is that the application of nitrate depresses
or entirely prevents yellow-berry and produces small, flinty,
and often shrunken berries.
They observed that nitrates used in conjunction with other
fertilizers produced effects similar to those produced by nitrates
three series of plots and they did not.
observed that potash greatly increased the amount of yellow-
berry. They did not.
The examination of the kernels and flour also will run in
their larger features parallel, which, of course, is to be expected.
The two studies are not identical, but the general features are
similar that one might readily be considered
copy of the
not the case.
My work was planned and three seasons’ work done
general project before
learned of the existence of this article,
giving the record of this work done by these authors at Poppels-
wise change the plan of my work,
from the beginning to carry my investigation
have made the same observation.
AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY
present stage. The work
far done seemed necessary, before
it would be justifiable for me, or anyone else, to assign any cause
or causes for the characteristics of our wheat. Indeed, it is
not even yet certain that one can properly speak of Colorado
wheats as having any predominant and fixed characteristic.
matter of surprise to me that this work of Ritthausen’s
has received apparently
found an abstract
of the article in the
the Chemical Society,
This abstract did not give
very adequate idea of the facts
presented in the article.
have also found it mentioned in the
literature given by Schindler, in his “Der Getreidebau” at the
end of the section “Der Weizen.”
TEMPERATURE CONTROL IN WOOD DISTILLATION
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry:
The note by Mr.
“Temperature Control in Wood Distillation Plants”
has been read with
interest. Since much of the agitation
this subject referred to by him has been largely the result
of experiments made by the United States Forest Products
Laboratory the discussion is timely and of especial interest,
as it affords an opportunity to clear up several points which are
is probably correct that the present design of wood dis-
tillation plants is not adapted to the greatest possible increases
in products resulting from scientific temperature control but
experiments in the laboratory, and also in commercial plants,
subject to all the variables of factory operation have shown
much greater possibilities along this line than is generally sup-
posed by plant operators. The results of preliminary experi-
ments which form the basis for this statement were given in
Fortunately, it is not possible to control the distillation
irrespective of any variation in size of pieces in
that all the water is distilled out of the charge
before destruetive decomposition takes place. Any control em-
bodying such a conception would certainly result in a very great
control during the latter stages of the distillation
as the decomposition of
large volume of very dry wood is
likely to be extremely violent.
Experiments by the Forest Products Laboratory have shown
that apparently certain well defined relations exist between
the rate of rise of the temperature in the retort, the flow
tillate, and the yield of products. The interaction between
the various products in the retort in the presence of the hot
charcoal undoubtedly plays an important part in the yields.
Temperature control in the distillation of wood, as interpreted
by these experiments,
then to make the greatest possible
proportion of the distillations follow the proper combination
of these factors which will give the best yields. A technical
operation involving the rate of rise of the temperature
portant factor is obviously best conducted by employing
continuation of these studies in longer tests in com-
mercial plants, results of which have not yet been published,
it was found, strangely enough, that about equal mixtures
of large pieces of split wood and smaller pieces of sawed wood
more readily gave the desired rate of rise of-temperature than
either of the two kinds alone. Therefore, instead of requiring
evenly sized wood in order to secure good results with pyrometers,
possibly by proper control the variability of the size of wood
may even prove an advantage.
Asidg from this more scientific basis for the application of
control there are other reasons which it would Seem were alone
sufficient for employing pyrometers in wood distillation plants.
The great variability of raw material in size, moisture content,