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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000011524

Temporal Dynamics of β-Amyloid Accumulation in Aging and Alzheimer Disease.

02 Mar 2021-Neurology (Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology)-Vol. 96, Iss: 9
Abstract: Objective To understand the time course of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain, which is crucial for planning therapeutic trials of Aβ-lowering therapies in Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods Two samples of participants from the Alzheimer9s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were studied with [18F]Florbetapir (FBP) Aβ PET and followed for up to 9 years. Sample A included 475 cognitively normal (CN) older people and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD and sample B included 220 CN Aβ− individuals. We examined the trajectory of FBP over time in sample A and the incidence rate of conversion from negative to positive Aβ PET scans in sample B. Results The relationship between time and brain Aβ was sigmoidal, taking 6.4 years to transition from amyloid negative to positive and another 13.9 years to the onset of MCI. Aβ deposition rates began to slow only 3.8 years after reaching the positivity threshold. The incidence rate for scan positivity was 38/1,000 person-years, and factors associated with conversion were age, baseline FBP, and being a female APOE e4 carrier. Among CN Aβ− individuals, FBP slopes were associated with rates of memory decline and brain tau measured with [18F]Flortaucipir PET 5 years after baseline. Conclusions Lowering brain Aβ must be accomplished early in the evolution of AD. Transitions of PET scans from Aβ− to Aβ+ should be predictable, and it is reasonable to expect that lowering rates of Aβ even in early stages could produce clinically significant benefits.

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5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11426-021-1113-0
Yipu Wang1, Dong Mei2, Xinyi Zhang1, Da-Hui Qu1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Precise and early detection of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in situ and in real time is pivotal to the diagnosis and early intervention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Optical imaging stands out to be a promising technique for such a task; however, it still remains a big challenge, due to the lack of high-performance imaging contrast agent. Restricted by poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetrability, short-wavelength excitation and emission, as well as the aggregation-caused quenching effect, the widely used gold-standard probes cannot be used for early in-vivo imaging of Aβ deposits. Herein, we integrate the Aβ deposits-favored geometry, amphiphilic and zwitterionic molecular structure, extended D-π-A electronic structure, and 3D conformation into one molecule, facilely establishing a simple and economic imaging contrast agent that enjoys high specificity and affinity to Aβ deposits, good BBB penetrability, bright red/near-infrared fluorescence, low interference from autofluorescence, aggregation-induced emission (AIE) feature, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and high contrast. In-vitro, ex-vivo, and in-vivo experiments with different strains of mice indicate that AIE-CNPy-AD holds the universality to Aβ deposits identification. Noteworthily, AIE-CNPy-AD is even able to precisely trace the small and sparsely-distributed Aβ deposits in AD model mice as young as 4-month-old APP/PS1 mice, the youngest having Aβ deposits. Moreover, the present probe could clearly reveal the increase and enlargement of Aβ deposits as the mice grow. Therefore, AIE-CNPy-AD might be an ideal alternative for early AD diagnosis and highly reliable monitoring of AD progression.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000012775
Suzanne E. Schindler1, Yan Li1, Virginia Buckles1, Brian A. Gordon1  +9 moreInstitutions (2)
02 Nov 2021-Neurology
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES To predict when cognitively normal individuals with brain amyloidosis will develop symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS Brain amyloid burden was measured by amyloid PET with Pittsburgh compound B. The mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) was transformed into a timescale with the use of longitudinal data. RESULTS Amyloid accumulation was evaluated in 236 individuals who underwent >1 amyloid PET scan. The average age was 66.5 ± 9.2 years, and 12 individuals (5%) had cognitive impairment at their baseline amyloid PET scan. A tipping point in amyloid accumulation was identified at a low level of amyloid burden (SUVR 1.2), after which nearly all individuals accumulated amyloid at a relatively consistent rate until reaching a high level of amyloid burden (SUVR 3.0). The average time between levels of amyloid burden was used to estimate the age at which an individual reached SUVR 1.2. Longitudinal clinical diagnoses for 180 individuals were aligned by the estimated age at SUVR 1.2. In the 22 individuals who progressed from cognitively normal to a typical AD dementia syndrome, the estimated age at which an individual reached SUVR 1.2 predicted the age at symptom onset (R2 = 0.54, p < 0.0001, root mean square error [RMSE] 4.5 years); the model was more accurate after exclusion of 3 likely misdiagnoses (R2 = 0.84, p < 0.0001, RMSE 2.8 years). CONCLUSION The age at symptom onset in sporadic AD is strongly correlated with the age at which an individual reaches a tipping point in amyloid accumulation.

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Topics: Amyloidosis (56%), Alzheimer's disease (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NBD.2021.105557
Abstract: Aggregation of alpha-synuclein into inclusion bodies, termed Lewy pathology, is a defining feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In the majority of post mortem cases, the distribution of Lewy pathology seems to follow two overarching patterns: a caudo-rostral pattern with relatively more pathology in the brainstem than in the telencephalon, and an amygdala-centered pattern with the most abundant pathology in the "center of the brain", including the amygdala, entorhinal cortex, and substantia nigra, and relatively less pathology in the lower brainstem and spinal autonomic nuclei. The recent body-first versus brain-first model of Lewy Body Disorders proposes that the initial pathogenic alpha-synuclein in some patients originates in the enteric nervous system with secondary spreading to the brain; and in other patients originates inside the CNS with secondary spreading to the lower brainstem and peripheral autonomic nervous system. Here, we use two existing post mortem datasets to explore the possibility that clinical body-first and brain-first subtypes are equivalent to the caudo-rostral and amygdala-centered patterns of Lewy pathology seen at post mortem.

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Topics: Lewy body (73%), Dementia with Lewy bodies (66%), Parkinson's disease (59%) ... show more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEUROBIOLAGING.2021.09.016
Abstract: Elevated expression of β-amyloid (Aβ1-42) and tau are considered risk-factors for Alzheimer's disease in healthy older adults. We investigated the effect of aging and cerebrospinal fluid levels of Aβ1-42 and tau on 1) frontal metabolites measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and 2) cognition in cognitively normal older adults (n = 144; age range 50-85). Levels of frontal gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA+) and myo-inositol relative to creatine (mI/tCr) were predicted by age. Levels of GABA+ predicted cognitive performance better than mI/tCr. Additionally, we found that frontal levels of n-acetylaspartate relative to creatine (tNAA/tCr) were predicted by levels of t-tau. In cognitively normal older adults, levels of frontal GABA+ and mI/tCr are predicted by aging, with levels of GABA+ decreasing with age and the opposite for mI/tCr. These results suggest that age- and biomarker-related changes in brain metabolites are not only located in the posterior cortex as suggested by previous studies and further demonstrate that MRS is a viable tool in the study of aging and biomarkers associated with pathological aging and Alzheimer's disease.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ACN3.51457
Abstract: OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between the topography of amyloid-β plaques, tau neurofibrillary tangles, and the overlap between the two, with cognitive dysfunction in individuals without dementia. METHODS We evaluated 154 individuals who were assessed with amyloid-β PET with [18 F]AZD4694, tau-PET with [18 F]MK6240, structural MRI, and neuropsychological testing. We also evaluated an independent cohort of 240 individuals who were assessed with amyloid-β PET with [18 F]Florbetapir, tau-PET with [18 F]Flortaucipir, structural MRI, and neuropsychological testing. Using the VoxelStats toolbox, we conducted voxel-wise linear regressions between amyloid-PET, tau-PET, and their interaction with cognitive function, correcting for age, sex, and years of education. RESULTS In both cohorts, we observed that tau-PET standardized uptake value ratio in medial temporal lobes was associated with clinical dementia rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SoB) scores independently of local amyloid-PET uptake (FWE corrected at p < 0.001). We also observed in both cohorts that in regions of the neocortex, associations between neocortical tau-PET and clinical function were dependent on local amyloid-PET (FWE corrected at p < 0.001). INTERPRETATION In medial temporal brain regions, characterized by the accumulation of tau pathology in the absence of amyloid-β, tau had direct associations with cognitive dysfunction. In brain regions characterized by the accumulation of both amyloid-β and tau pathologies such as the posterior cingulate and medial frontal cortices, tau's relationship with cognitive dysfunction was dependent on local amyloid-β concentrations. Our results provide evidence that amyloid-β in Alzheimer's disease influences cognition by potentiating the deleterious effects of tau pathology.

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Topics: Clinical Dementia Rating (54%), Dementia (52%)
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42 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0022-3956(82)90033-4
Jerome A. Yesavage1, T. L. Brink1, Terence L. Rose, Owen Lum  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A new Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) designed specifically for rating depression in the elderly was tested for reliability and validity and compared with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRS-D) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). In constructing the GDS a 100-item questionnaire was administered to normal and severely depressed subjects. The 30 questions most highly correlated with the total scores were then selected and readministered to new groups of elderly subjects. These subjects were classified as normal, mildly depressed or severely depressed on the basis of Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for depression. The GDS, HRS-D and SDS were all found to be internally consistent measures, and each of the scales was correlated with the subject's number of RDC symptoms. However, the GDS and the HRS-D were significantly better correlated with RDC symptoms than was the SDS. The authors suggest that the GDS represents a reliable and valid self-rating depression screening scale for elderly populations.

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12,025 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1072994
John Hardy1, Dennis J. Selkoe2Institutions (2)
19 Jul 2002-Science
Abstract: It has been more than 10 years since it was first proposed that the neurodegeneration in Alzheimer9s disease (AD) may be caused by deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in plaques in brain tissue. According to the amyloid hypothesis, accumulation of Aβ in the brain is the primary influence driving AD pathogenesis. The rest of the disease process, including formation of neurofibrillary tangles containing tau protein, is proposed to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and Aβ clearance.

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Topics: Amyloid beta (67%), Biochemistry of Alzheimer's disease (66%), Senile plaques (65%) ... show more

11,721 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.1997.03550160069041
22 Oct 1997-JAMA
Abstract: Objective. —To examine more closely the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and Alzheimer disease (AD) by age and sex in populations of various ethnic and racial denominations. Data Sources. —Forty research teams contributed data onAPOEgenotype, sex, age at disease onset, and ethnic background for 5930 patients who met criteria for probable or definite AD and 8607 controls without dementia who were recruited from clinical, community, and brain bank sources. Main Outcome Measures. —Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cls) for AD, adjusted for age and study and stratified by major ethnic group (Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Japanese) and source, were computed forAPOEgenotypes ∈2/∈2,∈2/∈3,∈2/∈4,∈3/∈4 and ∈4/∈4 relative to the ∈3/∈3 group. The influence of age and sex on the OR for each genotype was assessed using logistic regression procedures. Results. —Among Caucasian subjects from clinic- or autopsy-based studies, the risk of AD was significantly increased for people with genotypes ∈2/∈4 (OR=2.6, 95% Cl=1.6-4.0), ∈3/∈4 (OR=3.2, 95% Cl=2.8-3.8), and ∈4/∈4 (OR=14.9, 95% CI=10.8-20.6); whereas, the ORs were decreased for people with genotypes ∈2/∈2 (OR=0.6, 95% Cl=0.2-2.0) and ∈2/∈3 (OR=0.6, 95% Cl=0.5-0.8). TheAPOE∈4-AD association was weaker among African Americans and Hispanics, but there was significant heterogeneity in ORs among studies of African Americans (P Conclusions. —TheAPOE∈4 allele represents a major risk factor for AD in all ethnic groups studied, across all ages between 40 and 90 years, and in both men and women. The association betweenAPOE∈4 and AD in African Americans requires clarification, and the attenuated effect ofAPOE∈4 in Hispanics should be investigated further.

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Topics: Odds ratio (52%), Risk factor (51%)

3,392 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JALZ.2018.02.018
Clifford R. Jack1, David A. Bennett2, Kaj Blennow3, Maria C. Carrillo4  +20 moreInstitutions (17)
Abstract: In 2011, the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association created separate diagnostic recommendations for the preclinical, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease. Scientific progress in the interim led to an initiative by the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association to update and unify the 2011 guidelines. This unifying update is labeled a "research framework" because its intended use is for observational and interventional research, not routine clinical care. In the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association Research Framework, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by its underlying pathologic processes that can be documented by postmortem examination or in vivo by biomarkers. The diagnosis is not based on the clinical consequences of the disease (i.e., symptoms/signs) in this research framework, which shifts the definition of AD in living people from a syndromal to a biological construct. The research framework focuses on the diagnosis of AD with biomarkers in living persons. Biomarkers are grouped into those of β amyloid deposition, pathologic tau, and neurodegeneration [AT(N)]. This ATN classification system groups different biomarkers (imaging and biofluids) by the pathologic process each measures. The AT(N) system is flexible in that new biomarkers can be added to the three existing AT(N) groups, and new biomarker groups beyond AT(N) can be added when they become available. We focus on AD as a continuum, and cognitive staging may be accomplished using continuous measures. However, we also outline two different categorical cognitive schemes for staging the severity of cognitive impairment: a scheme using three traditional syndromal categories and a six-stage numeric scheme. It is important to stress that this framework seeks to create a common language with which investigators can generate and test hypotheses about the interactions among different pathologic processes (denoted by biomarkers) and cognitive symptoms. We appreciate the concern that this biomarker-based research framework has the potential to be misused. Therefore, we emphasize, first, it is premature and inappropriate to use this research framework in general medical practice. Second, this research framework should not be used to restrict alternative approaches to hypothesis testing that do not use biomarkers. There will be situations where biomarkers are not available or requiring them would be counterproductive to the specific research goals (discussed in more detail later in the document). Thus, biomarker-based research should not be considered a template for all research into age-related cognitive impairment and dementia; rather, it should be applied when it is fit for the purpose of the specific research goals of a study. Importantly, this framework should be examined in diverse populations. Although it is possible that β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tau deposits are not causal in AD pathogenesis, it is these abnormal protein deposits that define AD as a unique neurodegenerative disease among different disorders that can lead to dementia. We envision that defining AD as a biological construct will enable a more accurate characterization and understanding of the sequence of events that lead to cognitive impairment that is associated with AD, as well as the multifactorial etiology of dementia. This approach also will enable a more precise approach to interventional trials where specific pathways can be targeted in the disease process and in the appropriate people.

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2,905 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70291-0
01 Feb 2013-Lancet Neurology
Abstract: Summary In 2010, we put forward a hypothetical model of the major biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The model was received with interest because we described the temporal evolution of AD biomarkers in relation to each other and to the onset and progression of clinical symptoms. Since then, evidence has accumulated that supports the major assumptions of this model. Evidence has also appeared that challenges some of our assumptions, which has allowed us to modify our original model. Refinements to our model include indexing of individuals by time rather than clinical symptom severity; incorporation of interindividual variability in cognitive impairment associated with progression of AD pathophysiology; modifications of the specific temporal ordering of some biomarkers; and recognition that the two major proteinopathies underlying AD biomarker changes, amyloid β (Aβ) and tau, might be initiated independently in sporadic AD, in which we hypothesise that an incident Aβ pathophysiology can accelerate antecedent limbic and brainstem tauopathy.

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2,583 Citations


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