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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MOLCEL.2020.12.042

Tethered agonist exposure in intact adhesion/class B2 GPCRs through intrinsic structural flexibility of the GAIN domain

04 Mar 2021-Molecular Cell (Cell Press)-Vol. 81, Iss: 5
Abstract: Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs)/family B2 GPCRs execute critical tasks during development and the operation of organs, and their genetic lesions are associated with human disorders, including cancers. Exceptional structural aGPCR features are the presence of a tethered agonist (TA) concealed within a GPCR autoproteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain and their non-covalent heteromeric two-subunit layout. How the TA is poised for activation while maintaining this delicate receptor architecture is central to conflicting signaling paradigms that either involve or exclude aGPCR heterodimer separation. We investigated this matter in five mammalian aGPCR homologs (ADGRB3, ADGRE2, ADGRE5, ADGRG1, and ADGRL1) and demonstrate that intact aGPCR heterodimers exist at the cell surface, that the core TA region becomes unmasked in the cleaved GAIN domain, and that intra-GAIN domain movements regulate the level of tethered agonist exposure, thereby likely controlling aGPCR activity. Collectively, these findings delineate a unifying mechanism for TA-dependent signaling of intact aGPCRs.

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11 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/GKAB314
David Sehnal1, David Sehnal2, David Sehnal3, Sebastian Bittrich4  +11 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: Large biomolecular structures are being determined experimentally on a daily basis using established techniques such as crystallography and electron microscopy. In addition, emerging integrative or hybrid methods (I/HM) are producing structural models of huge macromolecular machines and assemblies, sometimes containing 100s of millions of non-hydrogen atoms. The performance requirements for visualization and analysis tools delivering these data are increasing rapidly. Significant progress in developing online, web-native three-dimensional (3D) visualization tools was previously accomplished with the introduction of the LiteMol suite and NGL Viewers. Thereafter, Mol* development was jointly initiated by PDBe and RCSB PDB to combine and build on the strengths of LiteMol (developed by PDBe) and NGL (developed by RCSB PDB). The web-native Mol* Viewer enables 3D visualization and streaming of macromolecular coordinate and experimental data, together with capabilities for displaying structure quality, functional, or biological context annotations. High-performance graphics and data management allows users to simultaneously visualise up to hundreds of (superimposed) protein structures, stream molecular dynamics simulation trajectories, render cell-level models, or display huge I/HM structures. It is the primary 3D structure viewer used by PDBe and RCSB PDB. It can be easily integrated into third-party services. Mol* Viewer is open source and freely available at

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47 Citations

Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.02.27.433189
Daniel Choquet1, Daniel Choquet2, Markus Sauer3, Bessa-Neto D1  +7 moreInstitutions (3)
27 Feb 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Progress in biological imaging is intrinsically linked to advances in labeling methods. The explosion in the development of high-resolution and super-resolution imaging calls for new approaches to label targets with small probes. These should allow to faithfully report the localization of the target within the imaging resolution – typically nowadays a few nanometers - and allow access to any epitope of the target, in the native cellular and tissue environment. We report here the development of a complete labeling and imaging pipeline using genetic code expansion and non-canonical amino acids in primary neurons that allows to fluorescently label masked epitopes in target transmembrane proteins in live neurons, both in dissociated culture and organotypic brain slices. This allowed us to image the differential localization of two glutamate receptor auxiliary proteins in complex with their partner with a variety of methods including widefield, confocal, and dSTORM super-resolution microscopy.

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2 Citations

Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.04.01.438115
Bridges Jp1, Safina C, Pirard B, Kari M. Brown  +6 moreInstitutions (1)
02 Apr 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: The mechanistic details of the tethered agonist mode of activation for adhesion GPCRs has not been completely deciphered. We set out to investigate the physiologic importance of autocatalytic cleavage upstream of the agonistic peptide sequence, an event necessary for NTF displacement and subsequent receptor activation. To examine this hypothesis, we characterized tethered agonist-mediated activation of GPR116 in vitro and in vivo. A knock-in mouse expressing a non-cleavable GPR116 mutant phenocopies the pulmonary phenotype of GPR116 knock-out mice, demonstrating that tethered agonist-mediated receptor activation is indispensable for function in vivo. Using site-directed mutagenesis and species swapping approaches we identified key conserved amino acids for GPR116 activation in the tethered agonist sequence and in extracellular loops 2/3 (ECL2/3). We further highlight residues in transmembrane7 (TM7) that mediate stronger signaling in mouse versus human GPR116 and recapitulate these findings in a model supporting tethered agonist:ECL2 interactions for GPR116 activation. Grant supportThis work was supported in part by HL131634 (JPB) from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health.

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Topics: Agonist (55%), Peptide sequence (52%), G protein-coupled receptor (51%)

1 Citations

Posted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.01.442235
01 May 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Frizzleds (FZD1-10) comprise a class of G protein-coupled receptors containing an extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD) that binds lipoglycoproteins of the Wingless/Int-1 family (WNTs). Despite the prominent role of the WNT/FZD system in health and disease, our understanding of how WNT binding to the FZD CRD is translated into receptor activation and transmembrane signaling remains limited. Current hypotheses dispute the roles for conformational dynamics and the involvement of the linker domain connecting the CRD with the seven-helical transmembrane core of FZD. To clarify the mechanism of WNT binding to FZD and to elucidate how WNT/FZD complexes achieve signaling pathway specificity, we devised conformational FZD-CRD biosensors based on bioluminescence-resonance-energy-transfer (BRET). Using FZD engineered with N-terminal nanoluciferase and fluorescently-labeled unnatural amino acids in the linker domain and extracellular loop 3, we show that WNT-3A and WNT-5A induce similar CRD conformational rearrangements despite promoting distinct downstream signaling pathways, and that CRD dynamics are not required for WNT/β-catenin signaling. Thus, the novel FZD-CRD biosensors we report provide insights into the stepwise binding, activation and signaling processes in FZDs. The sensor design is broadly applicable to explore fundamental events in signal transduction mediated by other membrane receptors.

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Topics: Frizzled (60%), Wnt signaling pathway (56%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIADV.ABJ7917
10 Nov 2021-Science Advances
Abstract: Frizzleds (FZD1–10) are G protein–coupled receptors containing an extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD) binding Wingless/Int-1 lipoglycoproteins (WNTs). Despite the role of WNT/FZD signaling in ...

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Topics: Frizzled (63%), Wnt signaling pathway (55%)


71 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0263-7855(96)00018-5
Abstract: VMD is a molecular graphics program designed for the display and analysis of molecular assemblies, in particular biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids. VMD can simultaneously display any number of structures using a wide variety of rendering styles and coloring methods. Molecules are displayed as one or more "representations," in which each representation embodies a particular rendering method and coloring scheme for a selected subset of atoms. The atoms displayed in each representation are chosen using an extensive atom selection syntax, which includes Boolean operators and regular expressions. VMD provides a complete graphical user interface for program control, as well as a text interface using the Tcl embeddable parser to allow for complex scripts with variable substitution, control loops, and function calls. Full session logging is supported, which produces a VMD command script for later playback. High-resolution raster images of displayed molecules may be produced by generating input scripts for use by a number of photorealistic image-rendering applications. VMD has also been expressly designed with the ability to animate molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories, imported either from files or from a direct connection to a running MD simulation. VMD is the visualization component of MDScope, a set of tools for interactive problem solving in structural biology, which also includes the parallel MD program NAMD, and the MDCOMM software used to connect the visualization and simulation programs. VMD is written in C++, using an object-oriented design; the program, including source code and extensive documentation, is freely available via anonymous ftp and through the World Wide Web.

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Topics: Rendering (computer graphics) (52%), Molecular graphics (52%), Visualization (51%) ... read more

36,939 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JCC.20084
Abstract: The design, implementation, and capabilities of an extensible visualization system, UCSF Chimera, are discussed. Chimera is segmented into a core that provides basic services and visualization, and extensions that provide most higher level functionality. This architecture ensures that the extension mechanism satisfies the demands of outside developers who wish to incorporate new features. Two unusual extensions are presented: Multiscale, which adds the ability to visualize large-scale molecular assemblies such as viral coats, and Collaboratory, which allows researchers to share a Chimera session interactively despite being at separate locales. Other extensions include Multalign Viewer, for showing multiple sequence alignments and associated structures; ViewDock, for screening docked ligand orientations; Movie, for replaying molecular dynamics trajectories; and Volume Viewer, for display and analysis of volumetric data. A discussion of the usage of Chimera in real-world situations is given, along with anticipated future directions. Chimera includes full user documentation, is free to academic and nonprofit users, and is available for Microsoft Windows, Linux, Apple Mac OS X, SGI IRIX, and HP Tru64 Unix from

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Topics: Unix (50%), OS X (50%)

28,452 Citations

Open accessBook
13 Aug 2009-
Abstract: This book describes ggplot2, a new data visualization package for R that uses the insights from Leland Wilkisons Grammar of Graphics to create a powerful and flexible system for creating data graphics. With ggplot2, its easy to: produce handsome, publication-quality plots, with automatic legends created from the plot specification superpose multiple layers (points, lines, maps, tiles, box plots to name a few) from different data sources, with automatically adjusted common scales add customisable smoothers that use the powerful modelling capabilities of R, such as loess, linear models, generalised additive models and robust regression save any ggplot2 plot (or part thereof) for later modification or reuse create custom themes that capture in-house or journal style requirements, and that can easily be applied to multiple plots approach your graph from a visual perspective, thinking about how each component of the data is represented on the final plot. This book will be useful to everyone who has struggled with displaying their data in an informative and attractive way. You will need some basic knowledge of R (i.e. you should be able to get your data into R), but ggplot2 is a mini-language specifically tailored for producing graphics, and youll learn everything you need in the book. After reading this book youll be able to produce graphics customized precisely for your problems,and youll find it easy to get graphics out of your head and on to the screen or page.

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Topics: Data visualization (58%), Graphics (56%)

23,839 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MCSE.2007.55
Abstract: Matplotlib is a 2D graphics package used for Python for application development, interactive scripting,and publication-quality image generation across user interfaces and operating systems

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Topics: 2D computer graphics (56%), Computer graphics (55%), Python (programming language) (54%) ... read more

16,056 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SOFTX.2015.06.001
Mark Abraham1, Teemu Murtola2, Roland Schulz3, Roland Schulz4  +6 moreInstitutions (4)
01 Sep 2015-SoftwareX
Abstract: GROMACS is one of the most widely used open-source and free software codes in chemistry, used primarily for dynamical simulations of biomolecules. It provides a rich set of calculation types, prepa ...

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8,050 Citations