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Journal ArticleDOI

Tetrel–Hydride Interaction between XH3F (X = C, Si, Ge, Sn) and HM (M = Li, Na, BeH, MgH)

19 Mar 2015-Journal of Physical Chemistry A (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 119, Iss: 11, pp 2217-2224
TL;DR: A tetrel-hydride interaction was predicted and characterized in the complexes of XH3F···HM at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level and NBO analyses demonstrate that both BD(H-M) → BD*(X-F) and BD-M → BD-H) orbital interactions play the stabilizing role in the formation of the complex.
Abstract: A tetrel–hydride interaction was predicted and characterized in the complexes of XH3F···HM (X = C, Si, Ge, Sn; M = Li, Na, BeH, MgH) at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level, where XH3F and HM are treated as the Lewis acid and base, respectively. This new interaction was analyzed in terms of geometrical parameters, interaction energies, and spectroscopic characteristics of the complexes. The strength of the interaction is essentially related to the nature of X and M groups, with both the larger atomic number of X and the increased reactivity of M giving rise to a stronger tetrel–hydride interaction. The tetrel–hydride interaction exhibits similar substituent effects to that of dihydrogen bonds, where the electron-donating CH3 and Li groups in the metal hydride strengthen the binding interactions. NBO analyses demonstrate that both BDH–M → BD*X–F and BDH–M → BD*X–H orbital interactions play the stabilizing role in the formation of the complex XH3F···HM (X = C, Si, Ge, and Sn; M = Li, Na, BeH, and MgH). The major contr...
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: High-level ab initio calculations show that the interaction of the π-electrons with the CH3X molecules leads to the formation of X-C···π carbon bonds.
Abstract: High-level ab initio calculations have been used to study the interactions between the CH3 group of CH3X (X = F, Cl, Br, CN) molecules and π-electrons. These interactions are important because of the abundance of both the CH3 groups and π-electrons in biological systems. Complexes between C2H4/C2H2 and CH3X molecules have been used as model systems. Various theoretical methods such as atoms in molecules theory, reduced density gradient analysis, and natural bond orbital analysis have been used to discern these interactions. These analyses show that the interaction of the π-electrons with the CH3X molecules leads to the formation of X–C···π carbon bonds. Similar complexes with other tetrel molecules, SiH3X and GeH3X, have also been considered.

109 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A theoretical study of the cooperativity in linear chains of ( H3SiCN)n and (H3SiNC)n complexes connected by tetrel bonds has been carried out by means of MP2 and CCSD(T) computational methods, and positive cooperativity is obtained.
Abstract: A theoretical study of the cooperativity in linear chains of (H3SiCN)n and (H3SiNC)n complexes connected by tetrel bonds has been carried out by means of MP2 and CCSD(T) computational methods. In all cases, a favorable cooperativity is observed, especially in some of the largest linear chains of (H3SiNC)n, where the effect is so large that the SiH3 group is almost equidistant to the two surrounding CN groups and it becomes planar. In addition, the combination of tetrel bonds with other weak interactions (halogen, chalcogen, pnicogen, triel, beryllium, lithium, and hydrogen bond) has been explored using ternary complexes, (H3SiCN)2:XY and (H3SiNC)2:XY. In all cases, positive cooperativity is obtained, especially in the (H3SiNC)2:ClF and (H3SiNC)2:SHF ternary complexes, where, respectively, halogen and chalcogen shared complexes are formed.

100 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The tetrel bond is strengthened as the T atom moves further down the periodic table column, and the strongest bond amounts to 25.5 kcal/mol for SnF4··NH3.
Abstract: Quantum calculations are used to examine the properties of heterodimers formed by a series of tetrel-containing molecules with NH3 as universal Lewis base. TH4 was taken as a starting point, with T = C, Si, Ge, and Sn. The H atoms were replaced by various numbers of F atoms—TH3F, TF3H, and TF4—so as to monitor the effects of adding electron-withdrawing substituents. Unsubstituted TH4 molecules form the weakest tetrel bonds, only up to about 2 kcal/mol. The bond is strengthened when the H opposite NH3 is replaced by F, rising up to the 6–9 kcal/mol range. Another means of strengthening arises when the three peripheral H atoms of TH4 are replaced by F. The effect of the latter is heavily dependent on the nature of the T atom and is particularly noticeable for larger tetrels. The two sorts of fluorination patterns are cooperative, in that their combination in TF4 yields by far the most powerful tetrel bonding agent. The tetrel bond is strengthened as the T atom moves further down the periodic table column. T...

98 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is competition between the hydrogen and hydrogen bonds in the protonated complexes, in which the hydrogen bond is favored in the complexes of H+-p-PyCF3 but the tetrel bond is preferred in thecomplexs of H-o/m-PySiF3 and H--o-Py SiF3.
Abstract: Ab initio calculations have been performed for the complexes H+–PyTX3⋯NH3 and H+–furanTF3⋯NH3 (T = C, Si, and Ge; X = F and Cl) with focus on geometries, energies, orbital interactions, and electron densities to study the influence of protonation on the strength of tetrel bonding. The primary interaction mode between α/β-furanCF3/p-PyCF3 and NH3 changes from an F⋯H hydrogen bond to a C⋯N tetrel bond as a result of protonation. Importantly, the protonation has a prominent enhancing effect on the strength of tetrel bonding with an increase in binding energy from 14 to 30 kcal mol−1. The tetrel bonding becomes stronger in the order H+–p-PySiF3⋯NH3 < H+–m-PySiF3⋯NH3 < H+–o-PySiF3⋯NH3, showing a reverse trend from that of the neutral analogues. In addition, there is competition between the tetrel and hydrogen bonds in the protonated complexes, in which the hydrogen bond is favored in the complexes of H+–p-PyCF3 but the tetrel bond is preferred in the complexes of H+–p-PyTX3 (T = Si, Ge; X = F, Cl) and H+–o/m-PySiF3.

93 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A total of 202 halogen-bonded complexes have been studied using a dual-level approach to determine geometries, natural bond order charges, charge transfer, dipole moments, electron and energy density distributions, vibrational frequencies, local stretching force constants, and relative bond strength orders n.
Abstract: A total of 202 halogen-bonded complexes have been studied using a dual-level approach: ωB97XD/aug-cc-pVTZ was used to determine geometries, natural bond order charges, charge transfer, dipole moments, electron and energy density distributions, vibrational frequencies, local stretching force constants, and relative bond strength orders n. The accuracy of these calculations was checked for a subset of complexes at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. Apart from this, all binding energies were verified at the CCSD(T) level. A total of 10 different electronic effects have been identified that contribute to halogen bonding and explain the variation in its intrinsic strength. Strong halogen bonds are found for systems with three-center-four-electron (3c-4e) bonding such as chlorine donors in interaction with substituted phosphines. If halogen bonding is supported by hydrogen bonding, genuine 3c-4e bonding can be realized. Perfluorinated diiodobenzenes form relatively strong halogen bonds with alkylamines as...

90 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a direct difference method for the computation of molecular interactions has been based on a bivariational transcorrelated treatment, together with special methods for the balancing of other errors.
Abstract: A new direct difference method for the computation of molecular interactions has been based on a bivariational transcorrelated treatment, together with special methods for the balancing of other errors. It appears that these new features can give a strong reduction in the error of the interaction energy, and they seem to be particularly suitable for computations in the important region near the minimum energy. It has been generally accepted that this problem is dominated by unresolved difficulties and the relation of the new methods to these apparent difficulties is analysed here.

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18,546 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a set of criteria are proposed based on the theory of "atoms in molecules" to establish hydrogen bonding, even for multiple interactions involving C-H-O hydrogen bonds.
Abstract: It is shown that the total charge density is a valid source to confirm hydrogen bonding without invoking a reference charge density. A set of criteria are proposed based on the theory of “atoms in molecules” to establish hydrogen bonding, even for multiple interactions involving C-H-O hydrogen bonds. These criteria are applied to several van der Waals complexes. Finally a bifurcated intramolecular C-H-O hydrogen bond is predicted in the anti-AIDS drug AZT, which may highlight a crucial feature of the biological activity of a whole class of anti-AIDS drugs. Almost all the methods of physical chemistry, spectroscopy, and diffraction can be used to recognize and study hydrogen bonding.] Each technique focuses on specific properties in order to detect and characterize this phenomenon in its own way. This work is concerned with the manifestation of hydrogen bonding in the charge density obtained from ab initio calculations. Whereas crystallographers have concluded upon hydrogen bonding via purely geometrical criteria, recent deformation density2 studies allow one to observe hydrogen bonding beyond mere ge~metry.~ However, it is not necessary to subtract an arbitrary (promolecular) charge density from the total density to reveal hydrogen bonding, not even in the interpretation of X-ray experiment^.^ Boyd and Choi have shown in two important contribution^^^^ that the theory of “atoms in molecules’’ (AIM)7,8 can be used to characterize hydrogen bonding solely from the (total) charge density for a large set of acceptor molecules, involving HF and HC1 as donors. In a next stage Carroll and Bader performed a more extended analysis on a large set of BASE-HF comple~es.~ This theory has not only provided new insights in conventional intermolecular hydrogenI0.’ ] bonding but has also been successful in intramolecularI33l4 and x-type hydrogen bonds.I5 Drawing from earlier ob~ervations~~~~ ~.’~~~~ and the present work, we formulate eight concerted effects occurring in the charge density which are indicative of hydrogen bonding. All of these effects can be viewed as necessary criteria to conclude that hydrogen bonding is present. By observation one of these conditions has proven to be sufficient as well. This case study on C-H-O interactions shows that this less common type of hydrogen bonding obeys all of the proposed criteria. Moreover, the multiple interactions appearing in the present five examples do not impair the consistency of the global phenomenon of hydrogen bonding as it expresses itself in the charge density. In spite of an early affirmative infrared review,I6 the old controversy on whether C-H-O hydrogen bonds really exist continued for another decade,” but now the dust has settled’* (for an entertaining account of this controversy, see ref 19). The importance of these bonds has been recognized in crystal engineering’9,20 since C-H-O contacts have a determining influence on packing motifs.21

2,654 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that the ready availability of information pertaining to the applications and theoretical models can substantially increase the likelihood of novice users obtaining the desired accuracy from their calculations while simultaneously making better use of computer resources.
Abstract: A role for electronic structure databases in assisting users of quantum chemistry applications select better model parameters is discussed in light of experiences gained from a software prototype known as the Computational Chemistry Input Assistant (CCIA). It is argued that the ready availability of information pertaining to the applications and theoretical models can substantially increase the likelihood of novice users obtaining the desired accuracy from their calculations while simultaneously making better use of computer resources. Expert users, who find themselves contemplating studies in new areas of research, may also benefit from the proposed tools. For maximum impact, this assistance should be provided while users are actively engaged in preparing calculations. © 1996 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2,149 citations