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Th e Armenian Metz Yeghern, one hundred years later: an "unresolved" case of genocide and the development of international norms

01 Jan 2015-
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the Armenian Genocide, which is still disputed by the Turkish government and still not offi cially recognized as a genocide by the United States government and others.
Abstract: K e y w o r d s : Armenian Genocide, transnational memory, constructivism, international norms, international law. It is often argued that the current international human rights regime is rooted in the trauma of the Holocaust, which has become an archetypal symbol of largescale violations of human rights. There is a vast body of literature exploring the ways in which the Holocaust affected the development of human rights regime (Kiernan, 2007; Levy and Sznaider, 2010; Power, 2013). The ways in which other genocides, especially disputed or “unresolved” ones in which the perpetrators avoided punishment, have affected this regime are much less researched (the exceptions include Bassiouni (1996); Dadrian (1998a, 1998b, 1998c)). Here I address this question by focusing on the Armenian Genocide, which is still disputed by the Turkish government and still not offi cially recognized as a genocide by the United States government and others. The perpetrators of this
Citations
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01 Jan 2010
TL;DR: Kiernan as mentioned in this paper examines outbreaks of mass violence from the classical era to the present, focusing on worldwide colonial exterminations and twentieth-century case studies including the Armenian genocide, the Nazi Holocaust, Stalin's mass murders, and the Cambodian and Rwandan genocides.
Abstract: For thirty years Ben Kiernan has been deeply involved in the study of genocide and crimes against humanity. He has played a key role in unearthing confidential documentation of the atrocities committed by the Khmer Rouge. His writings have transformed our understanding not only of twentieth-century Cambodia but also of the historical phenomenon of genocide. This new book--the first global history of genocide and extermination from ancient times--is among his most important achievements. Kiernan examines outbreaks of mass violence from the classical era to the present, focusing on worldwide colonial exterminations and twentieth-century case studies including the Armenian genocide, the Nazi Holocaust, Stalin's mass murders, and the Cambodian and Rwandan genocides. He identifies connections, patterns, and features that in nearly every case gave early warning of the catastrophe to come: racism or religious prejudice, territorial expansionism, and cults of antiquity and agrarianism. The ideologies that have motivated perpetrators of mass killings in the past persist in our new century, says Kiernan. He urges that we heed the rich historical evidence with its telltale signs for predicting and preventing future genocides.

280 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The debate between realists and liberals has reemerged as an axis of contention in international relations theory as mentioned in this paper, and the debate is more concerned today with the extent to which state action is influenced by "structure" versus "process" and institutions.
Abstract: The debate between realists and liberals has reemerged as an axis of contention in international relations theory.’ Revolving in the past around competing theories of human nature, the debate is more concerned today with the extent to which state action is influenced by ‘structure’ (anarchy and the distribution of power) versus ‘process’ (interaction and learning) and institutions. Does the absence of centralized political authority force states to play competitive power politics? Can international regimes overcome this logic, and under what conditions? What in anarchy is given and immutable, and what is amenable to change?

3,964 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The principal asunto que se cuestiona en los debates sobre teoria social es el tipo de fundamento que puede ofrecer el conjunto de preguntas and las estrategias de investigacion mas provechosas para poder explicar los cambios revolucionarios que parecen estar ocurriendo in el sistema internacional desde finales del siglo XX.
Abstract: Todas las teorias de relaciones internacionales se basan en teorias sociales de relaciones entre agentes, procesos y estructuras sociales. Las teorias sociales no determinan el contenido de nuestra teoria internacional, pero estructuran las preguntas que nos hacemos sobre la politica mundial y nuestros enfoques en las respuestas a esas cuestiones. El principal asunto que se cuestiona en los debates sobre teoria social es el tipo de fundamento que puede ofrecer el conjunto de preguntas y las estrategias de investigacion mas provechosas para poder explicar los cambios revolucionarios que parecen estar ocurriendo en el sistema internacional desde finales del siglo XX.

1,853 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Mearsheimer's "The False Promise of International Institutions" as mentioned in this paper is the most systematic attempt to date by a neorealist to address critical international relations (IR) theory, and it reminds neoliberals and critical theorists that they have a common, nonrealist interest in the institutional bases of international life.
Abstract: ~ J o h n J. Mearsheimer’s “The False Promise of International Institutions”’ is welcome particularly in two respects. First, it is the most systematic attempt to date by a neorealist to address critical international relations (IR) theory.‘ Second, it reminds neoliberals and critical theorists, normally locked in their own tug-of-war, that they have a common, non-realist interest in the institutional bases of international life.3 ”False Promise” is likely, therefore, to spur productive discussions on all sides. Unfortunately, it will be hard for most critical theorists to take seriously a discussion of their research program so full of conflations, half-truths, and misunderstandings. However, to some extent misunderstanding is inevitable when anthropologists from one culture first explore another. A dialogue between these two cultures is overdue, and ”False Promise” is a good beginning. Critical IR ”theory,” however, is not a single theory. It is a family of theories that includes postmodernists (Ashley, Walker), constructivists (Adler, Kratochwil, Ruggie, and now Katzenstein), neo-Marxists (Cox, Gill), feminists (Peterson, Sylvester), and others. What unites them is a concern with how world politics is ”socially c~nstructed,”~ which involves two basic claims: that the fundamental structures of international politics are social rather than strictly material (a claim that opposes materialism), and that these structures

854 citations


"Th e Armenian Metz Yeghern, one hun..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Social structures arise from these “intersubjective understandings,” and they are “are real and objective,” because they can be observed and explained, “but this objectivity depends upon shared knowledge” (Wendt, 1995: 73-74)....

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  • ...Where individuals are able to cross culture and historicity in their understanding of the experiences of others, there is real sociality because sociality consists of “shared knowledge” (Wendt, 1995: 73)....

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  • ...Further, social structures consisting of intersubjective understanding are real because they are “collective phenomena that confront individuals as externally existing social facts,” and we can have objective knowledge of these facts (Wendt, 1995: 75)....

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Book
14 May 2013
TL;DR: In this article, Power argues that the United States has never intervened to stop genocide and has in fact rarely even made a point of condemning it as it occurred, and makes a powerful case for why America, as both sole superpower and global citizen, must make such indifference a thing of the past.
Abstract: Winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Non-fiction 2003 A shattering history of the last hundred years of genocidal war that itemises in authoritative, persuasive manner exactly what the West knew and when, and what it chose to do, and what not to do, with that knowledge. Winner of the US National Book Critics Circle Award 'The United States has never in its history intervened to stop genocide and has in fact rarely even made a point of condemning it as it occurred.' In this convincing and definitive interrogation of the last century of American history and foreign policy, Samantha Power draws upon declassified documents, private papers, unprecedented interviews and her own reporting from the modern killing fields to tell the story of American indifference and American courage in the face of man's inhumanity to man. Tackling the argument that successive US leaders were unaware of genocidal horrors as they were occurring - against Armenians, Jews, Cambodians, Kurds, Rwandans, Bosnians - Samantha Power seeks to establish precisely how much was known and when, and claims that much human misery and tragedy could readily have been averted. It is clear that the failure to intervene was usually caused not by ignorance or impotence, but by considered political inaction. Several heroic figures did work to oppose and expose ethnic cleansing as it took place, but the majority of American politicians chose always to do nothing, as did the American public: Power notes that 'no US president has ever suffered politically for his indifference to its occurrence. It is thus no coincidence that genocide rages on.' This riveting book makes a powerful case for why America, as both sole superpower and global citizen, must make such indifference a thing of the past.

845 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

513 citations


"Th e Armenian Metz Yeghern, one hun..." refers background in this paper

  • ...There is a vast body of literature exploring the ways in which the Holocaust affected the development of human rights regime (Kiernan, 2007; Levy and Sznaider, 2010; Power, 2013)....

    [...]