Thaulin-1: The first antimicrobial peptide isolated from the skin of a Patagonian frog Pleurodema thaul (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Leiuperinae) with activity against Escherichia coli.
TL;DR: Patagonia's biodiversity has been explored from many points of view, however, skin secretions of native amphibians have not been evaluated for antimicrobial peptide research until now and the first peptides described for amphibians of the Pleurodema genus are described.
Abstract: Patagonia's biodiversity has been explored from many points of view, however, skin secretions of native amphibians have not been evaluated for antimicrobial peptide research until now. In this sense, Pleurodema thaul is the first amphibian specie to be studied from this large region of South America. Analysis of cDNA-encoding peptide in skin samples allowed identification of four new antimicrobial peptides. The predicted mature peptides were synthesized and all of them showed weak or null antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with the exception of thaulin-1, a cationic 26-residue linear, amphipathic, Gly- and Leu-rich peptide with moderate antimicrobial activity against E. coli (MIC of 24.7μM). AFM and SPR studies suggested a preferential interaction between these peptides and bacterial membranes. Cytotoxicity assays showed that thaulin peptides had minimal effects at MIC concentrations towards human and animal cells. These are the first peptides described for amphibians of the Pleurodema genus. These findings highlight the potential of the Patagonian region's unexplored biodiversity as a source for new molecule discovery.
Summary (1 min read)
- The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form.
- B IPCSH – CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Bvd. Brown 2915.
- During the last decades there has been a rapid increase in the number of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) described, with more than 1017 active peptides derived from amphibians (antimicrobial peptide database, APD).
- Figure 1. (A) Pleurodema thaul distribution from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
- (B) Collection site area (photo by S. Polcowñuk, used with permission).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
- Preproregions (signal peptide and acidic region boxed white and black respectively) and variable domain (boxed gray) that correspond to mature peptide are AC CE PT ED M AN US CR IP T signaled.
- It is noteworthy that the highest similarity belongs to membrane proteins described in Gram-negative microorganisms.
- Synthetic purified and quantified thaulin-1 and Gly-thaulin- 1 peptides showed identical minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values (Table 4), demonstrating that the mechanism of action is mainly bactericide, not involving a significant inhibitory stage.
- This work reports the first four peptides identified from the skin of the Patagonian frog P. thaul.
- Sequences were analyzed using the Lasergene sequence analysis software (DNASTAR, Inc.).
- All tests were performed in triplicate and according to CLSI (2012).
- Cultures of BMDM were supplemented with the different concentrations of the test compounds for 24h.
- Peptides were tested at different concentrations (15.62–500 µg/mL) according to Bignami [Bignami, 1993] with modifications.
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Cites background from "Thaulin-1: The first antimicrobial ..."
...Summarily, majority of AMPs from sources other than bacteria kill mostly Gram positive bacteria except for a few like G3KL, Thaulin-1 from Pleurodema thaul , BnPRP1, MjPen-II from Marsupenaeus japonicus  and Scolopendin from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans  which are able to kill Gram negative and/or other microorganisms....
"Thaulin-1: The first antimicrobial ..." refers background in this paper
...Distance between sequences used for tree generation predicted expected fraction of base substitutions per site given the fraction of mismatched bases in the aligned region [Saitou and Nei, 1987]....
"Thaulin-1: The first antimicrobial ..." refers methods in this paper
...Alignment of best hits and distance trees were performed using the ClustalX 2.1 software [Larkin et al., 2007] and visualized by NJPlot....
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Q1. What contributions have the authors mentioned in the paper "Thaulin-1: the first antimicrobial peptide isolated from the skin of a patagonian frog pleurodema thaul (anura: leptodactylidae: leiuperinae) with activity against escherichia coli" ?
Please cite this article as: Mariela M. Marani, Luis O. Perez, Alyne Rodrigues de Araujo, Alexandra Plácido, Carla F. Sousa, Patrick Veras Quelemes, Mayara Oliveira, Ana G. Gomes-Alves, Mariana Pueta, Paula Gameiro, Ana M. Tomás, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Peter Eaton, Silvia A. Camperi, Néstor G. Basso, Jose Roberto de Souza de Almeida Leite, Thaulin-1: The first antimicrobial peptide isolated from the skin of a Patagonian frog Pleurodema thaul ( Anura: Leptodactylidae: Leiuperinae ) with activity against Escherichia coli. The address for the corresponding author was captured as affiliation for all authors.
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Further work will be performed to explore this application.