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Journal ArticleDOI

The A–Z of Social Research: A Dictionary of Key Social Science Research Concepts

01 Dec 2004-Journal of Advanced Nursing (Blackwell Science Ltd)-Vol. 48, Iss: 5, pp 545-545
About: This article is published in Journal of Advanced Nursing.The article was published on 2004-12-01. It has received 94 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Social science education & Social network.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is important to understand the different sampling methods used in clinical studies and mention this method clearly in the manuscript.
Abstract: Once the research question and the research design have been finalised, it is important to select the appropriate sample for the study. The method by which the researcher selects the sample is the ' Sampling Method'. There are essentially two types of sampling methods: 1) probability sampling - based on chance events (such as random numbers, flipping a coin etc.); and 2) non-probability sampling - based on researcher's choice, population that accessible & available. Some of the non-probability sampling methods are: purposive sampling, convenience sampling, or quota sampling. Random sampling method (such as simple random sample or stratified random sample) is a form of probability sampling. It is important to understand the different sampling methods used in clinical studies and mention this method clearly in the manuscript. The researcher should not misrepresent the sampling method in the manuscript (such as using the term ' random sample' when the researcher has used convenience sample). The sampling method will depend on the research question. For instance, the researcher may want to understand an issue in greater detail for one particular population rather than worry about the ' generalizability' of these results. In such a scenario, the researcher may want to use ' purposive sampling' for the study.

101 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a finer-grained understanding of employees as a stakeholder group, identifying a number of opportunities and barriers for individual employee engagement in CSR interventions is presented.
Abstract: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been linked with numerous organizational advantages, including recruitment, retention, productivity, and morale, which relate specifically to employees. However, despite specific benefits of CSR relating to employees and their importance as a stakeholder group, it is noteworthy that a lack of attention has been paid to the individual level of analysis with CSR primarily being studied at the organizational level. Both research and practice of CSR have largely treated the individual organization as a “black box,” failing to account for individual differences amongst employees and the resulting variations in antecedents to CSR engagement or disengagement. This is further exacerbated by the tendency in stakeholder theory to homogenize priorities within a single stakeholder group. In response, utilizing case study data drawn from three multinational tourism and hospitality organizations, combined with extensive interview data collected from CSR leaders, industry professionals, engaged, and disengaged employees, this exploratory research produces a finer-grained understanding of employees as a stakeholder group, identifying a number of opportunities and barriers for individual employee engagement in CSR interventions. This research proposes that employees are situated along a spectrum of engagement from actively engaged to actively disengaged. While there are some common drivers of engagement across the entire spectrum of employees, differences also exist depending on the degree to which employees, rather than senior management, support corporate responsibility within their organizations. Key antecedents to CSR engagement that vary depending on employees’ existing level of broader engagement include organizational culture, CSR intervention design, employee CSR perceptions, and the observed benefits of participation.

68 citations


Cites methods from "The A–Z of Social Research: A Dicti..."

  • ...Initially, a snowball technique was used to identify participants, an approach which is particularly useful when individuals are hard to identify (Miller 2003), such as with employees who were disengaged from CSR efforts and may therefore be less willing to self-identify....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Red Lotus Health Promotion Model incorporates a system of values and principles that is applied across the phases of health promotion, including determining the health paradigm, needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation.
Abstract: Issue addressed: There is a need for a system of values and principles consistent with modern health promotion that enables practitioners to use these values and principles to understand health and in their needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation practice. Methods: Grounded theory, document analysis and the authors' own practice experience were used to systematically collect and analyse data from key health promotion literature and to develop the Red Lotus Health Promotion Model. Results: The Red Lotus Health Promotion Model is a new model for holistic, ecological, salutogenic health promotion practice. It is distinct from other health promotion models in that it incorporates a system of values and principles that is applied across the phases of health promotion, including determining the health paradigm, needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Conclusion: The Red Lotus Health Promotion Model enables practitioners to proactively and purposefully put into action a connected system of values and principles across the phases of a health promotion process. (author abstract)

44 citations

01 Jan 2015

41 citations


Cites background from "The A–Z of Social Research: A Dicti..."

  • ...Throughout these philosophical wonderings, R. L. Miller and Brewer (2003) served as a guide....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Assessment of the levels of burnout experienced by healthcare workers in Accra, Ghana found that measures should be put in place in Ghanaian hospitals to assess stress and burnout levels to ensure people who are going through such situations are properly cared and supported.
Abstract: Health workers are prone to burnout, which can have an adverse effect on their person and the patients to whom care is offered. The goal of this paper was to assess the levels of burnout experienced by healthcare workers in Accra, Ghana. The study was conducted using the cross-sectional study design. Questionnaires were used to obtain data from 365 respondents who worked in 12 major healthcare facilities. Data obtained were analyzed with SPSS version 23. Majority of the respondents were females (56.7%) as against males (43.3%). The total score for all burnout variables among health worker groups ranged from good (71.50%), alarming (12.60%), acute crisis (6.02%), and burnout (9.90%). Among the health worker groups, nurses had the highest percentage score values for all burnout variables. There was an association between burnout and these sociodemographic characteristics: age (p < 0.001), gender (p = 0.003), educational qualification (p < 0.001), occupation (p < 0.001), years of work experience (p < 0.001), marital status (p < 0.001), and parenthood (having children) (p < 0.001). It is recommended that measures should be put in place in Ghanaian hospitals to assess stress and burnout levels to ensure people who are going through such situations are properly cared and supported.

34 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is important to understand the different sampling methods used in clinical studies and mention this method clearly in the manuscript.
Abstract: Once the research question and the research design have been finalised, it is important to select the appropriate sample for the study. The method by which the researcher selects the sample is the ' Sampling Method'. There are essentially two types of sampling methods: 1) probability sampling - based on chance events (such as random numbers, flipping a coin etc.); and 2) non-probability sampling - based on researcher's choice, population that accessible & available. Some of the non-probability sampling methods are: purposive sampling, convenience sampling, or quota sampling. Random sampling method (such as simple random sample or stratified random sample) is a form of probability sampling. It is important to understand the different sampling methods used in clinical studies and mention this method clearly in the manuscript. The researcher should not misrepresent the sampling method in the manuscript (such as using the term ' random sample' when the researcher has used convenience sample). The sampling method will depend on the research question. For instance, the researcher may want to understand an issue in greater detail for one particular population rather than worry about the ' generalizability' of these results. In such a scenario, the researcher may want to use ' purposive sampling' for the study.

101 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a finer-grained understanding of employees as a stakeholder group, identifying a number of opportunities and barriers for individual employee engagement in CSR interventions is presented.
Abstract: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been linked with numerous organizational advantages, including recruitment, retention, productivity, and morale, which relate specifically to employees. However, despite specific benefits of CSR relating to employees and their importance as a stakeholder group, it is noteworthy that a lack of attention has been paid to the individual level of analysis with CSR primarily being studied at the organizational level. Both research and practice of CSR have largely treated the individual organization as a “black box,” failing to account for individual differences amongst employees and the resulting variations in antecedents to CSR engagement or disengagement. This is further exacerbated by the tendency in stakeholder theory to homogenize priorities within a single stakeholder group. In response, utilizing case study data drawn from three multinational tourism and hospitality organizations, combined with extensive interview data collected from CSR leaders, industry professionals, engaged, and disengaged employees, this exploratory research produces a finer-grained understanding of employees as a stakeholder group, identifying a number of opportunities and barriers for individual employee engagement in CSR interventions. This research proposes that employees are situated along a spectrum of engagement from actively engaged to actively disengaged. While there are some common drivers of engagement across the entire spectrum of employees, differences also exist depending on the degree to which employees, rather than senior management, support corporate responsibility within their organizations. Key antecedents to CSR engagement that vary depending on employees’ existing level of broader engagement include organizational culture, CSR intervention design, employee CSR perceptions, and the observed benefits of participation.

68 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Red Lotus Health Promotion Model incorporates a system of values and principles that is applied across the phases of health promotion, including determining the health paradigm, needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation.
Abstract: Issue addressed: There is a need for a system of values and principles consistent with modern health promotion that enables practitioners to use these values and principles to understand health and in their needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation practice. Methods: Grounded theory, document analysis and the authors' own practice experience were used to systematically collect and analyse data from key health promotion literature and to develop the Red Lotus Health Promotion Model. Results: The Red Lotus Health Promotion Model is a new model for holistic, ecological, salutogenic health promotion practice. It is distinct from other health promotion models in that it incorporates a system of values and principles that is applied across the phases of health promotion, including determining the health paradigm, needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Conclusion: The Red Lotus Health Promotion Model enables practitioners to proactively and purposefully put into action a connected system of values and principles across the phases of a health promotion process. (author abstract)

44 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Assessment of the levels of burnout experienced by healthcare workers in Accra, Ghana found that measures should be put in place in Ghanaian hospitals to assess stress and burnout levels to ensure people who are going through such situations are properly cared and supported.
Abstract: Health workers are prone to burnout, which can have an adverse effect on their person and the patients to whom care is offered. The goal of this paper was to assess the levels of burnout experienced by healthcare workers in Accra, Ghana. The study was conducted using the cross-sectional study design. Questionnaires were used to obtain data from 365 respondents who worked in 12 major healthcare facilities. Data obtained were analyzed with SPSS version 23. Majority of the respondents were females (56.7%) as against males (43.3%). The total score for all burnout variables among health worker groups ranged from good (71.50%), alarming (12.60%), acute crisis (6.02%), and burnout (9.90%). Among the health worker groups, nurses had the highest percentage score values for all burnout variables. There was an association between burnout and these sociodemographic characteristics: age (p < 0.001), gender (p = 0.003), educational qualification (p < 0.001), occupation (p < 0.001), years of work experience (p < 0.001), marital status (p < 0.001), and parenthood (having children) (p < 0.001). It is recommended that measures should be put in place in Ghanaian hospitals to assess stress and burnout levels to ensure people who are going through such situations are properly cared and supported.

34 citations