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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2015-0764

The ad format-strategy effect on comparative advertising effectiveness

30 Jan 2017-European Journal of Marketing (Emerald Publishing Limited)-Vol. 51, Iss: 1, pp 99-122
Abstract: Purpose Extant research on comparative advertising has focused only on “market leader” comparisons (a brand targeting the market leader), whereas in the marketplace, “multi-brand” comparisons are more prevalent (Kalro et al., 2010). Moreover, most research focuses on direct comparisons only. Hence, this research aims to investigate the interplay between comparison ad strategy (“market leader”/“multi-brand” comparisons) and comparison ad format (direct/indirect comparisons) on the effectiveness of comparative advertising. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses four 2 × 2 fully crossed factorial designs (comparison ad format: direct vs indirect and comparison ad strategy: market leader vs multi brand) with established and new brands in two categories: powdered detergents and smart phones. All studies were conducted in metropolitan cities of India. Findings By and large, the experiments indicated that direct (indirect) comparisons lowered (heightened) perceived manipulative intent and enhanced (reduced) attitude-toward-the-ad for multi-brand (market leader) comparisons. Practical implications Findings suggest that when advertisers use comparative advertising, they may use direct ads when using multi-brand comparisons and use indirect ones when using market leader comparisons. It could also be argued that when advertisers use multi-brand comparisons because of fragmentation in the marketplace, they may directly compare against these multiple brands. When advertisers need to compare against a market leader, they may do so indirectly. Originality/value This research is among the first to investigate multi-brand comparisons that are widely used in the industry and that too in the context of both direct and indirect comparison formats.

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Topics: Comparative advertising (54%)
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Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-2342-9_4
Kevin Holmes1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2012-
Abstract: Because the role of Chinese courts is limited, in general, to procedural matters, it is the tax administration that determines whether a transaction involves tax avoidance. This organ of the government places special emphasis on international tax avoidance arrangements. In particular, it has been concerned about the inappropriate use by multinational enterprises of double taxation treaties with third parties offering low tax rates on Chinese source income. This practice provided the impetus for enactment of a GAAR as part of reform of the Corporate Income Tax Law, effective in 2008. The GAAR provides authority to investigate certain anti-avoidance activities and authorizes the tax administration to employ a substance over form approach by reference to five factors. These factors permit the tax administration to consider the form and substance of an arrangement, timing, reference to steps taken to put the arrangement into place, financial effects, and tax consequences. If tax avoidance is uncovered, the tax administration is given authority to re-characterize the transaction according to economic reality. The adoption of a GAAR has had considerable impact on the activities of multinationals that may use conduit Chinese companies for investment only if there is economic substance to the arrangement.

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Topics: Double taxation (74%), Tax avoidance (74%), Income tax (70%) ...read more

92 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JDMM.2018.09.003
Jaemun Byun1, SooCheong (Shawn) Jang2Institutions (2)
Abstract: This study examined the effectiveness of comparative appeals in destination advertising through an experiment with a randomized paired comparison design. Both cognitive and affective responses were measured toward comparative versus non-comparative advertising of a ski resort. The findings demonstrate that respondents viewed comparative advertising to be more persuasive than non-comparative advertising. However, their attitudes were less favorable toward comparative advertising for destinations. More specifically, comparative advertising was found to be more persuasive in the advertising of famous destinations rather than unknown destinations. Further, comparative advertising was more effective for those who were aware of the advertised destination than those who were not.

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Topics: Comparative advertising (66%)

21 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00913367.2018.1430624
Ozge Yucel-Aybat1, Thomas Kramer2Institutions (2)
Abstract: We examine the impact of consumers' competitive tendencies on responses to comparative advertising appeals and the underlying role of schadenfreude: pleasure derived from the misfortunes of others....

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Topics: Comparative advertising (60%), Schadenfreude (57%), Pleasure (51%)

13 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JRETCONSER.2018.05.007
Abstract: Comparative retail advertising for goods and services is often based on comparisons of intrinsic or extrinsic product attributes. We examine positive effects through activation and negative effects through reactance on ad attitudes and product evaluations for intrinsic versus extrinsic attribute comparisons and consider the product type (goods vs. services) as a moderator. The results show that reactance has negative and activation has positive effects through ad attitudes on product evaluations. For goods, extrinsic attribute comparisons are beneficial because they produce higher activation and less reactance than intrinsic attribute comparisons. For services, reactance arousal does not differ for intrinsic and extrinsic attribute comparisons, but extrinsic attribute comparisons are beneficial because they have more positive effects through higher activation, which in turn reduces reactance.

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Topics: Reactance (55%), Product type (54%)

8 Citations



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Open accessBook
Richard E. Petty1, John T. CacioppoInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 1981-
Abstract: Attitudes and Persuasion -- Foreword -- Preface -- Attitudes and Persuasion -- Introduction to Attitudes and Persuasion -- Conditioning and Modeling Approaches -- The Message-learning Approach -- Judgmental Approaches -- Motivational Approaches -- Attributional Approaches -- Combinatory Approaches -- Self-persuasion Approaches -- Epilog: A General Framework for Understanding Attitude Change Processes

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3,257 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/1252171
David A. Aaker, Kevin Lane Keller1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Two studies were conducted to obtain insights on how consumers form attitudes toward brand extensions, (i.e., use of an established brand name to enter a new product category). In one study, reacti...

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Topics: Brand extension (86%), Brand management (83%), Brand architecture (82%) ...read more

2,777 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/209380
Marian Friestad1, Peter WrightInstitutions (1)
Abstract: In theories and studies of persuasion, people's personal knowledge about persuasion agents' goals and tactics, and about how to skillfully cope with these, has been ignored. We present a model of how people develop and use persuasion knowledge to cope with persuasion attempts. We discuss what the model implies about how consumers use marketers' advertising and selling attempts to refine their product attitudes and attitudes toward the marketers themselves. We also explain how this model relates to prior research on consumer behavior and persuasion and what it suggests about the future conduct of consumer research.

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Topics: Persuasion (73%), Consumer behaviour (51%), Knowledge level (50%)

2,569 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/BF00436035
Rajeev Batra1, Olli T. AhtolaInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 1991-Marketing Letters
Abstract: It has been suggested theoretically that consumer attitudes have distinct hedonic and utilitarian components, and that product categories differ in the extent to which their overall attitudes are derived from these two components. This paper reports three studies that validate measurement scales for these constructs and, using them, show that these two attitude dimensions do seem to exist; are based on different types of product attributes; and are differentially salient across different consumer products and behaviors, in theoretically-consistent ways.

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1,836 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/3150973
Andrew A. Mitchell1, Jerry C. Olson2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Fishbein's attitude theory posits that beliefs are the only mediators of attitude formation and change. The validity of this proposition for consumers’ beliefs about product attributes and brand at...

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Topics: Brand awareness (66%), Attitude (59%), Product (category theory) (53%)

1,569 Citations


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