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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10030575

The Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Losartan Sensitizes Human Liver Cancer Cells to Lenvatinib-Mediated Cytostatic and Angiostatic Effects.

05 Mar 2021-Cells (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 10, Iss: 3, pp 575
Abstract: Molecular targeted therapy with lenvatinib is commonly offered to advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, although it is often interrupted by adverse effects which require a reduction in the initial dose. Thus, an alternative lenvatinib-based therapy to compensate for dose reduction is anticipated. This study aimed to assess the effect of combination of low-dose of lenvatinib and the angiotensin-II (AT-II) receptor blocker losartan on human HCC cell growth. In vitro studies found that losartan suppressed the proliferation by inducing G1 arrest and caused apoptosis as indicated by the cleavage of caspase-3 in AT-II-stimulated HCC cell lines (Huh-7, HLE, and JHH-6). Losartan attenuated the AT-II-stimulated production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and interleukin-8 and suppressed lenvatinib-mediated autocrine VEGF-A production in HCC cells. Moreover, it directly inhibited VEGF-mediated endothelial cell growth. Notably, the combination of lenvatinib and losartan augmented the cytostatic and angiostatic effects of the former at a low-dose, reaching those achieved with a conventional dose. Correspondingly, a HCC tumor xenograft assay showed that the oral administration of losartan combined with lenvatinib reduced the subcutaneous tumor burden and intratumor vascularization in BALB/c nude mice. These findings support that this regimen could be a viable option for patients intolerant to standard lenvatinib dosage.

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Topics: Lenvatinib (66%), Losartan (58%), Angiotensin II (53%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/14737159.2021.1987217
Abstract: Introduction : Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and the third cancer-related cause of death worldwide. In recent years, several systemic therapy drugs including sorafenib, lenvatinib, regorafenib, cabozantinib ramucicurab, nivilumab, and pembrolizumab have been approved by FDA for advanced HCC. However, their insufficient efficacy, toxicity, and drug resistance require clinically applicable and validated predictive biomarkers. Areas covered : Our review covers the recent advancements in the identification of proteomic/genomic/epigenomic/transcriptomic biomarkers for predicting HCC treatment efficacy with the use of multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs), CDK4/6 inhibitors, and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Alpha-fetoprotein, des-carboxyprothrombin, vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin-2, and dysregulated MTOR, VEGFR2, c-KIT, RAF1, PDGFRβ have the potential of proteomic/genomic biomarkers for sorafenib treatment. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and albumin-bilirubin grade can predict the efficacy of other MKIs. Rb, p16, and Ki-67, and genes involved in cell cycle regulation, CDK1-4, CCND1, CDKN1A, and CDKN2A have been proposed for CD4/6 inhibitors, while dysregulated TERT, CTNNB1, TP53 FGF19, and TP53 are found to be predictors for ICI efficacy. Expert opinion : There are still limited clinically applicable and validated predictive biomarkers to identify HCC patients who benefit from systemic therapy. Further prospective biomarker validation studies for HCC personalized systemic therapy are required.

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Topics: Sorafenib (54%), Lenvatinib (53%), Regorafenib (52%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOPHA.2021.111868
Hai-Feng Zhang1, Xiang Gao1, Xuan Wang1, Xin Chen1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, of which the occurrence and development involve a variety of pathophysiological processes, such as liver fibrosis, hepatocellular malignant proliferation, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Some important cytokines, such as TGF-β, PI3K, protein kinase B (Akt), VEGF and NF-κB, can regulate the growth, proliferation, diffusion, metastasis, and apoptosis of HCC cells by acting on the corresponding signaling pathways. Besides, many studies have shown that the formation of HCC is closely related to the main components of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), such as Ang II, ACE, ACE2, MasR, AT1R, and AT2R. Therefore, this review focused on liver fibrosis, HCC cell proliferation, metastasis, tumor angiogenesis, and corresponding protective measures. ACE-Ang II-AT1 axis and ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-MasR axis were taken as the main lines to introduce the mechanism of RAS in the occurrence and development of HCC, so as to provide references for future clinical work and scientific research.

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Topics: Angiogenesis (53%), PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway (53%), Metastasis (53%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12935-021-02261-8
Zhou-wei Xu1, Na-na Liu1, Xingyu Wang1, Bai-cheng Ding1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: OBJECTIVE To study the roles of AT1R, PLC-β1, CaM and other related signal molecules in the formation and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their correlation. METHODS ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expressions of target proteins in serum and liver tissue of HCC patients, and the correlation between AT1R, PLC-β1 and CaM and postoperative survival status of patients was followed up and determined. CCK-8 method was used to screen the doses of Ang II and candesartan sensitive to HepG2 and HCCLM3 cells. Transwell experiment was used to observe the effects of different drugs on the migration and invasion activity of HCC cells. Meanwhile, flow cytometry and Western blot were used to detect the expression levels of AT1R, PLC-β1 and CaM in the cells. Then PLC-β1 siRNA was selected to transfect HCC cells, so as to further clarify the mechanism of the above signal proteins. HepG2 cells were inoculated under the hepatic capsule of mice to induce the formation of HCC in situ. Ang II and candesartan were used to stimulate HCC mice to observe the difference in liver appearance and measure the liver index. Finally, ELISA and immunofluorescence experiments were selected to analyze the levels of target proteins in mouse serum and liver tissue. RESULTS The expression levels of target proteins in serum and liver tissue of HCC patients were significantly increased, and the postoperative survival time of patients with high expression of AT1R, PLC-β1 or CaM was obviously shortened. Ang II and candesartan could significantly promote and inhibit the motility of HCC cells, and had different effects on the levels of AT1R, PLC-β1 and CaM in cells. However, in hepatocellular carcinoma cells transfected with PLC-β1 siRNA, the intervention ability of drugs was obviously weakened. Ang II could significantly promote the formation and progression of mouse HCC, while candesartan had the opposite effect. Meanwhile, medications could affect the expressions of target proteins in mouse serum and liver tissue. CONCLUSION AT1R, PLC-β1 and CaM may be risk factors affecting the formation and prognosis of HCC, and the PLC-β1/CaM signaling pathway mediated by AT1R is an important way to regulate the migration and invasion activity of HCC cells.

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Topics: Transfection (51%), Western blot (50%), Hepatocellular carcinoma (50%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13184555
Salvatore Panza1, Rocco Malivindi1, Amanda Caruso1, Umberto Russo1  +10 moreInstitutions (2)
10 Sep 2021-Cancers
Abstract: New avenues for glioblastoma therapy are required due to the limited mortality benefit of the current treatments. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exhibits local actions and works as a paracrine system in different tissues and tumors, including glioma. The glioblastoma cell lines U-87 MG and T98G overexpresses Angiotensin II (Ang II)/Angiotensin II type I receptor (AGTR1) signaling, which enhances in vitro and in vivo local estrogen production through a direct up-regulation of the aromatase gene promoters p I.f and p I.4. In addition, Ang II/AGTR1 signaling transactivates estrogen receptor-α in a ligand-independent manner through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The higher aromatase mRNA expression in patients with glioblastoma was associated with the worst survival prognostic, according to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). An intrinsic immunosuppressive glioblastoma tumor milieu has been previously documented. We demonstrate how Ang II treatment in glioblastoma cells increases programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression reversed by combined exposure to Losartan (LOS) in vitro and in vivo. Our findings highlight how LOS, in addition, antagonizes the previously documented neoangiogenetic, profibrotic, and immunosuppressive effects of Ang II and drastically inhibits its stimulatory effects on local estrogen production, sustaining glioblastoma cell growth. Thus, Losartan may represent an adjuvant pharmacological tool to be repurposed prospectively for glioblastoma treatment.

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Topics: Angiotensin II (61%), Losartan (57%), Glioma (55%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FENDO.2021.736361
Abstract: The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) is a hormonal system that is responsible for blood pressure hemostasis and electrolyte balance. It is implicated in cancer hallmarks because it is expressed locally in almost all of the body’s tissues. In this review, current knowledge on the effect of local RAS in the common types of cancer such as breast, lung, liver, prostate and skin cancer is summarised. The mechanisms by which RAS components could increase or decrease cancer activity are also discussed. In addition to the former, this review explores how the administration of AT1R blockers and ACE inhibitors drugs intervene with cancer therapy and contribute to the outcomes of cancer.

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Topics: Cancer (64%), Skin cancer (56%), Renin–angiotensin system (51%)
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37 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3322/CAAC.21492
Abstract: This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions There will be an estimated 181 million new cancer cases (170 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 96 million cancer deaths (95 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018 In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (116% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (184% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (116%), prostate cancer (71%), and colorectal cancer (61%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (92%), stomach cancer (82%), and liver cancer (82%) for mortality Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality) Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31 © 2018 American Cancer Society

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Topics: Cancer registry (78%), Cancer (72%), Breast cancer (63%) ... read more

39,828 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30207-1
Masatoshi Kudo1, Richard S. Finn2, Shukui Qin, Kwang Hyub Han3  +18 moreInstitutions (12)
24 Mar 2018-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background In a phase 2 trial, lenvatinib, an inhibitor of VEGF receptors 1–3, FGF receptors 1–4, PDGF receptor α, RET, and KIT, showed activity in hepatocellular carcinoma We aimed to compare overall survival in patients treated with lenvatinib versus sorafenib as a first-line treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma Methods This was an open-label, phase 3, multicentre, non-inferiority trial that recruited patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, who had not received treatment for advanced disease, at 154 sites in 20 countries throughout the Asia-Pacific, European, and North American regions Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via an interactive voice–web response system—with region; macroscopic portal vein invasion, extrahepatic spread, or both; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status; and bodyweight as stratification factors—to receive oral lenvatinib (12 mg/day for bodyweight ≥60 kg or 8 mg/day for bodyweight Findings Between March 1, 2013 and July 30, 2015, 1492 patients were recruited 954 eligible patients were randomly assigned to lenvatinib (n=478) or sorafenib (n=476) Median survival time for lenvatinib of 13·6 months (95% CI 12·1–14·9) was non-inferior to sorafenib (12·3 months, 10·4–13·9; hazard ratio 0·92, 95% CI 0·79–1·06), meeting criteria for non-inferiority The most common any-grade adverse events were hypertension (201 [42%]), diarrhoea (184 [39%]), decreased appetite (162 [34%]), and decreased weight (147 [31%]) for lenvatinib, and palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia (249 [52%]), diarrhoea (220 [46%]), hypertension (144 [30%]), and decreased appetite (127 [27%]) for sorafenib Interpretation Lenvatinib was non-inferior to sorafenib in overall survival in untreated advanced hepatocellular carcinoma The safety and tolerability profiles of lenvatinib were consistent with those previously observed Funding Eisai Inc

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Topics: Lenvatinib (67%), Sorafenib (57%), Hepatocellular carcinoma (50%)

1,749 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJM199604113341502
Abstract: Background Drugs that inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme slow the progression of renal insufficiency in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Whether these drugs have a similar action in patients with other renal diseases is not known. We conducted a study to determine the effect of the angiotensin-converting–enzyme inhibitor benazepril on the progression of renal insufficiency in patients with various underlying renal diseases. Methods In a three-year trial involving 583 patients with renal insufficiency caused by various disorders, 300 patients received benazepril and 283 received placebo. The underlying diseases included glomerulopathies (in 192 patients), interstitial nephritis (in 105), nephrosclerosis (in 97), polycystic kidney disease (in 64), diabetic nephropathy (in 21), and miscellaneous or unknown disorders (in 104). The severity of renal insufficiency was classified according to the base-line creatinine clearance: 227 patients had mild insufficiency (creatinine clearance, 46 to 60 ml per minu...

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Topics: Benazepril (65%), Renal function (59%), ACE inhibitor (55%) ... read more

1,613 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CCR.2005.09.005
01 Oct 2005-Cancer Cell
Abstract: Function-blocking antibodies to VEGF receptors R1 and R2 were used to probe their roles in controlling angiogenesis in a mouse model of pancreatic islet carcinogenesis. Inhibition of VEGFR2 but not VEGFR1 markedly disrupted angiogenic switching, persistent angiogenesis, and initial tumor growth. In late-stage tumors, phenotypic resistance to VEGFR2 blockade emerged, as tumors regrew during treatment after an initial period of growth suppression. This resistance to VEGF blockade involves reactivation of tumor angiogenesis, independent of VEGF and associated with hypoxia-mediated induction of other proangiogenic factors, including members of the FGF family. These other proangiogenic signals are functionally implicated in the revascularization and regrowth of tumors in the evasion phase, as FGF blockade impairs progression in the face of VEGF inhibition.

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Topics: Angiogenesis (56%), Fibroblast growth factor (52%), Blockade (52%) ... read more

1,483 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12072-017-9799-9
Masao Omata1, Ann-Lii Cheng2, Norihiro Kokudo1, Masatoshi Kudo3  +17 moreInstitutions (14)
Abstract: There is great geographical variation in the distribution of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with the majority of all cases worldwide found in the Asia–Pacific region, where HCC is one of the leading public health problems. Since the “Toward Revision of the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) HCC Guidelines” meeting held at the 25th annual conference of the APASL in Tokyo, the newest guidelines for the treatment of HCC published by the APASL has been discussed. This latest guidelines recommend evidence-based management of HCC and are considered suitable for universal use in the Asia–Pacific region, which has a diversity of medical environments.

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895 Citations