scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

The Application of Thermoelectric Spot Cooling to Electronic Equipment

01 Dec 1961-Ire Transactions on Product Engineering and Production (IEEE)-Vol. 5, Iss: 4, pp 22-29

AbstractSummary Recent developments in the construction of thermoelectric coolers have resulted in improved coolers suitable for use in electronic equipment. The continual effort to improve the techniques of cooling electronic equipment led to the investigation of thermoelectric spot cooling of temperature-limiting component parts located within local areas of an electronic equipment. The investigation consisted of the evaluation and application of nine spot coolers constructed to specifications determined by an analysis. Thermal evaluation of the nine spot coolers showed that each spot cooler either met or exceeded the design requirement of pumping 5 w over a 30°C temperature difference. The coefficient of performance exceeded 0.5 for each of the spot coolers operated under the design condition. In addition to the satisfactory thermal performance, a spot cooler passed the mechanical shock and vibration requirements for satellite equipments used in Project Mercury. The information on spot cooler thermal performance was employed in an analytical application of spot cooling to a free-convection and radiation-cooled equipment and a forced-convection-cooled equipment. The results indicate that free-convection - and radiationcooled equipment can be operated in higher temperature environments with spot cooling; moreover, the cooling requirements for forced-convection-cooled equipment can be reduced.

...read more


Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
25 Sep 2006
TL;DR: A brief discussion of key sources of power dissipation and their temperature relation in CMOS VLSI circuits, and techniques for full-chip temperature calculation with special attention to its implications on the design of high-performance, low-power V LSI circuits is presented.
Abstract: The growing packing density and power consumption of very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits have made thermal effects one of the most important concerns of VLSI designers The increasing variability of key process parameters in nanometer CMOS technologies has resulted in larger impact of the substrate and metal line temperatures on the reliability and performance of the devices and interconnections Recent data shows that more than 50% of all integrated circuit failures are related to thermal issues This paper presents a brief discussion of key sources of power dissipation and their temperature relation in CMOS VLSI circuits, and techniques for full-chip temperature calculation with special attention to its implications on the design of high-performance, low-power VLSI circuits The paper is concluded with an overview of techniques to improve the full-chip thermal integrity by means of off-chip versus on-chip and static versus adaptive methods

378 citations


Cites background from "The Application of Thermoelectric S..."

  • ...Such a device can electronically pump heat from an IC chip to a heat sink [60]....

    [...]

Dissertation
20 Jan 2005
Abstract: With the increase dependency on electricity to provide correct form of electricity for lightning, machines, and home and office appliances, the need for the introduction of high reliability power electronics in converting the raw form of electricity into efficient electricity for these applications is uprising. One of the most common failures in power electronics is temperature related failure such as overheating. To address the issue of overheating, thermal management becomes an important mission in the design of the power electronics to ensure the functional power electronics. Different approaches are taken by academia and industry researchers to provide efficient power electronics. In particular, the Center for Power Electronics System (CPES) at Virginia Tech and four other universities presented the IPEM approach by introducing integrated power electronics modules (IPEM) as standardized units that will enable greater integration within power electronics systems and their end-use application. The IPEM approach increases the integration in the components that make up a power electronics system through novel a packaging technique known as Embedded Power technology. While the thermal behavior of commonly used packages such as pin grid arrays (PGA), ball grid array (BGA), or quad flat pack (QFP) are well-studied, the influence of the Embedded Power packaging architecture on the overall thermal performance of the IPEMs is not well known. This motivates the presentation of this dissertation in developing an in-depth understanding on the thermal behavior of the Embedded Power modules. In addition, this dissertation outlines some general guidelines for the thermal modeling and thermal testing for the Embedded Power modules. Finally, this dissertation summarizes a few thermal design guidelines for the Embedded Power modules. Hence,

15 citations


Cites background from "The Application of Thermoelectric S..."

  • ...The use of a thermoelectric cooler for spot cooling had also shown to be an effective way to improve the thermal performance of electronics equipments back in 1961 [41]....

    [...]

01 Jan 2006
Abstract: The growing packing density and power con- sumption of very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits have made thermal effects one of the most important concerns of VLSI designers. The increasing variability of key process parameters in nanometer CMOS technologies has resulted in larger impact of the substrate and metal line temperatures on the reliability and performance of the devices and interconnec- tions. Recent data shows that more than 50% of all integrated circuit failures are related to thermal issues. This paper presents a brief discussion of key sources of power dissipation and their temperature relation in CMOS VLSI circuits, and techniques for full-chip temperature calculation with special attention to its implications on the design of high-performance, low-power VLSI circuits. The paper is concluded with an over- view of techniques to improve the full-chip thermal integrity by means of off-chip versus on-chip and static versus adaptive methods.

14 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
18 Sep 2005
TL;DR: A circuit has been designed to control the temperature of the IC die upon which it resides using a TSMC 0.25 micron process and installed in a 40-pin DIP package, revealing temperature regulation within 0.3/spl deg/C for thermal control ranges.
Abstract: A circuit has been designed to control the temperature of the IC die upon which it resides. No special devices or layers are required. No external circuitry or special heat sinking is used. Equilibrium temperatures from below -40/spl deg/C to above +85/spl deg/C are attainable. Time to equilibrium is on the order of a few seconds. The 400/spl mu/m /spl times/ 500/spl mu/m circuit has been manufactured by the MOSIS service in a TSMC 0.25 micron process and installed in a 40-pin DIP package. Test results reveal temperature regulation within 0.3/spl deg/C for thermal control ranges of 4/spl deg/C to 40/spl deg/C.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1962
Abstract: A survey of the typical construction methods and style concepts that were used during the past seven decades provides an index of progress. From rather haphazard constructions that prevailed during the first quarter of this century, the industry soon reached a period when mass production of radio equipment was possible, whereupon the role of the product engineer, who takes the concepts and ideas of the scientists and devises suitable designs that are effective, reliable, and producible, and of the production engineer, who handles the problems attending the manufacturing of these designs, became important. In this review, the design techniques of several eras will be noted, particularly those that influenced the utility of the equipment. The many developments leading up to new processes, the ever-changing objectives, closer tolerances and increasing complexity taking place during the second quarter of the century, lead us into the space age with the emergence of the transistor, missiles, computers and automation. Printed-wiring and other assembly techniques are described, from the simple manual operations to the programmed automatic insertion of component parts. The roles of dip soldering and wirewrap, flexible cabling, and standardization are recounted. The progress of miniaturization is reviewed, from using conventional parts through various methods up to the micromodule and other arrangements with different form factors and integration methods. Finally, more sophisticated microminiaturization approaches?thin films, and fabrication of solid-state circuits by forming, "growing," and electron-microscope techniques. Automatic testing, dynamics, cooling, and audio-visual aids are touched upon.

1 citations