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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYT.2021.629407

The Association Between Smartphone Addiction and Sleep: A UK Cross-Sectional Study of Young Adults.

02 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Psychiatry (Frontiers)-Vol. 12, pp 629407-629407
Abstract: Background In a large UK study we investigated the relationship between smartphone addiction and sleep quality in a young adult population Methods We undertook a large UK cross-sectional observational study of 1043 participants aged 18 to 30 between January 21st and 30th February 2019 Participants completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale Short Version, an adapted Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Score Index and reported smartphone use reduction strategies using both in-person (n=968) and online (n=75) questionnaires A crude and adjusted logistic regression was fitted to assess risk factors for smartphone addiction, and the association between smartphone addiction and poor sleep Results 1071 questionnaires were returned, of which 1043 participants were included, with median age 211 (interquartile range (IQR) 19-22) 763 (732%) were female, and 406 reported smartphone addiction (389%) A large proportion of participants disclosed poor sleep (616%), and in those with smartphone addiction, 687% had poor sleep quality, compared to 571% of those without Smartphone addiction was associated with poor sleep (aOR=141, 95%CI:106-187, p=0018) Conclusions Using a validated instrument, a large minority of young adults reported smartphone addiction Smartphone addiction was associated with poor sleep, independent of duration of usage, indicating that length of time should not be used as a proxy for harmful usage Funding The study was not funded

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Topics: Behavioral addiction (57%), Population (51%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18147588
Abstract: Over the past two decades, smartphones have become common, and the accompanying devices have also become much more popular and easily accessible worldwide. With the development of smartphones, accompanied by internet facilities, excessive smartphone use or smartphone addiction may cause sleep disturbance and daily dysfunction. This study proposed examining the association between personality traits and smartphone addiction and its effects on sleep disturbance. Four hundred and twenty-two university participants (80 male and 342 female participants) with a mean age of 20.22 years old were recruited in this study. All participants were asked to complete the following questionnaires: Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI), Tri-dimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ), and Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index (CPSQI). The results showed that people with a high tendency toward novelty seeking (NS) as a personality trait, compared to those with lower tendency toward NS, are more likely to become addicted to smartphone use. Moreover, those with a stronger trait of being NS and specific impulsivity factor were found to have higher total scores in the SPAI (p < 0.05). In addition, linear regression analysis showed that the individuals with higher scores for withdrawal symptoms on the SPAI and anticipatory worry factor on the TPQ tended to have higher CPSQI total scores (p < 0.05). This information may be useful for prevention in individuals with personality traits making them vulnerable to smartphone addiction and for designing intervention programs to reduce intensive smartphone use and programs to increase capability in managing smartphone use.

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Topics: Personality (54%), Harm avoidance (53%), Novelty seeking (53%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18147438
Ji-Kang Chen1, Wen Chi Wu2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Prior studies have suggested a link between sleep problems and problematic smartphone use. However, the causal relationships between these two variables have not been identified, particularly in adolescence. Utilizing longitudinal panel data from Taiwan, this report examined the temporal relationships between sleep problems and problematic smartphone use among adolescents. One thousand and thirty-nine students (Grades 7-12) were surveyed at two-time points with a 6-month interval. The results of cross-lagged panel analysis showed that sleep problems at Time 1 significantly predicted problematic smartphone use at Time 2. Problematic smartphone use at Time 1 also significantly predicted sleep problems at Time 2. These findings applied to boys and girls and suggested that temporal relationships between sleep problems and problematic smartphone use among teenagers are reciprocal. Accordingly, increasing sleep quality may prevent future problematic smartphone use, while reducing problematic smartphone use may prevent sleep problems in adolescents.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18115978
Abstract: Background: College students are among the heaviest users of smartphones and the Internet, and there is growing concern regarding problematic Internet (PIU) and smartphone use (PSU). A subset of adverse childhood experiences, household dysfunction [(HHD) e.g.; parental substance use, mental illness, incarceration, suicide, intimate partner violence, separation/divorce, homelessness], are robust predictors of behavioral disorders; however, few studies have investigated the link between HHD and PIU and PSU and potential protective factors, such as social support, among students. Methods: Data are from a diverse California student sample (N = 1027). The Smartphone Addiction Scale—Short Version and Internet Addiction Test assessed dimensions of addiction. Regression models tested associations between students’ level of HHD (No HHD, 1–3 HHD, ≥4 HHD) and PSU and PIU, and the role of extrafamilial social support in these relationships, adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, SES, employment loss due to COVID-19, and depression. Results: Compared to students reporting no HHD, students with ≥4 HHD had twice the odds (AOR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.21–3.40) of meeting criteria for PSU, while students with 1–3 HHD and ≥4 HHD had three and six times the odds of moderate to severe PIU (AORs: 2.03–2.46, CI:1.21–3.96) after adjusting for covariates. Extrafamilial social support was inversely associated with PIU and moderated the HHD–PSU association for students with 1–3 HHD. Conclusion: Students exposed to HHD may be especially vulnerable to developing behavioral addictions such as PSU and PIU. Extrafamilial social support offset the negative effects of HHD for PSU among the moderate risk group; implications for prevention efforts are discussed.

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Topics: Poison control (51%)


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3889/OAMJMS.2021.7064
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The use of smartphones is increasing in the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic for various purposes, this encourages smartphone addiction. In addition, the incidence of insomnia has also increased in the pandemic era. AIM: This study was conducted to find an association between smartphone addiction and the incidence of insomnia, especially among students of the Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University. METHOD: This research is a descriptive-analytic study with the cross-sectional method, using two main questionnaires, Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version, and Insomnia Severity Index. Questionnaires were distributed using Google forms and then collected and analyzed using software SPSS version 25. RESULT: Overall the total research respondents with the inclusion criteria in this study amounted to 364 people. The results showed that 212 respondents (58.24%) had a high level of smartphone addiction and 152 respondents (41.76%) had a low level of smartphone addiction. In addition, 187 respondents (51.37%) experienced mild insomnia, 87 respondents (23.9%) experienced moderate insomnia, 13 respondents (3.57%) experienced severe insomnia, and 77 respondents (21.15%) did not experience insomnia. Based on the results of data analysis, it was found that smartphone addiction had a significant relationship (p = 0.002) with weak and positive correlation (r = 0.162) to the incidence of insomnia. CONCLUSION: It was found that the majority of respondents experienced high levels of smartphone addiction and mild insomnia. Another finding suggests the higher addiction to the smartphones, the more severe insomnia suffered.

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Topics: Addiction (52%)

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43 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4
Abstract: Despite the prevalence of sleep complaints among psychiatric patients, few questionnaires have been specifically designed to measure sleep quality in clinical populations. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a self-rated questionnaire which assesses sleep quality and disturbances over a 1-month time interval. Nineteen individual items generate seven "component" scores: subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction. The sum of scores for these seven components yields one global score. Clinical and clinimetric properties of the PSQI were assessed over an 18-month period with "good" sleepers (healthy subjects, n = 52) and "poor" sleepers (depressed patients, n = 54; sleep-disorder patients, n = 62). Acceptable measures of internal homogeneity, consistency (test-retest reliability), and validity were obtained. A global PSQI score greater than 5 yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.6% and specificity of 86.5% (kappa = 0.75, p less than 0.001) in distinguishing good and poor sleepers. The clinimetric and clinical properties of the PSQI suggest its utility both in psychiatric clinical practice and research activities.

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Topics: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (82%), Sleep state misperception (66%), Sleep hygiene (66%) ... read more

18,413 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0083558
Min Kwon1, Dai-Jin Kim1, Hyun Hee Cho1, Soo Yang1Institutions (1)
31 Dec 2013-PLOS ONE
Abstract: Objective This study was designed to investigate the revised and short version of the smartphone addiction scale and the proof of its validity in adolescents. In addition, it suggested cutting off the values by gender in order to determine smartphone addiction and elaborate the characteristics of smartphone usage in adolescents. Method A set of questionnaires were provided to a total of 540 selected participants from April to May of 2013. The participants consisted of 343 boys and 197 girls, and their average age was 14.5 years old. The content validity was performed on a selection of shortened items, while an internal-consistency test was conducted for the verification of its reliability. The concurrent validity was confirmed using SAS, SAPS and KS-scale. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was conducted to suggest cut-off. Results The 10 final questions were selected using content validity. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.911. The SAS-SV was significantly correlated with the SAS, SAPS and KS-scale. The SAS-SV scores of gender (p<.001) and self-evaluation of smartphone addiction (p<.001) showed significant difference. The ROC analysis results showed an area under a curve (AUC) value of 0.963(0.888–1.000), a cut-off value of 31, sensitivity value of 0.867 and specificity value of 0.893 in boys while an AUC value of 0.947(0.887–1.000), a cut-off value of 33, sensitivity value of 0.875, and a specificity value of 0.886 in girls. Conclusions The SAS-SV showed good reliability and validity for the assessment of smartphone addiction. The smartphone addiction scale short version, which was developed and validated in this study, could be used efficiently for the evaluation of smartphone addiction in community and research areas.

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Topics: Concurrent validity (58%), Computer addiction (58%), Content validity (53%) ... read more

633 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1556/2006.4.2015.010
Abstract: Background and aims The usage of smartphones has increased rapidly in recent years, and this has brought about addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between smartphone use severity and sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. Methods In total, 319 university students (203 females and 116 males; mean age = 20.5 ± 2.45) were included in the study. Participants were divided into the following three groups: a smartphone non-user group (n = 71, 22.3%), a low smartphone use group (n = 121, 37.9%), and a high smartphone use group (n = 127, 39.8%). All participants were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory; moreover, participants other than those in the smartphone non-user group were also assessed with the Smartphone Addiction Scale. Results The findings revealed that the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores of females were significantly higher than those of males. Depression, anxiety, and day...

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624 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/ADB0000160
Abstract: Over the last decade, research into "addictive technological behaviors" has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 23,533 adults (mean age 35.8 years, ranging from 16 to 88 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey examining whether demographic variables, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, and depression could explain variance in addictive use (i.e., compulsive and excessive use associated with negative outcomes) of two types of modern online technologies: social media and video games. Correlations between symptoms of addictive technology use and mental disorder symptoms were all positive and significant, including the weak interrelationship between the two addictive technological behaviors. Age appeared to be inversely related to the addictive use of these technologies. Being male was significantly associated with addictive use of video games, whereas being female was significantly associated with addictive use of social media. Being single was positively related to both addictive social networking and video gaming. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that demographic factors explained between 11 and 12% of the variance in addictive technology use. The mental health variables explained between 7 and 15% of the variance. The study significantly adds to our understanding of mental health symptoms and their role in addictive use of modern technology, and suggests that the concept of Internet use disorder (i.e., "Internet addiction") as a unified construct is not warranted.

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Topics: Anxiety (52%), Addiction (51%), Mental health (51%)

529 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10964-014-0176-X
Abstract: Adolescence is a time of increasing vulnerability for poor mental health, including depression. Sleep disturbance is an important risk factor for the development of depression during adolescence. Excessive electronic media use at night is a risk factor for both adolescents’ sleep disturbance and depression. To better understand the interplay between sleep, depressive symptoms, and electronic media use at night, this study examined changes in adolescents’ electronic media use at night and sleep associated with smartphone ownership. Also examined was whether sleep disturbance mediated the relationship between electronic media use at night and depressive symptoms. 362 adolescents (12–17 year olds, M = 14.8, SD = 1.3; 44.8 % female) were included and completed questionnaires assessing sleep disturbance (short sleep duration and sleep difficulties) and depressive symptoms. Further, participants reported on their electronic media use in bed before sleep such as frequency of watching TV or movies, playing video games, talking or text messaging on the mobile phone, and spending time online. Smartphone ownership was related to more electronic media use in bed before sleep, particularly calling/sending messages and spending time online compared to adolescents with a conventional mobile phone. Smartphone ownership was also related to later bedtimes while it was unrelated to sleep disturbance and symptoms of depression. Sleep disturbance partially mediated the relationship between electronic media use in bed before sleep and symptoms of depression. Electronic media use was negatively related with sleep duration and positively with sleep difficulties, which in turn were related to depressive symptoms. Sleep difficulties were the more important mediator than sleep duration. The results of this study suggest that adolescents might benefit from education regarding sleep hygiene and the risks of electronic media use at night.

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Topics: Sleep hygiene (71%), Sleep disorder (68%), Poison control (50%)

457 Citations