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The bases of social power.

About: The article was published on 1959-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 6607 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Referent power & French and Raven's bases of power.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) as mentioned in this paper is a unified model that integrates elements across the eight models, and empirically validate the unified model.
Abstract: Information technology (IT) acceptance research has yielded many competing models, each with different sets of acceptance determinants. In this paper, we (1) review user acceptance literature and discuss eight prominent models, (2) empirically compare the eight models and their extensions, (3) formulate a unified model that integrates elements across the eight models, and (4) empirically validate the unified model. The eight models reviewed are the theory of reasoned action, the technology acceptance model, the motivational model, the theory of planned behavior, a model combining the technology acceptance model and the theory of planned behavior, the model of PC utilization, the innovation diffusion theory, and the social cognitive theory. Using data from four organizations over a six-month period with three points of measurement, the eight models explained between 17 percent and 53 percent of the variance in user intentions to use information technology. Next, a unified model, called the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), was formulated, with four core determinants of intention and usage, and up to four moderators of key relationships. UTAUT was then tested using the original data and found to outperform the eight individual models (adjusted R2 of 69 percent). UTAUT was then confirmed with data from two new organizations with similar results (adjusted R2 of 70 percent). UTAUT thus provides a useful tool for managers needing to assess the likelihood of success for new technology introductions and helps them understand the drivers of acceptance in order to proactively design interventions (including training, marketing, etc.) targeted at populations of users that may be less inclined to adopt and use new systems. The paper also makes several recommendations for future research including developing a deeper understanding of the dynamic influences studied here, refining measurement of the core constructs used in UTAUT, and understanding the organizational outcomes associated with new technology use.

27,798 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed and tested a theoretical extension of the TAM model that explains perceived usefulness and usage intentions in terms of social influence and cognitive instrumental processes, which was tested using longitudinal data collected regarding four different systems at four organizations (N = 156), two involving voluntary usage and two involving mandatory usage.
Abstract: The present research develops and tests a theoretical extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that explains perceived usefulness and usage intentions in terms of social influence and cognitive instrumental processes. The extended model, referred to as TAM2, was tested using longitudinal data collected regarding four different systems at four organizations ( N = 156), two involving voluntary usage and two involving mandatory usage. Model constructs were measured at three points in time at each organization: preimplementation, one month postimplementation, and three months postimplementation. The extended model was strongly supported for all four organizations at all three points of measurement, accounting for 40%--60% of the variance in usefulness perceptions and 34%--52% of the variance in usage intentions. Both social influence processes (subjective norm, voluntariness, and image) and cognitive instrumental processes (job relevance, output quality, result demonstrability, and perceived ease of use) significantly influenced user acceptance. These findings advance theory and contribute to the foundation for future research aimed at improving our understanding of user adoption behavior.

16,513 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work draws from the vast body of research on the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive nomological network of the determinants of individual level IT adoption and use and present a research agenda focused on potential pre- and postimplementation interventions that can enhance employees' adopted and use of IT.
Abstract: Prior research has provided valuable insights into how and why employees make a decision about the adoption and use of information technologies (ITs) in the workplace. From an organizational point of view, however, the more important issue is how managers make informed decisions about interventions that can lead to greater acceptance and effective utilization of IT. There is limited research in the IT implementation literature that deals with the role of interventions to aid such managerial decision making. Particularly, there is a need to understand how various interventions can influence the known determinants of IT adoption and use. To address this gap in the literature, we draw from the vast body of research on the technology acceptance model (TAM), particularly the work on the determinants of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and: (i) develop a comprehensive nomological network (integrated model) of the determinants of individual level (IT) adoption and use; (ii) empirically test the proposed integrated model; and (iii) present a research agenda focused on potential pre- and postimplementation interventions that can enhance employees' adoption and use of IT. Our findings and research agenda have important implications for managerial decision making on IT implementation in organizations.

5,246 citations

Book
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: The concept of soft power was coined by Joseph Nye in the late 1980s and has been used frequently and often incorrectly by political leaders, editorial writers, and academics around the world as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Joseph Nye coined the term "soft power" in the late 1980s. It is now used frequently-and often incorrectly-by political leaders, editorial writers, and academics around the world. So what is soft power? Soft power lies in the ability to attract and persuade. Whereas hard power-the ability to coerce-grows out of a country's military or economic might, soft power arises from the attractiveness of a country's culture, political ideals, and policies. Hard power remains crucial in a world of states trying to guard their independence and of non-state groups willing to turn to violence. It forms the core of the Bush administration's new national security strategy. But according to Nye, the neo-conservatives who advise the president are making a major miscalculation: They focus too heavily on using America's military power to force other nations to do our will, and they pay too little heed to our soft power. It is soft power that will help prevent terrorists from recruiting supporters from among the moderate majority. And it is soft power that will help us deal with critical global issues that require multilateral cooperation among states. That is why it is so essential that America better understands and applies our soft power. This book is our guide.

4,456 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article proposed a model based upon the subordinate's psychological attributes and the organization's situational characteristics to reconcile the differences between these assumptions by proposing a model that reconciles the differences among these assumptions.
Abstract: Recent thinking about top management has been influenced by alternative models of man.1 Economic approaches to governance such as agency theory tend to assume some form of homo-economicus, which depict subordinates as individualistic, opportunistic, and self-serving. Alternatively, sociological and psychological approaches to governance such as stewardship theory depict subordinates as collectivists, pro-organizational, and trustworthy. Through this research, we attempt to reconcile the differences between these assumptions by proposing a model based upon the subordinate's psychological attributes and the organization's situational characteristics.

4,288 citations


Cites background from "The bases of social power."

  • ...In the most widely cited typology of power bases, French and Raven (1959) described power in terms of coercive, legitimate, reward, expert, and referent power....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A synthetic polyisoprene rubber latex produced by emulsifying a solution of polyisoperene rubber in an organic solvent with water and removing the solvent from the resulting oil-in-water emulsion is significantly improved with respect to mechanical stability, wet gel strength and dry film strength as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: A synthetic polyisoprene rubber latex produced by emulsifying a solution of polyisoprene rubber in an organic solvent with water and removing the solvent from the resulting oil-in-water emulsion is significantly improved with respect to mechanical stability, wet gel strength and dry film strength by utilizing, as a polyisoprene rubber, a modified polyisoprene rubber prepared by introducing from about 0.03 to 20 carboxyl groups per 100 recurring units of isoprene monomer present in the synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprene rubber.

10,422 citations

Book
01 Jan 1947
TL;DR: The Theory of Social and Economic Organization as mentioned in this paper is based on Weber's philosophical inquiries into the nature of authority and how it is transmitted, and identifies three types of authority: the charismatic, based on the individual qualities of a leader and reverence for them among his or her followers; the traditional based on custom and usage; and the rational-legal, according to the rule of objective law.
Abstract: The Theory of Social and Economic Organization grew out of Weber’s philosophical inquiries into the nature of authority and how it is transmitted. He identified three types of authority: the charismatic, based on the individual qualities of a leader and reverence for them among his or her followers; the traditional, based on custom and usage; and the rational-legal, based on the rule of objective law.

8,589 citations

Book
01 Jan 1951

6,616 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Several modifications of the Asch experiment in which the S judges the length of lines in the company of a group of “stooges” who carry out the experimenter's instructions are described.
Abstract: Several modifications of the Asch experiment in which the S judges the length of lines in the company of a group of “stooges” who carry out the experimenter's instructions are described. These include a face-to-face situation, an anonymous situation, and a group situation, with self-commitment, publ

4,236 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the patterns of Aggressive Behavior in Experimentally Created "Social Climates" were studied and the results showed that aggressive behavior in socially created "social climates" is correlated with aggression.
Abstract: (1939). Patterns of Aggressive Behavior in Experimentally Created “Social Climates”. The Journal of Social Psychology: Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 269-299.

2,948 citations