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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.2009451118

The battle between harvest and natural selection creates small and shy fish

02 Mar 2021-Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (National Academy of Sciences)-Vol. 118, Iss: 9
Abstract: Harvest of fish and wildlife, both commercial and recreational, is a selective force that can induce evolutionary changes to life history and behavior. Naturally selective forces may create countering selection pressures. Assessing natural fitness represents a considerable challenge in broadcast spawners. Thus, our understanding about the relative strength of natural and fisheries selection is slim. In the field, we compared the strength and shape of harvest selection to natural selection on body size over four years and behavior over one year in a natural population of a freshwater top predator, the northern pike (Esox lucius). Natural selection was approximated by relative reproductive success via parent-offspring genetic assignments over four years. Harvest selection was measured by comparing individuals susceptible to recreational angling with individuals never captured by this gear type. Individual behavior was measured by high-resolution acoustic telemetry. Harvest and natural size selection operated with equal strength but opposing directions, and harvest size selection was consistently negative in all study years. Harvest selection also had a substantial behavioral component independent of body length, while natural behavioral selection was not documented, suggesting the potential for directional harvest selection favoring inactive, timid fish. Simulations of the outcomes of different fishing regulations showed that traditional minimum size-based harvest limits are unlikely to counteract harvest selection without being completely restrictive. Our study suggests harvest selection may be inevitable and recreational fisheries may thus favor small, inactive, shy, and difficult-to-capture fish. Increasing fractions of shy fish in angling-exploited stocks would have consequences for stock assessment and all fisheries operating with hook and line.

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Topics: Natural selection (56%), Selection (genetic algorithm) (56%), Reproductive success (51%) ... show more
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-96908-1
01 Sep 2021-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Structural complexity is known to influence prey behaviour, mortality and population structure, but the effects on predators have received less attention We tested whether contrasting structural complexity in two newly colonised lakes (low structural complexity lake-LSC; high structural complexity-HSC) was associated with contrasting behaviour in an aquatic apex predator, Northern pike (Esox lucius; hereafter pike) present in the lakes Behaviour of pike was studied with whole-lake acoustic telemetry tracking, supplemented by stable isotope analysis of pike prey utilization and survey fishing data on the prey fish community Pike displayed increased activity, space use, individual growth as well as behavioural differentiation and spent more time in open waters in the LSC lake Despite observed differences between lakes, stable isotopes analyses indicated a high dependency on littoral food sources in both lakes We concluded that pike in the HSC lake displayed a behaviour consistent with a prevalent ambush predation behaviour, whereas the higher activity and larger space use in the LSC lake indicated a transition to more active search behaviour It could lead to increased prey encounter and cause better growth in the LSC lake Our study demonstrated how differences in structural complexity mediated prominent changes in the foraging behaviour of an apex predator, which in turn may have effects on the prey community

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Topics: Pike (56%), Apex predator (55%), Predation (53%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.24072/PCI.ECOLOGY.100071
Simon Blanchet1Institutions (1)
09 Mar 2021-
Abstract: A recommendation of: Eric Edeline and Nicolas Loeuille Size-dependent eco-evolutionary feedbacks in fisheries 10.1101/2020.04.03.022905

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1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10530-021-02588-3
Abstract: Control methods that target specific traits of an invasive species can produce results contrary to the aims of management. If targeted phenotypes exhibit heritability, then it follows that the invasive species could evolve greater resistance to the applied control measures over time. Additional complications emerge if those traits targeted by control are also inversely related to reproductive success. Given this, prudent considerations for invasive species management are to quantify the heritability of traits selected through control measures and gauge their relationship with reproductive success. Herein we provide a case study utilizing long-term field data and a multi-generational pedigree of an experimentally-closed population of brown treesnakes (N = 426; Boiga irregularis) on Guam. We employed an “animal model” to estimate the narrow-sense heritability (h2) for annual body condition, a trait related to both susceptibility to a primary tool used for brown treesnake control (i.e., live-lure traps) and annual reproductive success. Annual body condition displayed significant heritability [h2 = 0.149 (95% highest posterior density interval: 0.059–0.220)]. Considering a negative effect of body condition on susceptibility to trap capture but positive effect on reproductive success, significant heritability of body condition suggests the potential for live-lure traps to lose efficacy over time while also eliciting an undesirable effect on brown treesnake fecundity. Our results highlight the potential for negative repercussions that can stem from management actions, while also serving to underscore the evolutionary implications that are often overlooked but subsumed within invasive species control.

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Topics: Heritability (54%), Population (53%), Reproductive success (52%)

1 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.09.13.460027
16 Sep 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Size-selective mortality is common in fish populations and can operate either in a positive size-selective fashion or be negatively size-selective. Through various mechanisms (like genetic correlations among behaviour and life-history traits or direct selection on behaviour co-varying with growth rate or size-at-maturation), both positive- and negative size-selection can result in evolutionary changes in behavioural traits. Theory suggests that size-selection alone favours boldness, but little experimental evidence exists about whether and to what extent size-selection can trigger its evolution. Here we investigated the impact of size-selective mortality on boldness across ontogeny using three experimental lines of zebrafish (Danio rerio) generated through positive (large-harvested), negative (small-harvested) and random (control line) size-selective mortality for five generations. We measured risk-taking during feeding (boldness) under simulated aerial predation threat and in presence of a live cichlid. We found that boldness decreased with ontogenetic age under aerial predation threat, and the small-harvested line was consistently bolder than controls. Collective personality emerged post larval stages among the selection lines. In presence of a cichlid, the large-harvested line was bolder at the highest risk of predation. The large-harvested line showed higher variability and plasticity in boldness across life stages and predation risks. Collectively, our results demonstrate that size-selective harvesting may evolutionarily alter risk-taking tendency. Size-selection alone favours boldness when selection acts on small fish. Selection typical of fisheries operating on large fish favours boldness at the highest risk of predation and increases behavioural variability and plasticity. There was no evidence for positive size-selection favouring evolution of shyness.

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Topics: Boldness (67%)

Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.09.02.458800
04 Sep 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Growth is one of the most important traits of an organism. For exploited species, this trait has ecological and evolutionary consequences as well as economical and conservation significance. Rapid changes in growth rate associated with anthropogenic stressors have been reported for several marine fishes, but little is known about the genetic basis of growth traits in teleosts. We used reduced genome representation data and genome-wide association approaches to identify growth-related genetic variation in the commercially, recreationally, and culturally important Australian snapper (Chrysophrys auratus, Sparidae). Based on 17,490 high-quality SNPs and 363 individuals representing extreme growth phenotypes from 15,000 fish of the same age and reared under identical conditions in a sea pen, we identified 100 unique candidates that were annotated to 51 proteins. We documented a complex polygenic nature of growth in the species that included several loci with small effects and a few loci with larger effects. Overall heritability was high (75.7%), reflected in the high accuracy of the genomic prediction for the phenotype (small vs large). Although the SNPs were distributed across the genome, most candidates (60%) clustered on chromosome 16, which also explains the largest proportion of heritability (16.4%). This study demonstrates that reduced genome representation SNPs and the right bioinformatic tools provide a cost-efficient approach to identify growth-related loci and to describe genomic architectures of complex quantitative traits. Our results help to inform captive aquaculture breeding programmes and are of relevance to monitor growth-related evolutionary shifts in wild populations in response to anthropogenic pressures.

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Topics: Chrysophrys auratus (55%)

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120 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/5403
Abstract: Prologue Part I: Evolutionary explanation Demography: age and stage structure Quantitative genetics and reaction norms Trade-offs Lineage-specific effects Part II: Age and size at maturity Number and size of offspring Reproductive lifespan and ageing Appendices Glossary References Author index Subject index.

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Topics: Reproductive value (52%), Life history theory (52%)

10,334 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1558-5646.1983.TB00236.X
Russell Lande1, Stevan J. Arnold1Institutions (1)
01 Nov 1983-Evolution
Abstract: Natural selection acts on phenotypes, regardless of their genetic basis, and produces immediate phenotypic effects within a generation that can be measured without recourse to principles of heredity or evolution. In contrast, evolutionary response to selection, the genetic change that occurs from one generation to the next, does depend on genetic variation. Animal and plant breeders routinely distinguish phenotypic selection from evolutionary response to selection (Mayo, 1980; Falconer, 1981). Upon making this critical distinction, emphasized by Haldane (1954), precise methods can be formulated for the measurement of phenotypic natural selection. Correlations between characters seriously complicate the measurement of phenotypic selection, because selection on a particular trait produces not only a direct effect on the distribution of that trait in a population, but also produces indirect effects on the distribution of correlated characters. The problem of character correlations has been largely ignored in current methods for measuring natural selection on quantitative traits. Selection has usually been treated as if it acted only on single characters (e.g., Haldane, 1954; Van Valen, 1965a; O'Donald, 1968, 1970; reviewed by Johnson, 1976 Ch. 7). This is obviously a tremendous oversimplification, since natural selection acts on many characters simultaneously and phenotypic correlations between traits are ubiquitous. In an important but neglected paper, Pearson (1903) showed that multivariate statistics could be used to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of selection to determine which traits in a correlated ensemble are the focus of direct selection. Here we extend and generalize Pearson's major results. The purpose of this paper is to derive measures of directional and stabilizing (or disruptive) selection on each of a set of phenotypically correlated characters. The analysis is retrospective, based on observed changes in the multivariate distribution of characters within a generation, not on the evolutionary response to selection. Nevertheless, the measures we propose have a close connection with equations for evolutionary change. Many other commonly used measures of the intensity of selection (such as selective mortality, change in mean fitness, variance in fitness, or estimates of particular forms of fitness functions) have little predictive value in relation to evolutionary change in quantitative traits. To demonstrate the utility of our approach, we analyze selection on four morphological characters in a population of pentatomid bugs during a brief period of high mortality. We also summarize a multivariate selection analysis on nine morphological characters of house sparrows caught in a severe winter storm, using the classic data of Bumpus (1899). Direct observations and measurements of natural selection serve to clarify one of the major factors of evolution. Critiques of the "adaptationist program" (Lewontin, 1978; Gould and Lewontin, 1979) stress that adaptation and selection are often invoked without strong supporting evidence. We suggest quantitative measurements of selection as the best alternative to the fabrication of adaptive scenarios. Our optimism that measurement can replace rhetorical claims for adaptation and selection is founded in the growing success of field workers in their efforts to measure major components of fitness in natural populations (e.g., Thornhill, 1976; Howard, 1979; Downhower and Brown, 1980; Boag and Grant, 1981; Clutton-Brock et

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Topics: Stabilizing selection (72%), Selection (genetic algorithm) (67%), Natural selection (67%) ... show more

4,737 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1365-294X.2007.03089.X
01 Mar 2007-Molecular Ecology
Abstract: Genotypes are frequently used to identify parentage. Such analysis is notoriously vulnerable to genotyping error, and there is ongoing debate regarding how to solve this problem. Many scientists have used the computer program CERVUS to estimate parentage, and have taken advantage of its option to allow for genotyping error. In this study, we show that the likelihood equations used by versions 1.0 and 2.0 of CERVUS to accommodate genotyping error miscalculate the probability of observing an erroneous genotype. Computer simulation and reanalysis of paternity in Rum red deer show that correcting this error increases success in paternity assignment, and that there is a clear benefit to accommodating genotyping errors when errors are present. A new version of CERVUS (3.0) implementing the corrected likelihood equations is available at http://www.fieldgenetics.com.

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4,119 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0149-7634(99)00026-3
Jaap M. Koolhaas1, S.M. Korte, S.F. de Boer1, B. van der Vegt1  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: This paper summarizes the current views on coping styles as a useful concept in understanding individual adaptive capacity and vulnerability to stress-related disease. Studies in feral populations indicate the existence of a proactive and a reactive coping style. These coping styles seem to play a role in the population ecology of the species. Despite domestication, genetic selection and inbreeding, the same coping styles can, to some extent, also be observed in laboratory and farm animals. Coping styles are characterized by consistent behavioral and neuroendocrine characteristics, some of which seem to be causally linked to each other. Evidence is accumulating that the two coping styles might explain a differential vulnerability to stress mediated disease due to the differential adaptive value of the two coping styles and the accompanying neuroendocrine differentiation.

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Topics: Coping (psychology) (59%)

2,356 Citations


Open accessBook
10 Nov 2001-
Abstract: An Overview A Framework for Analysis Trade-offs Evolution in Constant Environments Evolution in Stochastic Environments Evolution in Predictable Environments Topics for Future Study

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1,896 Citations


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