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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07060661.2021.1936650

The bud rot pathogens infecting cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana) inflorescences: symptomology, species identification, pathogenicity and biological control

01 Jun 2021-Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology-revue Canadienne De Phytopathologie (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 43, Iss: 6, pp 827-854
Abstract: Bud rot pathogens cause diseases on Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis, hemp) worldwide through pre- and post-harvest infections of the inflorescence. Seven indoor or outdoor cannabis production sites an... more

Topics: Botrytis cinerea (53%), Cannabis (51%), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (51%) more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1094/PDIS-05-20-0924-RE
26 Jan 2021-Plant Disease
Abstract: Michigan’s hop acreage ranks fourth nationally, but the state’s growers contend with unique disease challenges resulting from frequent rainfall and high humidity. In August 2018, a Michigan hop gro... more

1 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07060661.2021.1988712
Alastair J. Roberts1, Zamir K. Punja1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana) plants grown at indoor and outdoor production sites in British Columbia (BC) and Ontario with stem canker symptoms were sampled and affected tissues were su... more

Topics: Neofusicoccum (57%), Canker (54%), Alternaria (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2436/IM.V7I4.9480
Abstract: The genus Trichoderma comprises a great number of fungal strains that act as biological control agents, the antagonistic properties of which are based on the activation of multiple mechanisms. Trichoderma strains exert biocontrol against fungal phytopathogens either indirectly, by competing for nutrients and space, modifying the environmental conditions, or promoting plant growth and plant defensive mechanisms and antibiosis, or directly, by mechanisms such as mycoparasitism. These indirect and direct mechanisms may act coordinately and their importance in the biocontrol process depends on the Trichoderma strain, the antagonized fungus, the crop plant, and the environmental conditions, including nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and iron concentration. Activation of each mechanism implies the production of specific compounds and metabolites, such as plant growth factors, hydrolytic enzymes, siderophores, antibiotics, and carbon and nitrogen permeases. These metabolites can be either overproduced or combined with appropriate biocontrol strains in order to obtain new formulations for use in more efficient control of plant diseases and postharvest applications. more

Topics: Trichoderma (56%), Antibiosis (51%)

1,235 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1364-3703.2007.00417.X
Abstract: Introduction: Botrytis cinerea (teleomorph: Botryotinia fuckeliana) is an airborne plant pathogen with a necrotrophic lifestyle attacking over 200 crop hosts worldwide. Although there are fungicides for its control, many classes of fungicides have failed due to its genetic plasticity. It has become an important model for molecular study of necrotrophic fungi. Taxonomy: Kingdom: Fungi, phylum: Ascomycota, subphylum: Pezizomycotina, class: Leotiomycetes, order: Helotiales, family: Sclerotiniaceae, genus: Botryotinia. Host range and symptoms: Over 200 mainly dicotyledonous plant species, including important protein, oil, fibre and horticultural crops, are affected in temperate and subtropical regions. It can cause soft rotting of all aerial plant parts, and rotting of vegetables, fruits and flowers post-harvest to produce prolific grey conidiophores and (macro)conidia typical of the disease. Pathogenicity: B. cinerea produces a range of cell-wall-degrading enzymes, toxins and other low-molecular-weight compounds such as oxalic acid. New evidence suggests that the pathogen triggers the host to induce programmed cell death as an attack strategy. Resistance: There are few examples of robust genetic host resistance, but recent work has identified quantitative trait loci in tomato that offer new approaches for stable polygenic resistance in future. more

Topics: Botryotinia fuckeliana (59%), Botrytis cinerea (59%), Botryotinia (57%) more

994 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/BF02059809
Jean H. Langenheim1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Characteristics of higher plant terpenoids that result in mediation of numerous kinds of ecological interactions are discussed as a framework for this Symposium on Chemical Ecology of Terpenoids. However, the role of terpenoid mixtures, either constitutive or induced, their intraspecific qualitative and quantitative compositional variation, and their dosage-dependent effects are emphasized in subsequent discussions. It is suggested that little previous attention to these characteristics may have contributed to terpenoids having been misrepresented in some chemical defense theories. Selected phytocentric examples of terpenoid interactions are presented: (1) defense against generalist and specialist insect and mammalian herbivores, (2) defense against insect-vectored fungi and potentially pathogenic endophytic fungi, (3) attraction of entomophages and pollinators, (4) allelopathic effects that inhibit seed germination and soil bacteria, and (5) interaction with reactive troposphere gases. The results are integrated by discussing how these terpenoids may be contributing factors in determining some properties of terrestrial plant communities and ecosystems. A terrestrial phytocentric approach is necessitated due to the magnitude and scope of terpenoid interactions. This presentation has a more broadly based ecological perspective than the several excellent recent reviews of the ecological chemistry of terpenoids. more

759 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPLS.2016.00019
Abstract: Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibers. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metabolites show potent bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics and concrete-like material, respectively. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special emphasis on molecules of industrial interest, including cannabinoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, mainly due to their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in humans, including psychotropic activities. The therapeutic and commercial interests of some terpenes and phenolic compounds, and in particular stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted in view of the most recent literature data. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e., cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Additionally, an entire section is devoted to hemp trichomes, in the light of their importance as phytochemical factories. Ultimately, prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented. more

580 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PBIO.2001793
Posy E. Busby1, Chinmay Soman2, Maggie R. Wagner3, Maren L. Friesen4  +6 moreInstitutions (9)
28 Mar 2017-PLOS Biology
Abstract: Feeding a growing world population amidst climate change requires optimizing the reliability, resource use, and environmental impacts of food production. One way to assist in achieving these goals is to integrate beneficial plant microbiomes-i.e., those enhancing plant growth, nutrient use efficiency, abiotic stress tolerance, and disease resistance-into agricultural production. This integration will require a large-scale effort among academic researchers, industry researchers, and farmers to understand and manage plant-microbiome interactions in the context of modern agricultural systems. Here, we identify priorities for research in this area: (1) develop model host-microbiome systems for crop plants and non-crop plants with associated microbial culture collections and reference genomes, (2) define core microbiomes and metagenomes in these model systems, (3) elucidate the rules of synthetic, functionally programmable microbiome assembly, (4) determine functional mechanisms of plant-microbiome interactions, and (5) characterize and refine plant genotype-by-environment-by-microbiome-by-management interactions. Meeting these goals should accelerate our ability to design and implement effective agricultural microbiome manipulations and management strategies, which, in turn, will pay dividends for both the consumers and producers of the world food supply. more

399 Citations