# The calculation of small molecular interactions by the differences of separate total energies. Some procedures with reduced errors

TL;DR: In this paper, a direct difference method for the computation of molecular interactions has been based on a bivariational transcorrelated treatment, together with special methods for the balancing of other errors.

Abstract: A new direct difference method for the computation of molecular interactions has been based on a bivariational transcorrelated treatment, together with special methods for the balancing of other errors. It appears that these new features can give a strong reduction in the error of the interaction energy, and they seem to be particularly suitable for computations in the important region near the minimum energy. It has been generally accepted that this problem is dominated by unresolved difficulties and the relation of the new methods to these apparent difficulties is analysed here.

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TL;DR: A new density functional of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) type for general chemistry applications termed B97‐D is proposed, based on Becke's power‐series ansatz from 1997, and is explicitly parameterized by including damped atom‐pairwise dispersion corrections of the form C6 · R−6.

Abstract: A new density functional (DF) of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) type for general chemistry applications termed B97-D is proposed. It is based on Becke's power-series ansatz from 1997 and is explicitly parameterized by including damped atom-pairwise dispersion corrections of the form C(6) x R(-6). A general computational scheme for the parameters used in this correction has been established and parameters for elements up to xenon and a scaling factor for the dispersion part for several common density functionals (BLYP, PBE, TPSS, B3LYP) are reported. The new functional is tested in comparison with other GGAs and the B3LYP hybrid functional on standard thermochemical benchmark sets, for 40 noncovalently bound complexes, including large stacked aromatic molecules and group II element clusters, and for the computation of molecular geometries. Further cross-validation tests were performed for organometallic reactions and other difficult problems for standard functionals. In summary, it is found that B97-D belongs to one of the most accurate general purpose GGAs, reaching, for example for the G97/2 set of heat of formations, a mean absolute deviation of only 3.8 kcal mol(-1). The performance for noncovalently bound systems including many pure van der Waals complexes is exceptionally good, reaching on the average CCSD(T) accuracy. The basic strategy in the development to restrict the density functional description to shorter electron correlation lengths scales and to describe situations with medium to large interatomic distances by damped C(6) x R(-6) terms seems to be very successful, as demonstrated for some notoriously difficult reactions. As an example, for the isomerization of larger branched to linear alkanes, B97-D is the only DF available that yields the right sign for the energy difference. From a practical point of view, the new functional seems to be quite robust and it is thus suggested as an efficient and accurate quantum chemical method for large systems where dispersion forces are of general importance.

23,058 citations

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TL;DR: The M06-2X meta-exchange correlation function is proposed in this paper, which is parametrized including both transition metals and nonmetals, and is a high-non-locality functional with double the amount of nonlocal exchange.

Abstract: We present two new hybrid meta exchange- correlation functionals, called M06 and M06-2X. The M06 functional is parametrized including both transition metals and nonmetals, whereas the M06-2X functional is a high-nonlocality functional with double the amount of nonlocal exchange (2X), and it is parametrized only for nonmetals.The functionals, along with the previously published M06-L local functional and the M06-HF full-Hartree–Fock functionals, constitute the M06 suite of complementary functionals. We assess these four functionals by comparing their performance to that of 12 other functionals and Hartree–Fock theory for 403 energetic data in 29 diverse databases, including ten databases for thermochemistry, four databases for kinetics, eight databases for noncovalent interactions, three databases for transition metal bonding, one database for metal atom excitation energies, and three databases for molecular excitation energies. We also illustrate the performance of these 17 methods for three databases containing 40 bond lengths and for databases containing 38 vibrational frequencies and 15 vibrational zero point energies. We recommend the M06-2X functional for applications involving main-group thermochemistry, kinetics, noncovalent interactions, and electronic excitation energies to valence and Rydberg states. We recommend the M06 functional for application in organometallic and inorganometallic chemistry and for noncovalent interactions.

22,326 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an analysis of the performances of a parameter free density functional model (PBE0) obtained combining the so-called PBE generalized gradient functional with a predefined amount of exact exchange is presented.

Abstract: We present an analysis of the performances of a parameter free density functional model (PBE0) obtained combining the so called PBE generalized gradient functional with a predefined amount of exact exchange. The results obtained for structural, thermodynamic, kinetic and spectroscopic (magnetic, infrared and electronic) properties are satisfactory and not far from those delivered by the most reliable functionals including heavy parameterization. The way in which the functional is derived and the lack of empirical parameters fitted to specific properties make the PBE0 model a widely applicable method for both quantum chemistry and condensed matter physics.

13,411 citations

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TL;DR: The re-optimization of a recently proposed long-range corrected hybrid density functional, omegaB97X-D, to include empirical atom-atom dispersion corrections yields satisfactory accuracy for thermochemistry, kinetics, and non-covalent interactions.

Abstract: We report re-optimization of a recently proposed long-range corrected (LC) hybrid density functional [J.-D. Chai and M. Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 128, 084106] to include empirical atom–atom dispersion corrections. The resulting functional, ωB97X-D yields satisfactory accuracy for thermochemistry, kinetics, and non-covalent interactions. Tests show that for non-covalent systems, ωB97X-D shows slight improvement over other empirical dispersion-corrected density functionals, while for covalent systems and kinetics it performs noticeably better. Relative to our previous functionals, such as ωB97X, the new functional is significantly superior for non-bonded interactions, and very similar in performance for bonded interactions.

9,184 citations

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TL;DR: Chai and Head-Gordon as discussed by the authors proposed a long-range corrected (LC) hybrid density functional with Damped Atom-Atom Dispersion corrections, which is called ωB97X-D.

Abstract: Long-Range Corrected Hybrid Density Functionals with Damped Atom-Atom Dispersion Corrections Jeng-Da Chai ∗ and Martin Head-Gordon † Department of Chemistry, University of California and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA (Dated: June 14, 2008) We report re-optimization of a recently proposed long-range corrected (LC) hybrid density func- tionals [J.-D. Chai and M. Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 084106 (2008)] to include empirical atom-atom dispersion corrections. The resulting functional, ωB97X-D yields satisfactory accuracy for thermochemistry, kinetics, and non-covalent interactions. Tests show that for non-covalent sys- tems, ωB97X-D shows slight improvement over other empirical dispersion-corrected density func- tionals, while for covalent systems and kinetics, it performs noticeably better. Relative to our previous functionals, such as ωB97X, the new functional is signiﬁcantly superior for non-bonded interactions, and very similar in performance for bonded interactions. I. INTRODUCTION Due to its favorable cost-to-performance ratio, Kohn- Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) [1, 2] has be- come the most popular electronic structure theory for large-scale ground-state systems [3–5]. Its extension for treating excited-state systems [6, 7], time-dependent den- sity functional theory (TDDFT), has also been developed to the stage where it is now very widely used. The essential ingredient of KS-DFT, the exchange- correlation energy functional E xc , remains unknown and needs to be approximated. Semi-local gradient-corrected density functionals, though successful in many applica- tions, lead to qualitative failures in some circumstances, where the accurate treatment of non-locality of exchange- correlation hole becomes crucial. These situations occur mostly in the asymptotic regions of molecular systems, such as spurious self-interaction eﬀects upon dissociation [8, 9] and dramatic failures for long-range charge-transfer excitations [10–12]. Widely used hybrid density function- als, like B3LYP [13, 14], do not qualitatively resolve these problems. These self-interaction errors can be qualitatively re- solved using the long-range corrected (LC) hybrid density functionals [15, 16, 18], which employ 100% Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange for long-range electron-electron interac- tions. This is accomplished by a partition of unity, using erf(ωr)/r for long-range (treated by HF exchange) and erfc(ωr)/r for short-range (treated by an exchange func- tional), with the parameter ω controlling the partition- ing. Over the past ﬁve years, the LC hybrid scheme has been attracting increasing attention [15] since its compu- tational cost is comparable with standard hybrid func- tionals [13]. However, LC functionals have tended to be inferior to the best hybrids for properties such as ther- mochemistry. ∗ Electronic † Author address: jdchai@berkeley.edu to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic address: mhg@cchem.berkeley.edu Recently we have improved the overall accuracy at- tainable with the LC functionals by using a systematic optimization procedure [18]. One important conclusion is that optimizing LC and hybrid functionals with identical numbers of parameters in their GGA exchange and cor- relation terms leads to noticeably better results for all properties using the LC form. The resulting LC func- tional is called ωB97. Further statistically signiﬁcant improvement results from re-optimizing the entire func- tional with one extra parameter corresponding to an ad- justable fraction of short-range exact exchange, deﬁning the ωB97X functional. Independent test sets covering thermochemistry and non-covalent interactions support these conclusions. However, problems associated with the lack of non-locality of the correlation hole, such as the lack of dispersion interactions (London forces), still remain, as the semi-local correlation functionals cannot capture long-range correlation eﬀects [19, 20]. There have been signiﬁcant eﬀorts to develop a frame- work that can account for long-range dispersion eﬀects within DFT. Zaremba and Kohn (ZK) [21] derived an exact expression for the second-order dispersion energy in terms of the exact density-density response functions of the two separate systems. To obtain a tractable non- local dispersion functional, Dobson and Dinite (DD) [22] made local density approximations to the ZK response functions. DD’s non-local correlation functional was ob- tained independently [23] by modifying the eﬀective den- sity deﬁned in the earlier work of Rapcewicz and Ashcroft Starting from the formally exact expression of KS- DFT, the adiabatic connection ﬂuctuation-dissipation theorem (ACFDT), for the ground-state exchange- correlation energy, Langreth and co-workers [25] devel- oped a so-called van der Waals density functional (vdW- DF) by making a series of reasonable approximations to yield a computationally tractable scheme. Recently, Becke and Johnson (BJ) developed a series of post-HF correlation models with a novel treatment for dispersion interactions based on the exchange-hole dipole moment [26]. The origin of dispersion claimed in the BJ models was recently questioned by Alonso, and A.

6,345 citations

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14 Mar 2007TL;DR: Intermolecular forces theory, considering hydrogen atom interaction through Born-Oppenheimer approximation and variational calculations as mentioned in this paper, was proposed for the first time in the early 1970s.

Abstract: Intermolecular forces theory, considering hydrogen atom interaction through Born- Oppenheimer approximation and variational calculations

156 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the first calculation of a molecular wavefunction and energy by the solution of the appropriate transcorrelated wave equation (C -1 HC-W )ϕ = 0 has been made for LiH.

Abstract: The first calculation of a molecular wavefunction and energy by the solution of the appropriate transcorrelated wave equation ( C -1 HC – W )ϕ = 0 has been made for LiH. The results are in accord with the high accuracy found for the Ne atom by Handy & Boys (1968 c ). The spherical symmetry of the Ne problem gave such advantages that the integrals could virtually be evaluated exactly. The new problem of evaluating these integrals for functions about the many nuclei has now been overcome by a particular numerical integration procedure which gives a much higher accuracy in the energy than corresponds to the accuracy of integration for an ordinary integral. Hence a set of points which is much more restricted in number than otherwise can be used. The error per electron is nearly as small as 1 % of a bond energy, and it is reasonable to expect that later applications of this method will easily surpass this accuracy for a wide range of molecules, and for reacting systems. The method depends on the direct introduction of functions of r ij into the correlation factor in a way applicable to any molecule and the successful implementation of this for the first molecule may provide a turning point in methods of theoretical chemical prediction. The preparation of the whole set of programs requires less than one man year and the general characteristics are those of a method which is much simpler than the previous methods which do not appear capable of this level of accuracy.

101 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the error in the eigenvalue is proportional to the amount by which the pre-and post-expansion functions are not able to fit the adjoint and direct eigenfunctions of the operator.

Abstract: If an approximate eigenfunction is obtained by the solution of a dissymmetric set of secular equations formed by the use of different expansion functions to precede and follow the operator, it is shown here that the error in the eigenvalue is proportional to $\mu^\dagger\mu$ where $\mu^\dagger$ and $\mu$ are measures of the amounts by which the pre- and post-expansion functions are not able to fit the adjoint and direct eigenfunctions of the operator This replaces the $\mu^2$ error in Rayleigh-Ritz variation theory This result is of considerable value for the circumstances where the use of different sets makes the integrals evaluable for specially desirable post-expansion functions The introduction of direct electronic correlation into wavefunctions is a case where the integrals can be evaluated with different sets of functions but not with the same set Further, these results show how a particular use of numerical integration gives eigenvalues with errors of lower order than those associated with the same integration procedure in normal integrals

91 citations

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TL;DR: Perturbation methods for exchange and Coulomb energy of hydrogen molecule, calculating Hamiltonian by wave function as mentioned in this paper, using a wave function based on wave function, was proposed.

Abstract: Perturbation methods for exchange and Coulomb energy of hydrogen molecule, calculating Hamiltonian by wave function

61 citations

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TL;DR: Perturbation procedures applied to energy computation for ground and first excited state of hydrogen molecule at large separation are described in this article, where the first excited states of hydrogen molecules at large separations are considered.

Abstract: Perturbation procedures applied to energy computation for ground and first excited state of hydrogen molecule at large separation

6 citations