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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.632814

The Characterization of Disease Severity Associated IgG Subclasses Response in COVID-19 Patients.

04 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Immunology (Frontiers Media SA)-Vol. 12, pp 632814-632814
Abstract: Increasing evidence suggests that dysregulated immune responses are associated with the clinical outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nucleocapsid protein (NP)-, spike (S)-, receptor binding domain (RBD)- specific immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, IgG subclasses and neutralizing antibody (NAb) were analyzed in 123 serum from 63 hospitalized patients with severe, moderate, mild or asymptomatic COVID-19. Mild to modest correlations were found between disease severity and antigen specific IgG subclasses in serum, of which IgG1 and IgG3 were negatively associated with viral load in nasopharyngeal swab. Multiple cytokines were significantly related with antigen-specific Ig isotypes and IgG subclasses, and IL-1β was positively correlated with most antibodies. Furthermore, the old patients (≥ 60 years old) had higher levels of chemokines, increased NAb activities and SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG1, and IgG3 responses and compromised T cell responses compared to the young patients (≤ 18 years old), which are related with more severe cases. Higher IgG1 and IgG3 were found in COVID-19 patients with comorbidities while biological sex had no effect on IgG subclasses. Overall, we have identified diseases severity was related to higher antibodies, of which IgG subclasses had weakly negative correlation with viral load, and cytokines were significantly associated with antibody response. Further, advancing age and comorbidities had obvious effect on IgG1 and IgG3.

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Topics: Antibody (52%), Viral load (50%)
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8 results found


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.11.443609
12 May 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: The introduction of vaccines has inspired new hope in the battle against SARS-CoV-2. However, the emergence of viral variants, in the absence of potent antivirals, has left the world struggling with the uncertain nature of this disease. Antibodies currently represent the strongest correlate of immunity against COVID-19, thus we profiled the earliest humoral signatures in a large cohort of severe and asymptomatic COVID-19 individuals. While a SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response evolved rapidly in survivors of COVID-19, non-survivors exhibited blunted and delayed humoral immune evolution, particularly with respect to S2-specific antibody evolution. Given the conservation of S2 across β-coronaviruses, we found the early development of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity occurred in tandem with pre-existing common β-coronavirus OC43 humoral immunity in survivors, which was selectively also expanded in individuals that develop paucisymptomatic infection. These data point to the importance of cross-coronavirus immunity as a correlate of protection against COVID-19.

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Topics: Humoral immunity (58%), Immunity (56%), Immune system (56%) ... read more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIIMMUNOL.ABJ2901
15 Oct 2021-Science immunology
Abstract: The introduction of vaccines has inspired hope in the battle against SARS-CoV-2. However, the emergence of viral variants, in the absence of potent antivirals, has left the world struggling with th...

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Topics: Coronavirus (51%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.740708
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy and immunogenicity, but limited information is currently available on memory B cell generation and long-term persistence. Here, we investigated spike-specific memory B cells and humoral responses in 145 subjects, up to 6 months after the BNT162b2 vaccine (Comirnaty) administration. Spike-specific antibodies peaked 7 days after the second dose and significant antibody titers and ACE2/RBD binding inhibiting activity were still observed after 6 months, despite a progressive decline over time. Concomitant to antibody reduction, spike-specific memory B cells, mostly IgG class-switched, increased in the blood of vaccinees and persisted 6 months after vaccination. Following the in vitro restimulation, circulating memory B cells reactivated and produced spike-specific antibodies. A high frequency of spike-specific IgG+ plasmablasts, identified by computational analysis 7 days after boost, positively correlated with the generation of IgG+ memory B cells at 6 months. These data demonstrate that mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine elicits strong B cell immunity with spike-specific memory B cells that still persist 6 months after vaccination, playing a crucial role for a rapid response to SARS-CoV-2 virus encounter.

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Topics: Memory B cell (61%), B cell (55%), Antibody (54%) ... read more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V13071371
Thomas Phelan1, Jean Dunne, Niall Conlon1, Cliona Ni Cheallaigh1  +12 moreInstitutions (2)
15 Jul 2021-Viruses
Abstract: Serological assays have been widely employed during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to measure antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to track seroconversion in populations. However, currently available assays do not allow determination of neutralization capacity within the assay protocol. Furthermore, commercial serology assays have a high buy-in cost that is inaccessible for many research groups. We have replicated the serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibody isotypes, developed at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York. Additionally, we have modified the protocol to include a neutralization assay with only a minor modification to this protocol. We used this assay to screen local COVID-19 patient sera (n = 91) and pre-COVID-19 control sera (n = 103), and obtained approximate parity with approved commercial anti-nucleoprotein-based assays with these sera. Furthermore, data from our neutralization assay closely aligns with that generated using a spike-based pseudovirus infection model when a subset of patient sera was analyzed.

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Topics: Neutralization (51%)

1 Citations


Posted ContentDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-02659-4
01 Jul 2021-Scientific Reports
Abstract: This study monitored the long-term immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infection in patients who had recovered from coronavirus disease (COVID)-19. Anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G (anti-N IgG) titer in serum samples collected at a single (N = 302) or multiple time points (N = 229) 3-12 months after COVID-19 symptom onset or SARS-CoV-2 detection in respiratory specimens was measured by semiquantitative chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The 531 patients (966 specimens) were classified according to the presence or absence of pneumonia symptoms. Anti N IgG was detected in 87.5% of patients (328/375) at 3 months, 38.6% (93/241) at 6 months, 23.7% (49/207) at 9 months, and 26.6% (38/143) at 12 months. The anti-N IgG seropositivity rate was significantly lower at 6, 9, and 12 months than at 3 months (P < 0.01) and was higher in the pneumonia group than in the non-pneumonia/asymptomatic group at 6 months (P < 0.01), 9 months (P = 0.04), and 12 months (P = 0.04). The rate started to decline 6-12 months after symptom onset. Anti-N IgG sample/cutoff index was positively correlated with age (r = 0.192, P < 0.01) but negatively correlated with interval between symptom onset and blood sampling (r = - 0.567, P < 0.01). These findings can guide vaccine strategies in recovered COVID-19 patients.

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Topics: Blood sampling (51%)

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51 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
Chaolin Huang1, Yeming Wang2, Xingwang Li3, Lili Ren4  +25 moreInstitutions (8)
24 Jan 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not.

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26,390 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.1585
Dawei Wang1, Bo Hu1, Chang Hu1, Fangfang Zhu1  +10 moreInstitutions (1)
17 Mar 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Importance In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)–infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited. Objective To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of NCIP. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective, single-center case series of the 138 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, China, from January 1 to January 28, 2020; final date of follow-up was February 3, 2020. Exposures Documented NCIP. Main Outcomes and Measures Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of critically ill patients and noncritically ill patients were compared. Presumed hospital-related transmission was suspected if a cluster of health professionals or hospitalized patients in the same wards became infected and a possible source of infection could be tracked. Results Of 138 hospitalized patients with NCIP, the median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 42-68; range, 22-92 years) and 75 (54.3%) were men. Hospital-associated transmission was suspected as the presumed mechanism of infection for affected health professionals (40 [29%]) and hospitalized patients (17 [12.3%]). Common symptoms included fever (136 [98.6%]), fatigue (96 [69.6%]), and dry cough (82 [59.4%]). Lymphopenia (lymphocyte count, 0.8 × 109/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 0.6-1.1]) occurred in 97 patients (70.3%), prolonged prothrombin time (13.0 seconds [IQR, 12.3-13.7]) in 80 patients (58%), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (261 U/L [IQR, 182-403]) in 55 patients (39.9%). Chest computed tomographic scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all patients. Most patients received antiviral therapy (oseltamivir, 124 [89.9%]), and many received antibacterial therapy (moxifloxacin, 89 [64.4%]; ceftriaxone, 34 [24.6%]; azithromycin, 25 [18.1%]) and glucocorticoid therapy (62 [44.9%]). Thirty-six patients (26.1%) were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (22 [61.1%]), arrhythmia (16 [44.4%]), and shock (11 [30.6%]). The median time from first symptom to dyspnea was 5.0 days, to hospital admission was 7.0 days, and to ARDS was 8.0 days. Patients treated in the ICU (n = 36), compared with patients not treated in the ICU (n = 102), were older (median age, 66 years vs 51 years), were more likely to have underlying comorbidities (26 [72.2%] vs 38 [37.3%]), and were more likely to have dyspnea (23 [63.9%] vs 20 [19.6%]), and anorexia (24 [66.7%] vs 31 [30.4%]). Of the 36 cases in the ICU, 4 (11.1%) received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 (41.7%) received noninvasive ventilation, and 17 (47.2%) received invasive ventilation (4 were switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). As of February 3, 47 patients (34.1%) were discharged and 6 died (overall mortality, 4.3%), but the remaining patients are still hospitalized. Among those discharged alive (n = 47), the median hospital stay was 10 days (IQR, 7.0-14.0). Conclusions and Relevance In this single-center case series of 138 hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP in Wuhan, China, presumed hospital-related transmission of 2019-nCoV was suspected in 41% of patients, 26% of patients received ICU care, and mortality was 4.3%.

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Topics: Interquartile range (51%)

13,270 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1172/JCI137244
Guang Chen, Di Wu, Wei Guo, Yong Cao  +16 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: BACKGROUNDSince December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, and is now becoming a global threat. We aimed to delineate and compare the immunological features of severe and moderate COVID-19.METHODSIn this retrospective study, the clinical and immunological characteristics of 21 patients (17 male and 4 female) with COVID-19 were analyzed. These patients were classified as severe (11 cases) and moderate (10 cases) according to the guidelines released by the National Health Commission of China.RESULTSThe median age of severe and moderate cases was 61.0 and 52.0 years, respectively. Common clinical manifestations included fever, cough, and fatigue. Compared with moderate cases, severe cases more frequently had dyspnea, lymphopenia, and hypoalbuminemia, with higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and D-dimer as well as markedly higher levels of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α. Absolute numbers of T lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells decreased in nearly all the patients, and were markedly lower in severe cases (294.0, 177.5, and 89.0 × 106/L, respectively) than moderate cases (640.5, 381.5, and 254.0 × 106/L, respectively). The expression of IFN-γ by CD4+ T cells tended to be lower in severe cases (14.1%) than in moderate cases (22.8%).CONCLUSIONThe SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect primarily T lymphocytes, particularly CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, resulting in a decrease in numbers as well as IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells. These potential immunological markers may be of importance because of their correlation with disease severity in COVID-19.TRIAL REGISTRATIONThis is a retrospective observational study without a trial registration number.FUNDINGThis work is funded by grants from Tongji Hospital for the Pilot Scheme Project, and partly supported by the Chinese National Thirteenth Five Years Project in Science and Technology for Infectious Disease (2017ZX10202201).

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2,445 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1183/13993003.00547-2020
Wei Jie Guan1, Wenhua Liang1, Yi Zhao1, Heng Rui Liang1  +43 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) outbreak is evolving rapidly worldwide. Objective To evaluate the risk of serious adverse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) by stratifying the comorbidity status. Methods We analysed the data from 1590 laboratory-confirmed hospitalised patients 575 hospitals in 31 province/autonomous regions/provincial municipalities across mainland China between December 11th, 2019 and January 31st, 2020. We analyse the composite endpoints, which consisted of admission to intensive care unit, or invasive ventilation, or death. The risk of reaching to the composite endpoints was compared according to the presence and number of comorbidities. Results The mean age was 48.9 years. 686 patients (42.7%) were females. Severe cases accounted for 16.0% of the study population. 131 (8.2%) patients reached to the composite endpoints. 399 (25.1%) reported having at least one comorbidity. The most prevalent comorbidity was hypertension (16.9%), followed by diabetes (8.2%). 130 (8.2%) patients reported having two or more comorbidities. After adjusting for age and smoking status, COPD [hazards ratio (HR) 2.681, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.424–5.048], diabetes (HR 1.59, 95%CI 1.03–2.45), hypertension (HR 1.58, 95%CI 1.07–2.32) and malignancy (HR 3.50, 95%CI 1.60–7.64) were risk factors of reaching to the composite endpoints. The HR was 1.79 (95%CI 1.16–2.77) among patients with at least one comorbidity and 2.59 (95%CI 1.61–4.17) among patients with two or more comorbidities. Conclusion Among laboratory-confirmed cases of Covid-19, patients with any comorbidity yielded poorer clinical outcomes than those without. A greater number of comorbidities also correlated with poorer clinical outcomes.

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Topics: Comorbidity (58%), Hazard ratio (50%)

2,029 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41591-020-0897-1
Quanxin Long1, Bai Zhong Liu2, Hai Jun Deng1, Gui Cheng Wu3  +47 moreInstitutions (4)
29 Apr 2020-Nature Medicine
Abstract: We report acute antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 285 patients with COVID-19. Within 19 days after symptom onset, 100% of patients tested positive for antiviral immunoglobulin-G (IgG). Seroconversion for IgG and IgM occurred simultaneously or sequentially. Both IgG and IgM titers plateaued within 6 days after seroconversion. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.

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Topics: Seroconversion (64%)

1,864 Citations