The City-Suburban Cleavage in Canadian Federal Politics
01 Jun 2005-Canadian Journal of Political Science (Cambridge University Press)-Vol. 38, Iss: 02, pp 383-413
TL;DR: The authors analyzed federal elections at the level of the constituency from 1945 to 1997 and found that inner-city residents remained to the left of the rest of Canada in their party preferences while suburbanites shifted increasingly to the right in their voting patterns.
Abstract: . Despite increasing speculation and attention, as of yet insufficient empirical research has been conducted on the possibility of a political cleavage based on differences between Canadian inner cities and suburbs. This article sheds light on the potential existence of such differences by analyzing federal elections at the level of the constituency from 1945 to 1997. Results show that city-suburban differences in federal party voting did not become significant until the 1980s, and increased after this point, with inner-city residents remaining to the left of the rest of Canada in their party preferences while suburbanites shifted increasingly to the right in their voting patterns. The results obtained from regression analysis suggest that such a divergence cannot be reduced solely to differences in social composition, housing tenure, or region, and thus confirm that it constitutes a ‘true’ political cleavage. It is argued that intra-urban geography needs to taken into account in future analyses of Canadian political behaviour.Resume. Malgre un interet croissant pour la question, il existe encore peu de recherches empiriques sur un possible clivage politique dont les fondements seraient les differences entre les quartiers urbains centraux et les banlieues. Cet article jette un nouvel eclairage sur l'existence possible de ces differences a partir d'une analyse des resultats electoraux dans les circonscriptions federales entre 1945 et 1997. Les resultats obtenus indiquent que les differences entre le vote pour les partis politiques federaux ne sont devenues significatives que pendant les annees 1980, mais qu'elles se sont exacerbees par la suite, les residents de quartiers centraux demeurant a la gauche de l'echiquier politique tandis que les banlieues votaient de plus en plus a droite. Les resultats de l'analyse de regression suggerent que ces differences ne sont pas seulement attribuables a la composition sociale, au taux de propriete, ou encore a la region, et constituent par le fait meme un “ veritable ” clivage politique. L'auteur conclut que l'analyse geographique intra-urbaine devra etre prise en compte dans les analyses futures du comportement politique Canadien.
07 Mar 1994
TL;DR: Schama as mentioned in this paper argues that women do not feature much in his narrative and suggests that women play silent partners to men in building culture and remembering it in the land, and that landscapes have gender.
Abstract: ore, but there are others well worth mining. For example, women do not feature much in his narrative. It might have been better if he left them out completely as his analysis of the feminine side of landscape is worn out and riddled with arcane clichfis of mother earth’s dark vaginal caves and fecund fields. That landscapes have gender is a perspective worth pursuing; however, Schama’s emphasis is towards masculine conceptions and interactions with landscape. The book might have been more compelling had he offered careful discussion of women and the femininity of place. As it stands women play silent partners to men in building culture and remembering it in the land. In Water, he offers the worn out metaphor of a dark wet crevice in the earth as vagina. My response is one of ennui, tiring of yet another scholarly glance up a woman’s skirt as a token nod to understanding the mysteries of female sexuality and its relation to landscape. More often than not it is a thinly veiled need to flash a woman’s genitalia in a dark room full of scholars (keeping in mind this book originates from a series of lectures) in an effort to seem progressive or risqufi. Another annoying interpretation of women is in attributing their assertiveness to androgyny or some desire on their part to be like men. Can’t a woman climb a mountain without, as Schama puts it, \"acting out her quasimasculinity\" (p. 495)? Does Schama need to point out what Henriette d’Angeville wore when she climbed Mont Blanc in 1838? Reference to her attire seems to be presented as evidence of her validity as a woman. As though to say she did a manly thing, but because she dressed so prettily her femininity remained intact. What a relief. If Schama wants to offer a new way of looking that derails the fast track to the future bereft of \"myth, metaphor, and allegory, where measurement, not memory, is the absolute arbiter of value\" (p. 14), then he might have shown where these interpretive lenses of culture exist in the machine age. The deeply embedded bonds of nature and culture through myth and symbol emerge even in modern societies. He brings his readers to the gates of modernity after a long, sometimes fascinating, always well-documented, but painfully laborious journey. I’m glad to have read the book, but am not convinced Schama has offered a new way of looking at landscape. What he illuminates well and often are the rich and diverse reasons for looking at landscape--seeing landscape as auger for cultural meaning that nourishes humanity’s raison d’etre. However, that he succeeds in his claim to stick to Thoreau’s aversion to the esoteric is debatable. Perhaps one person’s concrete is another’s quicksand, but his references seem only accessible to readers familiar with European and American history of the arts and letters and may be esoteric to many. Near the book’s close, he emphasizes that the local, the nearby, holds the key to landscape memory, as though it was to these places he took his now well-traveled reader:
TL;DR: Miller et al. as discussed by the authors trace the incorporation of Lakewood Plan cities, municipalities which contract with the county for the provision of basic--which is to say minimal--services, and show that the Lakewood plan is shown in this book to be a precursor of the full-scale tax revolt that was to break out a generation later.
Abstract: The battle line in the urban conflict lies between the central city and the affluent suburb. The city, needing to broaden its tax base in order to provide increasingly necessary social services, has sought to annex the suburb. The latter, in order to hold down property taxes, has sought independence through incorporation.\"Cities by Contract\" documents and dissects this process through case studies of communities located in Los Angeles County. The book traces the incorporation of \"Lakewood Plan\" cities, municipalities which contract with the county for the provision of basic--which is to say minimal--services.The Lakewood plan is shown in this book to be a precursor of the full-scale tax revolt that was to break out a generation later. Miller points out that the settlers of these communities \"voted with their feet\" for lower taxes, lower levels of government spending on welfare and other social services, and a lower degree of bureaucratic intrusion into their affairs, much as in 1978 Californians statewide were to express the same desires and objectives at the ballot box by overwhelmingly backing the Jarvas-Gann initiative, Proposition 13.The book is one of the first on urban politics to combine the modeling techniques of microeconomics with the statistical analysis of data taken from interviews and documents. Still, the essential messages of the book are fully carried by its prose arguments and by the case studies.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify a set of distinct hypotheses for why one might expect residents of inner cities and suburbs to differ in their political views, and empirically test the relative contribution of each of the hypothesized mechanisms in explaining the geography of party preferences.
Abstract: Recent research conducted in both the United States and Canada has found that residents of inner cities and suburbs are diverging in their voting behavior and political attitudes. The mechanisms producing such a divergence, however, have remained unclear. After identifying a set of distinct hypotheses for why one might expect residents of inner cities and suburbs to differ in their political views, this article draws on a survey undertaken by the author in one electoral district in the Toronto region to empirically test the relative contribution of each of the hypothesized mechanisms in explaining the geography of party preferences. This study suggests there is no single explanation for the city-suburban cleavage, and that the mechanisms producing it are complex. Spatial segregation (based on individual attributes such as race, ethnicity, and class) is clearly important; however neighborhood self-selection, local experience, and, to a lesser extent, mode of consumption all have significant independent eff...
01 Jan 1956
TL;DR: Nocera and Whyte as mentioned in this paper presented the 1997 PBS Frontline documentary "Betting on the Market" on African textiles to the mainstream American clothing market, which won the New York Public Library's Helen Bernstein Award for Excellence in Journalism.
Abstract: William H. Whyte (1917-1999) was editor of Fortune magazine and Distinguished Professor at Hunter College of the City University of New York. He is the author of numerous books of social and environmental analysis, including The Last Landscape, also available from the University of Pennsylvania Press. Joseph Nocera, Fortune magazine executive editor, is an award-winning financial journalist. He is the author of A Piece of the Action: How the Middle Class Joined the Money Class, which won the New York Public Library's Helen Bernstein Award for Excellence in Journalism, and he anchored the 1997 PBS Frontline documentary "Betting on the Market." Jenny Bell Whyte, a fashion designer, is credited with introducing African textiles to the mainstream American clothing market. Her current company, Museum Pieces to Wear, restores old textiles and incorporates them into new clothes. She and William H. Whyte were married in 1964. 448 pages
01 Sep 1997
TL;DR: Gated communities are a new "hot button" in many North American cities as mentioned in this paper, where citizens are taking sides in the debate over whether any neighborhood should be walled and gated, preventing intrusion or inspection by outsiders.
Abstract: Gated communities are a new "hot button" in many North American cities. From Boston to Los Angeles and from Miami to Toronto citizens are taking sides in the debate over whether any neighborhood should be walled and gated, preventing intrusion or inspection by outsiders. This debate has intensified since the hard cover edition of this book was published in 1997. Since then the number of gated communities has risen dramatically. In fact, new homes in over 40 percent of planned developments are gated n the West, the South, and southeastern parts of the United States. Opposition to this phenomenon is growing too. In the small and relatively homogenous town of Worcester, Massachusetts, a band of college students from Brown University and the University of Chicago picketed the Wexford Village in November of 1998 waving placards that read "Gates Divide." These students are symbolic of a much larger wave of citizens asking questions about the need for and the social values of gates that divide one portion of a community from another.
17 Apr 1997
TL;DR: The New Middle Class and the Remaking of the Central City as mentioned in this paper examines the creation and self-creation of a new middle class of professional and managerial workers associated with the process of gentrification.
Abstract: What factors lay behind the rehabilitation of central city districts across the world? Set against the contexts of international transformations in a post-industrial postmodern society, this book examines the creation and self-creation of a new middle class of professional and managerial workers associated with the process of gentrification. These are amongst the privileged members in the growing polarisation of urban society. The book examines their impact on central housing markets, retailing and leisure spaces in the inner city. Taking as its focus six large canadian cities, the author identifies a distinctive cultural new class of urbane social and cultural professionals inspired in part by the critical youth movements of the 1960s for whom old inner city neighbourhoods served as oppositional sites to assail the boureois suburbs. The study looks at their close links with reform movements, neighbourhood activism and a welfare state that often provided their employment, in a progressive aesthetisation of central city spaces since the 1980s. The New Middle Class and the Remaking of the Central City offers the first detailed and comparitive study of gentrification which locates the phenomenon in broader historical and theoretical contexts.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a catalog of problems to fix: Aggregation problems, non-aggregation problems and non-ecological inference problems in voter registration by race.
Abstract: List of Figures 1 Qualitative Overview 2 Formal Statement of the Problem Pt. II Catalog of Problems to Fix 3 Aggregation Problems 4 Non-Aggregation Problems Pt. III The Proposed Solution 5 The Data: Generalizing the Method of Bounds 6 The Model 7 Preliminary Estimation 8 Calculating Quantities of Interest 9 Model Extensions Pt. IV Verification 10 A Typical Application Described in Detail: Voter Registration by Race 11 Robustness to Aggregation Bias: Poverty Status by Sex 12 Estimation without Information: Black Registration in Kentucky 13 Classic Ecological Inferences Pt. V Generalizations and Concluding Suggestions 14 Non-Ecological Aggregation Problems 15 Ecological Inference in Larger Tables 16 A Concluding Checklist App. A Proof That All Discrepancies Are Equivalent App. B Parameter Bounds App. C Conditional Posterior Distribution App. D The Likelihood Function App. E The Details of Nonparametric Estimation App. F Computational Issues Glossary of Symbols References Index
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