The control and elimination of electrical (Dauphiné) twinning in quartz
TL;DR: In this paper, a survey of the experimental methods used in exploring the possibilities of untwinning quartz is presented, and the effect of crystallographic orientation is discussed, and a new physical phenomenon of "piezocrescence" is defined.
Abstract: Quartz for telecommunication purposes has to be of the highest crystalline quality. A considerable proportion of raw material is rejected on account of electrical twinning. The war-time need for economy of quartz led to an investigation of means of removing this defect. The paper surveys the experimental methods used in exploring the possibilities of untwinning quartz. The basis of these methods is a heat treatment of the quartz plate while subjected to a system of stresses applied to the plate by temperature gradients, pure bending, longitudinal compression or torque. The effect of crystallographic orientation is discussed, and the new physical phenomenon of “piezocrescence” is defined.The paper also describes the practical application of the untwinning techniques to quartz-crystal plates, with particular reference to the requirements of telecommunication. It is shown that the method employing heat treatment with an applied torque may be successfully applied to many important types of quartz crystals including the BT and AT cuts. The proportion of success and the occurrence of quartz showing anomalous behaviour are discussed.
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